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Bridge The Gap Final Compilation FINAL

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Bridge The Gap Final Compilation FINAL

  1. 1. 1 BRIDGE THE GAP: Wuyuan Bay’s Transit-Oriented Development
  2. 2. 2 BRIDGE THE GAP: WUYUAN BAY’S TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT CODE by: David Perry, William Penland, Rachel Safren A Professional Project Submitted to the Faculty of the School of Architecture at The University of North Carolina at Charlotte in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Urban Design Charlotte August 7, 2014 Approved by: _________________________ Professor [name here]
  3. 3. 3 This booklet provides an overview of work that was completed by David Perry, Will Penland, and Rachel Safren during the Graduate Program of Urban Design at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in the Summer of 2014. The work was first initiated in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China at Xiamen University and was completed back in Charlotte. The concept, Bridge The Gap, was a direct response to a transit oriented development (TOD) site situated next to a Zhongzhai Village. The village is a low-income neighborhood that could exist next to the TOD site for another 10-20 years, before the village agrees to sell the land to the municipal government under Chinese law. The conceptual masterplan was developed and initially presented in Xiamen with the assistance of two Xiamen Univesity students, Zoe and Sue, and a WuHan University student, LinJing. After travelling back from China, the remaining group members were tasked with developing more detailed plans of the overall masterplan and creating a form based code that could be used as a tool to develop the site in the future. A review of the conceptual plan completed in Xiamen, a compiled and more detailed study of the plan and it’s form based code have been compiled in the following pages. Abstract
  4. 4. 4 Table of Contents Site History and Context 2.3: Application of Concept in Design Strategy 10 2.2: Concept Evolution 9 2.1: Project Constraints and Goals 9 Project Overview Chapter 2 1.3: Site Analysis 7 1.2: Existing Conditions 6 1.1: History of Xiamen and Planning Area 6 Chapter 1 Detailed Site Studies 19 Chapter 4 Design Proposal: Bridge the Gap 13 Chapter 3 4.3: Ecological Park and Southern End 34 4.2: Cultural District 30 4.1: Northern End 21 Revised Master Plan 48 Chapter 5 6.5: Electronic Copy Back Cover 6.4: Works Cited 98 6.2: Definition of Terms 91 6.1: Precedent Library 89 Appendix 88 Form Based Code 45
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  6. 6. 6 Located in Southeast China’s Fujian Province, Xiamen island has a long history of being a successful seaport, which is why the city’s name translates into ‘gate of China.’ While still a prosperous port, the city has focused on utilizing their natural resources to enhance their tourism industry. Fujian Province and the island experience subtropical monsoon climate with mild weather throughout most of the year, which supports tourism as well as the surrounding natural landscape of beautiful vistas to the sea and mountains. Furthermore, the city boasts a variety of folk customs from minority populations that are allowed to flourish, with special considerations provided to festivals that can attract both Chinese nationals and international travelers to the island. Chapter 1: Site History and Context 1.1: History of Xiamen and Planning Area 1.2: Existing Conditions Collectively, there are three parcels that form Xiamen’s Wuyuan Bay Transit Oriented Devel- opment site located on the island’s eastern coast and is shaped by Wuyuan Bay and the 401 Coun- ty Road. While the site currently has access to a well-maintained beach, with views to bridges and the nearby wetland, it is not easily accessible and is hardly used by the public. The site was previ- ously developed as a tourist location and contains a number of cultural buildings, such as the Fujian Yuangu History Museum, The Treasure Museum, and a few galleries. Unfortunately, it is significantly underutilized because the site was developed as a destination with little to no housing, office and commercial space provided. There are more cars than locales on the streets with cultural amenities. A white fence runs along the length of the site and hinders beach access. Although the site is not easily accessible, it does offer beautiful views of the bay on its boardwalk. A wide and active highway block pedestrian access to the site.
  7. 7. 7 The extension of Xiamen’s transit infrastructure into the site provides another opportunity to capitalize on all of the strengths this site has to offer to the entire island’s population. The proposed Metro Line 2 will run along the length of the site, underneath Roundabout Main Road, and allows for two stations within the site. Wuyuan Bay North station will be a transfer station to Line 3 and Wuyuan Bay South Station will provide a closer entrance to Wuyuan Bay Wetland Park. Currently, a small commercial zone to the north, Zhongzhai village to the west, high-rise residential towers to the south frame the site, and the man-made bay shapes the site’s eastern edge. However, with the proposed stations, the entire area is likely to be redeveloped to encourage more density with- in the next fifteen to twenty years. 1.3: Site Analysis Zhongzhai Village Wuyuan Bay Wetland Park High-Rise Residential Towers Office Zone Commercial Zone Site Boundary Xiamen continues to experience both economic and population growth, which is shifting the city’s planning focus from the developed western coastline to the underdeveloped eastern coast. Wuyuan Bay and its surrounding infrastructure make this development site an ideal new urban gateway that could symbolize a connection between the western and eastern coasts of the island. External Strength: Entrance to Zhongzhai Village High-rise Residential Towers to the South Wuyuan Bay Wetland Park Establishing a New Urban Gateway The distance from Xiamen’s commercial downtown and main tourist attractions hinder the number of visitors that would be interested in traveling to the site. External Weakness:
  8. 8. 8 The development site acts almost as an intersection between two pivotal gateways into the city: the Gao Qi Airport and the Xiangan Cross-Harbour Tunnel, which connects both Jimei and Xinlin districts to Xiamen’s downtown. Transportation Strength: While the site’s infrastructure is able to accommodate vehicular traffic, it is not suitable for pedestrians and acts as a barrier by restricting visitor access into the site. Transportation Weakness: Proximity to Established Infrastructure Egrets are native and thrive in Xiamen With the exception of the monsoon months, May and June, the city and site experience mild weather conditions that Environment Strength: While the bay and wetland were man-made and added value to the Huli district, the site is not immune to the poor air quality that continues to become a prominent issue throughout all of China. Furthermore, Zhongzhai village lacks quality facilities and pollution and poor sanitation are an issue. Environment Weakness: allows for the area’s notable egret habitat to thrive in the nearby wetland park. Great care and consideration was given to the site’s landscaping and pedestrian circulation, where a manicured boardwalk is accessible to pedestrians along the bay’s front. Internal Strength: While the boardwalk is a value-add to the site, the other open spaces available to the public are boring, with little to no shade and no street furniture. Internal Weakness: The proposed metro lines will support the needs of attracting more External Opportunity: Other development is already occurring in other parts of Huli district, including Gao Lin, a housing development, and Wan Da, a commercial development project. External Threat: To encourage tourism, Xiamen is particularly supportive of their minority groups and Zhongzhai village happens to include one of those populations, which is known for their Dragon Boat Festival. Internal Opportunity: While Zhongzhai village provides a rich cultural opportunity, the village houses a large low-income population that depends on low-end commerce and has experienced crime in the past. Lastly, throughout the entire country there has been a give-and- take relationship between tradition and modernity; this will be vary apparent with whatever development project occurs on the site, especially since the village may continue to exist for decades. Internal Threat: There is little to no shade or street furniture offered for visitors young professionals to Xiamen’s new Torch High-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Additionally, the island’s southern Siming District continues to experience increasing land prices; northern Huli district is seen as a more financially attractive place to live for young professionals. Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated during the month of May in Xiamen
