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The Sullivan Campaign


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The Sullivan Campaign

  1. 1. The Sullivan Campaign 1779 - ?? Pennsylvania/New York By Rachel Shirley
  2. 2. Goal <ul><li>To eliminate Iroquois forces in New York </li></ul><ul><li>John Sullivan was chosen to lead campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other officers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Clinton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William Maxwell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Hand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;we have it in our power to carry war into their country.&quot; </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sullivan’s Men <ul><li>4 brigades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,500 men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marksmen </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar with Indian strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Men from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Virginia, New York, and Pennsylvania </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Plan
  5. 5. Issues <ul><li>Parts of the journey, the army would be cut off from supply lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to become self sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed was essential in their plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington ordered him to proceed without all his requested supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other parts of the army suffered, too; Sullivan had to think realistically </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Journey <ul><li>Sullivan reached Easton in early May </li></ul><ul><li>Setbacks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their original path was impassable; had to cut themselves a path through the woods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The longer the men were idle, the more supplies was used </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Washington’s Ideas <ul><li>“Total destruction and devastation” </li></ul><ul><li>Burn and destroy; capture hostages </li></ul><ul><li>No peace offer </li></ul><ul><li>“Our future security,” Washington wrote, would rest on the “Terror” inflicted upon them. </li></ul><ul><li>Sullivan should act aggressively and let his men charge in a loose/dispersed way </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Journey (cont.) <ul><li>Wyoming road cleared in June </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left from Easton to Wyoming to more supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonel John Butler (Loyalist leader) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew of the Continental’s coming, but was unable to do anything about it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sullivan in Wyoming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired hundreds of pack horses/beef cows </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Journey (cont.) <ul><li>July- Sullivan still had not left Wyoming base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complained about lack of supplies, and soon lack of support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn. broke their promise to supply hundreds militia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made Sullivan even moodier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began denying locals help, replying with sarcasm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington wrote a letter, explaining the importance of speed in this mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the time the letter arrived, the army had left for Tioga </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. On the Move <ul><li>Army well guarded, made there way up Susquehanna River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reached Tioga in August without incident </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attacked Chemung (Iroquois Village) at night </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found it deserted, looted/burned it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sullivan sent men to meet Clinton (who was in Iroquois territory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iroquois attacked Sullivan’s men while waiting </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. On the Move (cont.) <ul><li>Left Tioga August 26 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency of travaling formation impressed the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Butler- “the best of the Continental Troops commanded by the most active of the Rebel Generals” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John planned to ambush them before they got too close </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One advantage to the late campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The harvest would be ready, so they plundered fields for food </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Newtown <ul><li>Butler tried to ambush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scout realized the ambush and warned the rest of the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fierce fighting left Sullivan the victor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plundered Newtown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sullivan continued attacking towns </li></ul>
  13. 13. Catherine’s Town <ul><li>Another night march through rough, muddy terrain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Had the savages availed themselves to this opportunity,” one officer realized, “it might have proven very fatal to us.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The town was abandoned </li></ul>
  14. 14. On the Move (cont.) <ul><li>Continued storming towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found many deserted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canadasaga being the largest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Began wondering how much further they had to go </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: to destroy the largest town, Genesee Castle </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Boyd’s Blunder <ul><li>Boyd and his men were sent to scout Genesee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became lost, attacked a town above Genesee before reaching Genesee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Said that they would wait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became impatient and headed to main force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fell into an ambush, almost wiping them out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sullivan came just in time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boyd saved the army from a potentially costly ambush </li></ul>
  16. 16. Genesee <ul><li>Arrived at Genesee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deserted, but found Boyd’s mutilated body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sullivan’s men destroyed that town “with great cheerfulness” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians demoralized, retreated to Fort Niagara </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sulivan returned to Honeaye and “Fort Cummings” in September </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Sullivan divided forces to cover more ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroying more villages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Army together once more and headed back to Wyoming </li></ul><ul><li>Expedition = outstanding success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marking Sullivan’s most successful campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And his last </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He resigned because of deteriorating health and a wish to be with his family (Congress didn’t mind) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Bibliography <ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li> =newyork&store=books </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Revolutionary War Campaigns: Sullivan's Campaign.&quot; The American Revolutionary War . Genealogy Inc, 19 Sep 2010. Web. 15 Sep 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Adamiak, Stanley J. &quot;The 1779 Sullivan Campaign.&quot; Archiving Early America . Archiving Early America, n.d. Web. 15 Sep 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Sullivan Expedition.&quot; Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 31 Aug 2010. Web. 15 Sep 2010. <>. </li></ul>