  9. 9. 9 Since this site is intended as a transit oriented development, the programming of the site needs to support such a use while taking into consideration the social, economic, and environmental influences that could develop in the future for the area. The development goals include a Floor Area Ratio (FAR) between 2 and 2.5, which translates into 360,00 – 450,000 sq. meters of building. Commercial spaces in the form of a shopping center, shopping street or waterfront entertainment area had to be included in the design, as well as two hotels, office spaces of around 40,000 sq. meters, approximately 120,000 – 150,000 sq. meters of housing, and various cultural facilities. Additionally, at least twenty percent of the development site had to be composed of public open space. Buildings were suggested to have a minimum setback of 20 meters from the main avenue and there were no limits on building heights. Lastly, there was no parameters set that dictated the need to keep any of the existing buildings. Chapter 2: Project Overview 2.1: Project Constraints & Goals 2.2: Concept Evolution The concept for the development stems from the require- ment to ‘Bridge the Gap’ between three impeding develop- ment impacts which are Social, Environmental, and Eco- nomic. Connecting Social Gaps: To ensure social connectivity between the adjacent local urban fabric of the Zhongzhai village and the site, the con- cept evolved to minimize gentrification, and connect with a cultural vertical village. The importance lies with the ability to Age in Place; Live, Work, and Play; and the sense of a Cultural Identity within a modern development. Connecting Environmental Gaps: The site offers ample opportunity for environmental aware- ness, thus a passive design evolved as a response to protect the ecological balance of the shoreline and site, while expanding ecologies with urban farming, maintaining beachfront recreational vocations, while promote a healthy living environment. Connecting Economic Gaps: The program requirements dictated along with the size and magnitude of the project, place the devel- opment in a category as a catalyst for regional change. This scale of opportunity for a 2nd city center in Xiamen allows for the design of an economic engine to fund development costs and attract Chi- na500 business. Concept Focus Areas
  10. 10. 10 2.3: Application of Concept in Design Strategy With the island of Xiamen under rapid urbanization, as with all of China, the issue of urban verticality has become an important debate. The urban renewal process is erasing traditional urban villages and shaping vertical urban centers which distinguish themselves as a contemporary urban culture. Thus the exploration of verticality is critical to development of a sustainable site. This development focuses on two topics: compact urban form in an urban center, and organization of infrastructure, programs, and public spaces in a three-dimensional framework. Design Principle behind Bridging Social Gaps: The importance lies with the ability to Age in Place; Live, Work, and Play; and the sense of a Cultural Identity within a modern development. In accordance with program requirements for vertical urban- ism, our answer addressed a comprehensive approach – in other words a responsibility towards so- cial inclusivity in a place and time where new development usually comes at the expense of disrupt- ing existing social networks. This calling for a connective physical and social network brought to our attention the following issues. The following categories identify each concern and how we addressed those challenges. Connectivity at the Urban Scale - The design strategy includes provisions for regional connectivity using different modes of transportation from easy to access perimeter locations. - A developed relationship between Zhongzhai Village and the site: a proposed cultural district which responds to the existing urban fabric. - The centrally positioned cultural district is designed as a vertical village; a continuation of Zhongzhai village. - Comprehensive planning inclusive of neighboring low-income needs. - Direct public access between the Wuyan Bay beach and the existing urban village as a continuation of the socially inclusivity. - Direct access to an open market supporting local resident livelihoods. - Use of connective plazas and public space. Transit Oriented Development TOD) Primary to the site program was our vision to create a simple and expressive T.O.D. scheme in order to accommodate multi-modal connectivity including; transit, vehicular, bus, taxi, boats, pedestrian, and tourism incorporating the following features: - A connective concourse level between the two metro stations to allow for multi-level pedestrian circulation at the subterranean concourse/sunken plaza level, as well as the street level. - The concourse level has retail offerings and open space for relief from sun and heat. - The various parking garages access the concourse level directly. - The concourse level opens at the sunken plaza level. - This concept led to the sunken plazas being placed throughout, connecting the metro stations, the beach, and the traditional urban village.
  11. 11. 11 Pedestrian Circulation - Offer a distinctive and connective circulation pattern throughout the site to link urban spaces within the various districts together. - An urban park between the districts interweaves the pedestrian experience under tree canopy opening to lagoons with beach access. - Design the circulation pattern for site connectivity between villagers, residents, visitors and workers at various levels. - Link public space at the ground level to lower and raise public plazas above. - Design for pedestrian and vehicular circulation at separate levels. Vehicular Circulation - Limit private vehicular circulation within the site at the ground level in order to maximize pedestrian circulation. - Make underground parking garages available throughout the site. - Allow for a connective emergency circulation route at ground level within the site. - Connective plazas offer plenty of space for emergency vehicles to access any part of the site. Waterway Circulation - Propose a waterway connection between the site and the yacht club directly across the bay. - Alignment of a marina with an extension of the site. - Offer bay access to boat with docks, entertainment, and supplies. Design Principle behind Bridging Environmental Gaps: The following environmental and ecological considerations are the driving forces behind the design: - Development of public spaces in relation with proximity to shade - Coastline interaction - Developing a connection with the wetland park across the bay with a series of ecological islands - Positioning structures in relation to solar heat gain, and wind directions - Prioritizing site-thru-access points and establishing a ‘purely public’ beach access - Direct connection with Wuyuan Bay - Prioritizing location and duration of the connective ecological footbridge emerges at important locations or only within important districts - Maintaining a balance between nature and society with greenbelts, islands, beach and park - Creating public space along the beach which connects the bay and the village
  12. 12. 12 Design Principle behind Bridging Economic Gaps: What kind of place is it? Will a villager feel welcome to inhabit the site? These types of questions and others take into consideration market potential and exclusivity – all of which address recognition and identify in a changing market. In order to bridge these considerable gaps, particular attention is paid to articulating districts thru the use of vertical urbanism. By articulating the figure ground of the urban space, districts are formed and public space is studied for creating exciting, memorable and attractive spaces. The districts which manifested as a result of the analysis were (1) a centrally located cultural district tying directly to the existing traditional village, serving as a magnet for cultural activities, and (2) two economic centers anchoring the development which resulted as a response to attracting regional market activities which can build on economic, commercial, cultural, entertainment, beach, park, and environmental considerations. The activities within the districts include the following offerings: - Iconic Architecture - Commercial Office Space - Maritime Museum - Amphitheatre - Mixed-use Programs - Retail Offerings - Open Market venue for economic and livelihood opportunity between local villagers, residents and visitors in the cultural district order to bridge the gap - Direct access to beach and recreational opportunities - Live/Work Units - Residential Units - Marina/Yacht Club - Social nodes - Ecological Habitat
  13. 13. 13 Chapter 3: Bridge The Gap Design Proposal Final Poster #1 (Please note that scaled images are available on the digital copy.)
  14. 14. 14Final Poster #2
  15. 15. 15Final Poster #3
  16. 16. 16Final Poster #4
  17. 17. 17Final Poster #5
  18. 18. 18 Images of the Physical Model Bird’s Eye View of Site from Across Wuyuan Bay Bird’s Eye View of Site from Wuyuan Bay Wetland Park Bird’s Eye View looking into the North Ecological Business Center
  19. 19. 19 Chapter 4: Detailed Design Studies
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  21. 21. 21BRIDGE THE GAP: Ecological Business District Ecological Business District Form-Based Urban Design Guidelines for Ecological Business Sub-districts William Penland 4.1 Ecological Business District
  22. 22. 22 * Not to Scale Sunken Plaza Monumental Tower Topographic Podium Linked Courtyards Civic Green Wuyuan Bay Multi-Level Concourse Pedestrian Street Ecological Avenue (Woonerf) Parkway Beachfront Promenade Beach A B C D E F G H I J K L A B C C F D D D E G H I J J K K I H C A District Master Plan ECOLOGICAL BUSINESS DISTRICT @ WUYUAN BAY NORTH STATION William Penland, 2014 BRIDGE THE GAP: Ecological Business District
  23. 23. 23 * Not to Scale Ecological Business District: William Penland L L
  24. 24. 24 ECOLOGICAL BUSINESS DISTRICT @ WUYUAN BAY NORTH STATION Trunk Road Ecological AvenueExisting High-Rise Residential “A New Urban Core” The Ecological Business District takes full advantage of it’s location at the intersec- tion of metro lines 2 & 3 (the future Wuyu- an Bay North metro station) to create a new (supplimentary) city center for the city of Xiamen. The new core serves to revital- ize the area, improve and expand a lacking public space network, and become a cata- lyst for further redevelopment in the Wuyu- an Bay area as well as across the entire north side of the island.Volumetric Massing Site Section Through Sunken Plaza and Multi-Level Concourse BRIDGE THE GAP: Ecological Business District
  25. 25. 25 Parkway Beach Bay Promenade Ecological Business District: William Penland Bird’s-Eye Perspective of Bulding Massing on Site Total SiteArea: BuildableArea: % Open Space: FloorArea Ratio: Dwelling Units/Hectre: Population: Commercial: 58,450 m2 (5.85 hectres) 18,790 m2 65 % 2.35 1,028 (60 m2 avg.) 2570 74,776 m 2
  26. 26. 26 ECOLOGICAL BUSINESS DISTRICT @ WUYUAN BAY NORTH STATION BRIDGE THE GAP: Ecological Business District Massing Perspective of Multi-Level Concourse Massing Perspective of Sunken Plaza & Concourse Transit-Oriented Development A sunken plaza submerges into the site along a predominant axis which bisects the bay and connects back to the metro station. This plaza (the area immediate- ly adjacent to the main trunk road, grand stair, and transit entrance) transitions into a multi-level concourse with retail and com- mercial fronting onto the public space as it slowly ramps up to a monumental tower and the waterfront promenade beyond.
  27. 27. 27 Ecological Business District: William Penland One-way Vehicular Loop Sunken Plaza One-way Vehicular Loop Linked CourtyardsLinked Courtyards Cross Section Through Multi-Level Concourse
  28. 28. 28 ECOLOGICAL BUSINESS DISTRICT @ WUYUAN BAY NORTH STATION BRIDGE THE GAP: Ecological Business DistrictBRIDGE THE GAP: Ecological Business District Massing Perspective of Sunken Plaza & Concourse Pedestrian-Dominated Urbanism Running as a north-to-south spine along the site, a pedestrian dominated shared street creates a safe and vibrant atmo- sphere significantly augmenting the seri- ously lacking existing open space network, which can also facilitate vehicular move- ment on a small scale or for significant events. Along this path masses of topo- graphic podium structures are organized forming a series of linked courtyards onto which smaller shops and cafes front.
  29. 29. 29 Ecological Business District: William Penland Ecological Avenue Parkway Promenade Parking Access Mid-Block Section Through Ecological Avenue & Courtyard Blocks Street Type: Shared Street (Woonerf) Mifflin Street Woonerf - Madison, Wisconsin, USA Photo Credit: http://cdn.urbancincy.com/wp-content/up- loads/2014/07/Woonerf-in-Madison-WI.jpg Building Type: Topographic Podium w/ Tower Zorlu Center - Emre Arolat Architects Istanbul, Turkey, 2008 Photo Credit: http://cdn.urbancincy.com/wp-content/up- loads/2014/07/Woonerf-in-Madison-WI.jpg Spatial Type: Sunken Plaza Sky SOHO - Zaha Hadid Architects Shanghai China, 2013 Photo Credit: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/ Spatial Type: Multi-Level Concourse Sanlitun SOHO - Kengo Kuma and Associates, Beijing, China 2010 Photo Credit: Precedents
  30. 30. 30 4.2: The Cultural Village Zhongzhai Village Existing Zhongzhai Village Plaza Existing Zhongzhai Village StreetExisting Zhongzhai Village Alley The Cultural Village attempts to provide a healthier and more inclusive environment for the Huli District, while respecting the demands and requirements of a successful Transit-Oriented Develop- ment project. Zhongzhai Village provides public space that has been built into the Village’s urban fabric, however it is all hardscaped and offers very little unpolluted natural landscape. The new development allows for more vegetation to occur in adaptable spaces that can accommodate a variety of activities, including an open air market, plaza dancing and Dragon Boat Festival rituals. Perspective B: Open Market Connection between the Ecological Promenade to the Sunken Plaza.
  31. 31. 31 Pedestrian Bridge Sunken Plaza Plaza with Retail Open Market Pedestrian Bridge SectionA 1/8 Walking Shed The Cultural Village Site Plan (not to scale) 1,140 Residential Units 14,664 SM of Commercial Space 9,518 SM of Retail Space 1,140 Residential Units 14,664 SM of Commercial Space 9,518 SM of Retail Space Program Details:Program Details: Floor to Area Ratio: 1.85 Floor to Area Ratio: 1.85 Dwelling Units per Hectare: 792 Dwelling Units per Hectare: 792 Population: 2,850 Population: 2,850
  32. 32. 32 Section A: North to South Section looking East; Not to Scale Pedestrian Bridge Wuyuan Bay’s North Eco-Center Connected Building with Open Space for Residents Sunken Plaza Section D: West to East Section looking North; Not to Scale Zhongzhai Village Perspective B: Village Avenue looking towards the Sunken Plaza Fabric Integration into Site Site Pedestrian Grid Network Village Pedestrian Grid Network Primary Vehicular Routes Emergency & Delivery Vehicular Routes Retractable Bollards Parking Garages Vehicular Entry and Exit Points Pedestrian Entry and Exit from Garage Vehicular and Commuter Entry Points Emulating Existing Village Fabric Vehicular Circulation Into and Through Site
  33. 33. 33 Pedestrian Bridge Entrance for Wuyuan Bay South Metro Station Urban Park and SouthEnd Village Avenue Ecological Boardwalk Wuyuan Bay Detailed Node depicts possible landscaping details of the Sunken Plaza that connects Zhongzhai Village directly to the Ecological Boulevard and Wuyuan Bay. Not to scale.
  34. 34. 34 - Offer a distinctive and connective circulation pattern throughout the site to link urban spaces within the various districts together. - An urban park between the districts interweaves the pedestrian experience under tree canopy opening to lagoons with beach access. - Design the circulation pattern for site connectivity between villagers, residents, visitors and workers at various levels. - Link public space at the ground level to lower and raise public plazas above. - Design for pedestrian and vehicular circulation at separate levels. Pedestrian Circulation Transit Station Connection Concourse to Metro Level Connection Network Based Pedestrian Shed 4.3: The SouthEnd
  35. 35. 35 Figure Ground Diagram Southend District and Surrounding Context Vehicular Circulation - Limit private vehicular circulation with- in the site at the ground level in order to maximize pedestrian circulation. - Make underground parking garages available throughout the site. - Allow for a connective emergency cir- culation route at ground level within the site. - Connective plazas offer plenty of space for emergency vehicles to ac- cess any part of the site. Vehicular Circulation
  36. 36. 36 Site Plan for the Southend District
  37. 37. 37 Development Concept For the Southend District The concept for the development stems from the requirement to ‘Bridge the Gap’ between three impeding development impacts which are Social, Environmental, and Economic. Connecting Social Gaps: To ensure social connectivity between the adjacent local urban fabric of the Zhongzhai village and the site, the concept evolved to minimize gentrification, and connect with a cultural vertical village. The importance lies with the ability to Age in Place; Live, Work, and Play; and the sense of a Cultural Identity within a modern development. Connecting Environmental Gaps: The site offers ample opportunity for envi- ronmental awareness, thus a passive design evolved as a response to protect the ecolog- ical balance of the shoreline and site, while expanding ecologies with urban farming, maintaining beachfront recreational voca- tions, while promote a healthy living environ- ment.
  38. 38. 38 Site Plan Ecological Islands Ecological Reserve Promenade Urban Center District Urban Mixed Use District Boardwalk Plaza Metro Plaza Urban Plaza
  39. 39. 39 View progression of the Pedestrian Avenue thru the Southend Mixed Use District from the Promenade north to the Metro Plaza Development Model Boardwalk Plaza Metro Plaza Urban Plaza Looking north along the Pedestrian Avenue Elevation thru Plaza in the Mixed Use District Boardwalk Plaza Metro Plaza Boardwalk Plaza Boardwalk Plaza Metro Plazaw
  40. 40. 40 Urban Plaza in the Mixed Use District Character Pedestrian Avenue and Urban Plaza Located at the crossroads of the Mixed Use and Urban Center District lies the Urban Plaza. This public space is the destination point along the Pedestrian Avenue, which is the heartbeat of the Southend District. Together they are acti- vated by the transit station serving the southend district. With an amazing array of lifestyle opportunities the South- end District boasts offerings of work and living over a retail promenade, with scenic views of Wuyuan Bay and an sur- rounding ecological park. The Urban Mixed Use District is intended to encourage and sustain pedestrian-oriented de- velopment along major urban corridors connecting work-live with entertainment. It consists of high density mixed use accommodating; recreational, entertainment, civic, retail, office, lodging, condominiums, and apartments. It has wide sidewalks, urban plazas, flush curbs, and street tree planting. Buildings maintain 0 setback and height is capped at 30 stories. The Urban Center District addreses transit oriented development. It consists of a higher density mixed use accommodating; transit, office, commercial, civic, retail, lodging, condominiums, and apartments. It has wide side- walks, urban plazas with flush curbs, private courtyards, and street tree planting at regular intervals. Buildings maintain 0 setback and height is capped at 25 stories.
  41. 41. 41 Looking south to the Museum and Boardwalk Plaza Looking west from the Urban Plaza into the Mixed Use District Looking northwest into the Urban Plaza Looking north into the crossroads of the Urban Center & Mixed Use District Looking north along the Pedestrian Avenue Looking north from the Urban Plaza to the Metro PlazaTransit station access in the Urban Center District
  42. 42. 42 Precedence Density, Complexity & Verticality Building typology for the Urban center and Mixed Use district Prime waterfront living and dining in the Lakeside District in Xiamen Nightlife on the Waterfront in the Lakeside District in Xiamen, China
  43. 43. 43 Ecological Reserve View along Promenade Ecological Islands Boardwalk to Ecological Islands Preservation of the ecosystem is imperative and addressed within two areas on the southend of the site. An open space area linking the cultural district to the north is reserved and extended to a series of new island ecologies. The program places an emphasis on improving the pedes- trian experience, and healthy living. The ecology network responds with opportunities for interaction with the environment while promoting aware- ness. Precedence Ecological Reserve Spatial typology for the Urban center and Mixed Use district
  44. 44. 44 Chapter 5: Form Based Code
  45. 45. 45 BRIDGE THE GAP Regulating Plan & Form Based Code Ecological Business District, Will Penland Cultural Village, Rachel Safren Mixed Use SouthEnd, David Perry
  46. 46. 46 5.4: Spatial Typology 86 1.3: Transect 49 1.1: Purpose & Special Requirements 47 5.2: Private Frontage Conditions 82 5.3: Building Typology 84 Table of Contents Introduction 1.2: Bridge The Gap Masterplan 48 2.2: District Designations 54 2.1: Site Plan 52 Ecological Business District 50 2.3: Regulating Plan 53 1.4: Site Summary Regulations 78 2.4: District Provisions 55 2.5: Building Composition 57 3.2: District Designations 62 3.1: Site Plan 60 Cultural Village District 59 3.3: Regulating Plan 61 3.4: District Provisions 64 3.5: Building Composition 68 4.2: District Designations 72 4.1: Site Plan 70 Mixed-Use SouthEnd District 69 4.3: Regulating Plan 71 4.4: District Provisions 73 4.5: Building Composition 75 Frontage Conditions & Typologies 77 5.1: Public Frontage Conditions 80
  47. 47. 47 Purpose & Special Requirements: The purpose of this document is to provide regulatory guidelines about how the Wuyuan Bay Transit Oriented Development site is to be planned and constructed. All development projects must adhere to code. Bridge the Gap’s intent is to become Xiamen’s second city center and provide a new gateway to the island from the north. With the development site situated between two proposed metro stations, heavy activity and traffic, both pedestrian and vehicular, require dense mixed-use districts to be developed. While there is a great incentive to provide a large entertainment core for this population, that will be mainly composed of commuters and young professionals and families that want affordable housing and work in the Torch High-Tech Industrial Park, consideration must be paid to the neighboring Zhongzhai Village. The village may not be redeveloped for another 10-20 years and its residents provide a great deal of cultural value to Xiamen’s north Huli District. Due to these conditions, the following requirements are mandated for all construction proposals occuring within the Bridge The Gap development project: - A minimum of 15% of all housing units must be considered affordable in order to ensure that gentrification does not occur. - A minimum of 20% of the site must be dedicated to public open space. This does not include Wuyuan Bay’s public beach or currently existing boardwalk. - A minimum of 60 sm of open space, in the form of a community garden or a communal gathering spot, must be provided within all buildings above the 3rd floor, or as a roof garden, that is accessible for building tenants or residents. Additionally, developers may qualify for the Building Extension Program, where building heights may be increased in order to accomodate additional stories, if a developer meets one of the following: - Increasing the number of affordable units, past the 15% requirement, by any amount within their development site. - Meeting the standard U.S. LEED requirements for a development site and building.
  48. 48. 48 Masterplan
  49. 49. 49 Legend Transect Civic Space T1 Ecological Reserve T4 Beach Neighborhood T5 Cultural Core T5 Street Neighborhood T5 Park Neighborhood T5 Urban Mixed Use T6 Mid-Rise Urban Complex T6 High-Rise Urban Complex T6 Urban Center
  50. 50. 50 Ecological Business District: Regulating Plan & District Provisions Will Penland
  51. 51. 51 Eco-Business District: William Penland - MUDD 5602 - Walters “A New Urban Core” The Ecological Business District takes full advantage of it’s location at the intersection of metro lines 2 & 3 (the future Wuyuan Bay North metro station) to create a new (supplimentary) city center for the city of Xiamen. The new core serves to revitalize the area, improve and expand a lacking public space network, and become a catalyst for further redevelopment in the Wuyuan Bay area as well as across the entire north side of the island. BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines Ecological Business District Form-Based Urban Design Guidelines for Ecological Business Sub-districts William Penland
  52. 52. 52 District Master Plan * Not to Scale Sunken Plaza Monumental Tower Topographic Podium Linked Courtyards Civic Green Wuyuan Bay Multi-Level Concourse Pedestrian Street Ecological Avenue (Woonerf) Parkway Beachfront Promenade Beach A B C D E F G H I J K L A B C C F D D D E G H I J J K K L L I H C A BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines
  53. 53. 53 District Regulating Plan * Not to Scale Eco-Business District: William Penland - MUDD 5602 - Walters BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines
  54. 54. 54 District Designations Ecological Business District: Subdistricts BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines The districts in the Southend have been established from transit oriented development access center. The Development is intended to accomodate foremost, pedestrian-oriented movement within a highly populated urban mixed use center. T6-A Mid-Rise Urban Complex Zone consists of high density mixed use buildings accomo- dating diverse retail, office, and residential uses. It links to a network of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street tree plantingsandbuildingssetclose to the sidewalks. T6-A Mid-Rise Urban ComplexM-UC Shops mixed with Offices, Flex Units, and Apartments;treeswithinthepublicright-of- way; substantial pedestrian activity General Character: Shallow Setbacks or none; buildings orientedtostreetdefiningastreetwall Building Placement: Courtyard, Forecourt, Storefront, Terrace, Stepped, Balcony, Arcade, Stacked (w/ warrant) Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Courtyard, Plaza, Green, Pedestrian Street, Ecological Avenue, Concourse Type of Open Space: T6-B High Rise Urban ComplexH-UC Ecology ReserveER mix Natural landscape and Hardscape with some ecological use General Character: Not applicableBuilding Placement: 4 to 12 stories Frontage Types: not applicable T6-BHigh-RiseUrbanComplex Zone consists of the highest density and height, with the greatest variety of uses, and civicbuildingsofregionalimpor- tance. It links to a network of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street tree plantings and buildings set close to the sidewalks. High-Density Mixed Use buildings, entertainment, Civic and cultural uses. Attached/Interconnectedbuildingsforming a continuous street wall and multi-level pedestrian environment; trees within the publicright-of-way;highestpedestrianand transit activity General Character: Shallow Setbacks or none; buildings ori- ented to street defining a street wall Building Placement: Courtyard, Forecourt, Storefront, Terrace, Stepped, Balcony, Arcade, Stacked Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Courtyard, Plaza, Green, Pedestrian Street, Ecological Avenue, Concourse Type of Open Space: 4 to 18 stories T-1 Ecological Reserve Zone consistsoflandsapproximating or reverting to a wetland/water- front condition, including lands suitable for recreation, remedi- ation, and habitat production. Typical Building Height: not applicable Beach, Green, Waterfront PromenadeType of Open Space: 840 smMinimum Lot Size: 1334 smMinimum Lot Size:
  55. 55. 55BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines Form-Based Code Provisions T6-A : Mid-Rise Urban Complex Minimum District Requirements Floor to Area Ratio: 2.25 Dwelling Units per Hectre: 246 units/ .73 hectres - Market Tenants: 85% - Subsidized Tenants: 15% Commercial Space (SM): 20,271 Retail Space (SM): 30% min Housing Units: 240 min Parking Spots: underground deck(s) T6-A A. Building Height Principal Building 3 stories min. 4 stories max Tower(s) no min, 12 stories max (max incl. principal building) B. Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 60% min - 100% maximum C. Building Disposition Edgeyard permitted Sideyard not permitted Rearyard not permitted Courtyard permitted D. Setbacks (D.1) Front Setback Primary 0 min - 1m maximum (D.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 min - 2m maximum (D.3) Courtyard Setback 0m minimum, no max (D.4) Side Setback 1.5m min - 2.5m maximum (D.5) Frontage Buildout 75% minimum at setback E. Private Frontages Courtyard permitted Forecourt permitted Storefront permitted Terrace permitted Stepped permitted Balcony permitted (secondary fronts) Gallery not permitted Arcade permitted Stacked permitted (primary fronts only, with Warrant) 1. Building height is measured in number of stories. 2. The first floor must be a minimum of 5m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum allowable height of 6m. The remaining levels cannot exceed 4m in height from floor to ceiling, with the exception of the first (transitional) level between habitable podium roofs and tower structures, at tower entries. (which cannot exceed 6m.) 3. Maximum allowable building height shallbe measured to the roof deck - as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. Towers should step back a minimum of 2m above the princpal building. Building Configuration: 1. Required building setbacks shall be defined by the type of public space the particular elevation/facade in question is fronting. 2. All buildings are required to be dis -posed in an Edgeyard contidion within their respective parcel boundaries 3. All buildings are mandated to provide a public easement of at least 2m along the edges of their lots that do not face an identified public frontage. Building Setbacks: T6-AMid-RiseUrbanCom- plex Zone consists of high density mixed use build- ings accomodating diverse retail,office,andresidential uses. It links to a network of streets, with wide side- walks, steady street tree plantings and buildings set close to the sidewalks. *NOTE: The primary determining factors between a T6-A & T6-B designa- tions are max/min allowable height, (some) variability in required buildout, and allowable building Typologies (with Warrant.) T6-A designations are aimed at delineating a clear ‘transition’ zone be- tween the super-dense T6-B zones and less dense adjacent uses.
  56. 56. 56BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines Form-Based Code Provisions T6-B : High-Rise Urban Complex Minimum District Requirements Floor to Area Ratio: 2.5 Dwelling Units per Hectre 784 units/ 1.45 hectres - Market Tenants: 85% - Subsidized Tenants: 15% Commercial Space (SM): 54,505 Retail Space (SM): 40% min Housing Units: 780 min Parking Spots: underground deck(s) T6-B Eco-Business District: William Penland - MUDD 5602 - Walters 1. Building height is measured in number of stories. 2. The first two floors must be a minimum of 5m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum allowable height of 6m. The remaining levels cannot exceed 4m in height from floor to ceiling, with the exception of the first (transitional) level between habitable podium roofs and tower structures, at tower entries. (which cannot exceed 6m.) 3. Maximum allowable building height shall be measured to the roof deck - as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. Towers should step back on all floors a minimum of 2m above the princpal building. Building Configuration: 1. Required building setbacks shall be defined by the type of public space the particular elevation/facade in question is fronting. 2. All buildings are required to be dis -posed in an Edgeyard contidion within their respective parcel boundaries 3. All buildings are mandated to provide a public easement of at least 2m along the edges of their lots that do not face an identified public frontage. Building Setbacks: *NOTE: Monumental Building located at terminus of multi-level concourse (refer to district master plan) included in T6-B designation but is not required to conform to district standards. Approval issued by warrant. A. Building Height Principal Building 4 stories min. 5 stories max Tower(s) no min, 18 stories max (max incl. principal building) *20 stories max for monu- mental building B. Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 75% min - 100% maximum C. Building Disposition Edgeyard permitted Sideyard not permitted Rearyard not permitted Courtyard permitted D. Setbacks (D.1) Front Setback Primary 0 min - 1m maximum (D.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 min - 2m maximum (D.3) Courtyard Setback 0m minimum, no max (D.4) Side Setback 1.5m min - 2.5m maximum (D.5) Frontage Buildout 80% minimum at setback E. Private Frontages Courtyard permitted Forecourt permitted Storefront permitted Terrace permitted Stepped permitted Balcony permitted (secondary fronts) Gallery not permitted Arcade permitted Stacked required T6-BHigh-RiseUrbanCom- plex Zone consists of the highest density and height, with the greatest variety of uses, and civic buildings of regional importance. It linkstoanetworkofstreets, withwidesidewalks,steady street tree plantings and buildings set close to the sidewalks.
  57. 57. 57 Building Configuration Wuyuan North Eco-Center T6 This table shows the Configurations for different building heights for each Transect Zone. It must be modified to show actual calibrated heights for local conditions. Recess Lines and Expression Lines shall occur on higher buildings as shown. N = maximum height as specified in Table 14k. T6-A Eco-Business District: William Penland - MUDD 5602 - Walters BRIDGE THE GAP: Urban Design Guidelines T6-A T6-B T6-B
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  59. 59. 59 Cultural Village District: Regulating Plan & District Provisions Rachel Safren
  60. 60. 60 Site Plan * Not to Scale
  61. 61. 61 Regulating Plan 1:3000 Legend CC Cultural Core SN Street Neighborhood BN Beach Neighborhood Restricted Frontage Overlay (Arcade Only) PT Park Transition CS Civic Space For the Cultural Core, Street Neighborhood, and Beach Neighborhood, blocks, minimum and maximum lot sizes are provided, but lot lines are not drawn in for the regulating plan. Multiple developers will contribute to the organic construc- tion of the village by bidding and obtaining different lot sizes and shapes.
  62. 62. 62 District Designations The districts in this Code have been established using a continuum of development intensity. The diagram below illus- trates the four districts established in this Code as they would apply within the Development Site that are intended to support, first and foremost, pedestrian-oriented development and a high-intensity mix of uses. The Cultural Street Neighborhood provides more residential space in the form of apartments and live-work units. Buildings are higher in this district that can provide views out to Wuyuan Bay. Although, a range of setback requirements must be adhered to, a range of building/spatial typologies are available to developers. Additionally, this district allows for the Connective Veritcal Building Elements to be implemented, in order to add more residential units into the district. Furthermore, developers may qualify for the Building Extension Program, which could allow the maximum building height to be capped at 7 stories. Street NeighborhoodSN Primarily residential use with an emphasis on live-work units. Small shops and galleries are permitted up to the second floor with sporadic trees and landscaping. All paths are pedestrian oriented. General Character: No setback to a shallow front setback, medium side yard setback with a mandatory public easement. Building Placement: Arcade, Storefront & Awning, Forecourt, Step Entry Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Green Avenue, Village Street, Urban Park, Village Courtyard, Rooftop Ecologies Type of Open Space: The Cultural Beach Neighborhood is for mainly residential units, with sporadic small live-work units and shop space. Building height is limited to 2-4 stories in order to offer Wuyuan Bay views to the districts closer to the Trunk Road. The District has smaller lots with the setback requirements in order to allow for access to the Knoll’s sloping open space, the Green Avenue, Ecological Boardwalk, and Beach. The Building Extension Program and Vertical Connective Elements are not permitted in this district. Beach NeighborhoodBN Primarily residential use with an emphasis on live-work units. Small shops and galleries are permitted up to the second floor with sporadic trees and landscaping. All paths are pedestrian oriented. General Character: No setback to a shallow front setback, medium side yard setback with a mandatory public easement. Building Placement: Arcade, Storefront & Awning, Forecourt, Step Entry Frontage Types: 2- to 4- StoreyTypical Building Height: Green Avenue, Village Street, Urban Park, Village Courtyard, Rooftop Ecologies Type of Open Space: The Cultural Core’s intent is to extend and preserve the cultural identity of Zhongzhai Village, while providing a healthier environment for its residents with 21st century technology. The entire Regulating Plan places an emphasis on improving the pedestrian experience, as such the CC District does not have any raise curbs and offers small blocks and lot sizes to developers. A range of set-back requirements and building/spatial typologies allow for unique structures to be created that can respond to the existing conditions in an organic fashion. Cultural CoreCC Mixed-Use buildings with Arcade Frontages; Retail and Gallery activity is permitted throughout the building to encourage a cultural identity. General Character: No setback to a shallow setback front, shallow to medium side yard setback with a mandatory public easement. Building Placement: ArcadeFrontage Types: Typical Building Height: Green Avenue, Village Street, Rooftop Ecologies Type of Open Space: 4- to 5- Storey; Eligible for 1 additional Storey by meeting LEED or Public Space Requirements 5- to 6- Storey; Eligible for 1 additional Storey by meeting LEED or Public Space Requirements Connected Vertical Elements: Permitted; 1 storey that must be included in the total height of the building Connected Vertical Elements: Permitted; 1-3 stories that must be included in the total height of the building Connected Vertical Elements: Not permitted 225 - 315 smMinimum/ Maximum Lot Size: 225 - 315 smMinimum/ Maximum Lot Size: 144 - 225 smMinimum/ Maximum Lot Size:
  63. 63. 63 District Designations District Designations The Park Transition District provides an entry point into the Wuyuan Bay’s Cultural Village from the Wuyuan Bay South Station and by walking north on the Ecological Boulevard. In addition, it acts as a gateway with its neigh- boring SouthEnd for the commuters traveling along the elevated highway. As a response to these conditions, the buildings are taller and provide more open space in order to ensure a smooth transition from the Urban Park into the Cultural Village. Some of the building space in this district can be used for civic uses, such as an employment and training center, but a majority of it will be residential in nature. A minimum of 15% of constructed res- idential units in this district will be set aside for affordable housing. Park TransitionPT Primarily residential use, with required affordable housing units. Basic ameni- ties, such as a pharmacy, grocery store, etc. can be housed within constructed buildings. Large lots allow buildings to frame the park, highway, and metro entrance. General Character: No setback to a shallow setbacks around the entire lot. Building Placement: Arcade, Storefront & AwningFrontage Types: Typical Building Height: Green Avenue, Sloping Plaza, Urban Park, Civic Courtyard, Rooftop Ecologies Type of Open Space: 10- to 12- Storey; Eligible for 3 additional storeys by meeting LEED or Public Space Requirements Connected Vertical Elements: Permitted; 1-3 stories that must be included in the total height of the building The Regulating Plan designates certain Restricted Frontage areas that limit the permitted frontages to Arcade frontage type only. While a wide variety of frontage types may be permitted within the underlying district, the Restricted Frontage areas limit that variety to achieve a consistent, pedestrian-oriented streetscape in areas intended to support mixed- use retail environments. Restricted Frontage Overlay
  64. 64. 64 District Provisions Cultural Core (CC) The Cultural Core’s intent is to extend and preserve the cultural identity of Zhongzhai Village, while providing a healthier environment for its residents with 21st century technology. The entire Regulating Plan places an emphasis on improving the pedestrian experience, as such the CC District does not have any raise curbs and offers small blocks and lot sizes to developers. A range of set-back requirements and building/spatial typologies allow for unique structures to be created that can respond to the existing conditions in an organic fashion. Minimum District Requirements Village Floor to Area Ratio: 1.1 Village Dwelling Units per Hectare: 232 Number of Residents in CC: 410 - Market Tenants: 349 - Subsidized Tenants: 61 CC Commercial Space (SM): 5,000 sm CC Retail Space (SM): 5,000 sm CC Housing Units: 164 Village Parking Spots: 944 1. Building height is measured in number of stories. 2. The first floor must be a minimum of 4 m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum height of 6 m. The remaining stories cannot exceed 4 m in height from floor to ceiling. 3. Height shall be measured to the roof deck as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. After the 3rd storey, all buildings must setback additional stories 1 m to 2 m. A. Building Height Principal Building 4 stories min. 5 stories max Anxillary Buildings not permitted Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 90% max Building Disposition Edgeyard permitted Sideyard not permitted Rearyard not permitted Courtyard not permitted Setbacks (A.1) Front Setback Primary 0 m min, 0.5 m max. (A.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 m min, 1 m max. (A.3) Side Setback 1.5 m min, 2.5 m max. (A.4) Rear Setback 0 m min, 0.5 m max. (A.5) Frontage Buildout 80% min at setback B. Public Frontages Pedestrian Street permitted Shared Avenue permitted Village Alley permitted C. Private Frontages Arcade permitted Balcony not permitted Courtyard not permitted Forecourt not permitted Gallery not permitted Shopfront not permitted Step Entry permitted D. Building Typology Knoll permitted Village Box permitted E. Spatial Typology Open Market permitted Rooftop Gardens permitted Building Configuration: 1.Buildings will have a setback of 0 m to .5 m when situated on the Green Avenue. 2. All buildings are required to be situated within an Edgeyard condition. 3. All buildings are mandated to provide a public easement of 1 m along the edges of their lots that do not face an Avenue or Village Street. 4. There are no curbs within the district, because of this the lot line and ROW, without a setback, are the same. Building Setbacks: Connective Vertical Building Elements: Lot ROW Setback Max. Height 1. A developer may purchase multiple lots and utilize the appropriate building typologies or the Enclosed Tunnel, as a connective vertical element to unify ground stories into one structure. 2. Connected lots and structures must provide a minimum of 60 sm of functional green open space, constructed either vertically or horizontally and accessible to building residents, as a community garden and gathering place. 3. Connected buildings are not permitted to across the Green Avenue or the Village Street, and may only start at the 3rd storey. 4. Connected Buildings may only bridge across a maximum of 3 buildings on the ground plane and include 70% glazing when crossing a public easement. Lot ROW Village Alley Connective Building Mid-Block Condition Corner Lot Condition A.4 A.3 A.2 A.1 A.3 A.3 A.1 A.4 Public Easement T5B
  65. 65. 65 District Provisions Street Neighborhood (SN) The Cultural Street Neighborhood provides more residential space in the form of apartments and live-work units. Buildings are higher in this district that can provide views out to Wuyuan Bay. Although, a range of setback requriements must be adhered to, a range of building/spatial typologies are available to developers. Additionally, this district allows for the Connective Veritcal Building Elements to be implemented, in order to add more residential units into the district. Furthermore, developers may qualify for the Building Extension Program, which could allow the maximum building height to be capped at 7 stories. Minimum District Requirements Village Floor to Area Ratio: 1.1 Village Dwelling Units per Hectare: 232 Number of Residents in CSN: 630 - Market Tenants: 536 - Subsidized Tenants: 94 CSN Commercial Space (SM): 2,800 sm CSN Retail Space (SM): 1,000 sm CSN Housing Units: 252 Village Parking Spots: 944 1. Building height is measured in number of stories. 2. The first floor must be a minimum of 4 m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum height of 6 m. The remaining stories cannot exceed 4 m in height from floor to ceiling. 3. Height shall be measured to the roof deck as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. After the 3rd storey, all buildings must stepback additional stories 1 m to 1.5 m. Building Configuration: 1.Buildings will have a setback of 0 m to .5 m when situated on an Avenue or Village Street. 2. All buildings are required to be situated within an Edgeyard condition. 3. All buildings are mandated to provide a public easement of 0.7 m to 1 m along the edges of their lots that do not face an Avenue or Village Street. 4. There are no curbs within the district, because of this the lot line and ROW are the same. Building Setbacks: Connective Vertical Building Elements: Lot ROW Stepback Max. Height 1. A developer may purchase multiple lots and utilize the appropriate building typologies or the Enclosed Tunnel, as a connective vertical element to unify ground stories into one structure. 2. Connected lots and structures must provide a minimum of 60 sm of functional green open space, constructed either vertically or horizontally and accessible to building residents, as a community garden and gathering place. 3. Connected buildings are not permitted along or across the Green Avenue or the Village Street. 4. Connected Buildings may only bridge across a maximum of 3 buildings on the ground plane and include 70% glazing when crossing a public easement. Lot ROW Village Alley Connective Building Mid-Block Condition Corner Lot Condition A.4 A.3 A.2 A.1 A.3 A.3 A.1 A.4 Public Easement T5A A. Building Height Principal Building 5 stories min. 6 stories max Anxillary Buildings not permitted Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 80% max Building Disposition Edgeyard permitted Sideyard not permitted Rearyard not permitted Courtyard not permitted Setbacks (A.1) Front Setback Primary 0 m min, 0.5 m max. (A.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 m min, 1 m max. (A.3) Side Setback 1.5 m min, 2.5 m max. (A.4) Rear Setback 0 m min, 0.5 m max. (A.5) Frontage Buildout 80% min at setback B. Public Frontages Pedestrian Street permitted Shared Avenue permitted Village Alley permitted C. Private Frontages Arcade permitted Balcony not permitted Courtyard not permitted Forecourt not permitted Gallery not permitted Shopfront not permitted Step Entry permitted D. Building Typology Knoll permitted Village Box permitted E. Spatial Typology Open Market not permitted Rooftop Gardens permitted
  66. 66. 66 District Provisions Beach Neighborhood (BN) The Cultural Beach Neighborhood is for mainly residential units, with sporadic small live-work units and shop space. Building height is limited to 2-4 stories in order to offer Wuyuan Bay views to the districts closer to the Trunk Road. The District has smaller lots with the setback requirements in order to allow for access to the Knoll’s sloping open space, the Green Avenue, Ecological Boardwalk, and Beach. The Building Extension Program and Vertical Connective Elements are not permitted in this district. Minimum District Requirements Village Floor to Area Ratio: 1.1 Village Dwelling Units per Hectare: 232 Number of Residents in CBN: 120 - Market Tenants: 102 - Subsidized Tenants: 18 CBN Commercial Space (SM): 864 sm CBN Retail Space (SM): 518 sm CBN Housing Units: 48 Village Parking Spots: 944 1. Building height is measured in number of stories. 2. The first floor must be a minimum of 4 m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum height of 6 m. The remaining stories cannot exceed 4 m in height from floor to ceiling. 3. Height shall be measured to the roof deck as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. After the 2nd storey, all buildings must stepback additional stories 2 m to 3 m. Building Configuration: 1.Buildings will have a setback of 0 m to .5 m when situated on an Avenue or Village Street. 2. All buildings are required to be situated within an Edgeyard condition. 3. All buildings are mandated to provide a public easement of 0.7 m to 1 m along the edges of their lots that do not face an Avenue or Village Street. 4. There are no curbs within the district, because of this the lot line and ROW are the same. Building Setbacks: Lot ROW Stepback Max. Height Mid-Block Condition Corner Lot Condition A.4 A.3 A.2 A.1 A.3 A.3 A.1 A.4 Public Easement T4 A. Building Height Principal Building 3 stories min. 4 stories max Anxillary Buildings not permitted Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 80% max Building Disposition Edgeyard permitted Sideyard not permitted Rearyard not permitted Courtyard not permitted Setbacks (A.1) Front Setback Primary 0 m min, 0.5 m max. (A.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 m min, 1 m max. (A.3) Side Setback 1.5 m min, 2.5 m max. (A.4) Rear Setback 0 m min, 0.5 m max. (A.5) Frontage Buildout 70% min at setback B. Public Frontages Pedestrian Street permitted Shared Avenue permitted Village Alley permitted C. Private Frontages Arcade permitted Balcony not permitted Courtyard not permitted Forecourt not permitted Gallery not permitted Shopfront not permitted Step Entry permitted D. Building Typology Knoll permitted Village Box permitted E. Spatial Typology Open Market permitted Rooftop Gardens permitted
  67. 67. 67 District Provisions Park Neighborhood (PN) The Park Transition District provides an entry point into the Wuyuan Bay’s Cultural Village from the Wuyuan Bay South Station and by walking north on the Ecological Boulevard. In addition, it acts as a gateway with its neighboring SouthEnd for the commuters travelling along the elevated highway. As a response to these conditions, the buildings are taller and provide more open space in order to ensure a smooth transition from the Urban Park into the Cultural Village. Some of the building space in this district can be used for civic uses, such as an employment and training center, but a majority of it will be residential in nature. A minimum of 15% of constructed residential units in this district will be set aside for affordable housing. T5C Minimum District Requirements PT Floor to Area Ratio: 2.6 PT Dwelling Units per Hectare: 1,352 Number of Residents in PT: 1,690 - Market Tenants: 1,437 - Subsidized Tenants: 253 PT Commercial Space (SM): 6,000 sm PT Retail Space (SM): 3,000 sm PT Housing Units: 676 PT Parking Spots: 288 1. Building height is measured in number of stories. 2. The first floor must be a minimum of 4 m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum height of 6 m. The remaining stories cannot exceed 4 m in height from floor to ceiling. 3. Height shall be measured to the roof deck as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. After the 3rd storey, all buildings must setback additional stories 2 m to 3 m. Building Configuration: 1. All buildings are required to be situated within an Edgeyard condition. 2. The Facades and Elevations of Principle Buildings shall be distanced from the Lot lines as shown. 3. Facades shall be built along the Principle Frontage to the minimum specified width of the table. Building Setbacks: Lot ROW Setback Max. Height Mid-Block Condition Corner Lot Condition A.4 A.3 A.2 A.1 A.3 A.3 A.1 A.4 Public Easement A. Building Height Principal Building 10 stories min. 12 stories max Anxillary Buildings not permitted Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 60% max Building Disposition Edgeyard permitted Sideyard not permitted Rearyard not permitted Courtyard not permitted Setbacks (A.1) Front Setback Primary 0 m min, 2 m max. (A.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 m min, 2 m max. (A.3) Side Setback 0 m min, 2 m max. (A.4) Rear Setback 0 m min, 2 m max. (A.5) Frontage Buildout 80% min at setback B. Public Frontages Ecological Boulevard permitted Parkway permitted Shared Avenue permitted C. Private Frontages Arcade permitted Balcony permitted Courtyard permitted Forecourt permitted Gallery not permitted Shopfront not permitted Step Entry not permitted D. Building Typology Fragmented Tower permitted Sliced Courtyard Block permitted Topographic Podium permitted E. Spatial Typology Civic Courtyard permitted Floating Bridges Rooftop Gardens permitetd Urban Park permitted
  68. 68. 68 Building Configuration Stepback Lot ROW Stepback Diagram for Arcade Frontages: Diagram for All Other Frontages: Lot ROW Lot ROW Lot ROW StepbackStepback Max Height Max Height Max HeightMax Height
  69. 69. 69 Mixed-Use SouthEnd District: Regulating Plan & District Provisions David Perry
  70. 70. 70 Southend District Master Plan
  71. 71. 71 Southend District Regulating Plan
  72. 72. 72 District Designations Mixed Use Southend District The districts in the Southend have been established from transit oriented development access center. The Development is intended to accomodate foremost, pedestrian-oriented movement within a highly populated urban mixed use center. The Urban Mixed Use District is intended to encourage and sustain pedestrian-oriented de- velopment along major urban corridors connecting work-live with entertainment. It consists of high density mixed use accommodating; recreational, entertainment, civic, retail, office, lodging, condominiums, and apartments. It has wide sidewalks, urban plazas, flush curbs, and street tree planting. Buildings maintain 0 setback and height is capped at 30 stories. Urban Mixed UseUMX Predominantly attached buildings and pedestrian oriented streets with street trees at regular intervals. Mixed use of shops,entertainment, recreational, and lodging; condominium and apartments above; shops, arcades and galleries are permitted up to the second floor; General Character: 0 setback for primary and secondary frontage with a 5m rear setback Building Placement: Arcade, Shopfront & Awning, Forecourt, Gallery, Boardwalk Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Plaza, Courtyard, Avenue, Rooftop Ecologies Type of Open Space: Urban Center DistrictUC Preservation of the ecosystem is imperative and addressed within two areas on the south- end of the site. An open space area linking the cultural district to the north is preserved and extended to a series of new island ecologies. The program places an emphasis on improv- ing the pedestrian experience, and healthy living. The ecology network responds with oppor- tunities for interaction with the environment while promoting awareness. Ecological ReserveER Environmental preservation and awareness General Character: Not permittedBuilding Placement: Permitted; Balcony overhangs, side- walks, lighting, furniture Park Elements: 15 to 25 Storey Park Elements: Permitted; boardwalk, sidewalk, lighting, furniture Island Ecology Elements: Permitted; boardwalk The Urban Center District addreses transit oriented development. It consists of a higher density mixed use accommodating; transit, office, commercial, civic, retail, lodging, condominiums, and apartments. It has wide side- walks, urban plazas with flush curbs, private courtyards, and street tree planting at regular intervals. Buildings maintain 0 setback and height is capped at 25 stories. Transit oriented development with mixed use accomodating commercial and office; condominium and apartments above; predominantly attached buildings with street trees at regular intervals. Shopfront & awning, arcades and galler- ies are permitted up to the second floor. Streets are pedestrian oriented. General Character: 0 setback for primary and secondary frontage with a 5m rear setback Building Placement: Arcade, shopfront & awning, forecourt, gallery, boardwalk Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Plaza, courtyard, avenue, rooftop ecol- ogies Type of Open Space: 10 to 20 Storey
  73. 73. 73 Urban Mixed Use (UMX) District Provisions T5 1. Building height is mea- sured in number of stories. 2. The first and second floor must be a minimum of 5 m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum height of 6 m. The remaining stories cannot ex- ceed 4 m in height from floor to ceiling. 3. Height shall be measured to the roof deck as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. After the 4th storey, addi- tional stories must be setback 1 m to 3 m as shown. A. Building Function Residential permitted Lodging permitted Office permitted Civic permitted Retail permitted B. Building Configuration Principal Building 4 stories min. 30 stories max Anxillary Buildings not permitted C. Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 80% min. D. Building Typology Flex Box permitted Sliced Courtyard Block permitted Topographic Podium permitted Sculpture permitted E. Setbacks (D.1) Front Setback Primary 0 m (D.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 m (D.3) Side Setback 0 m (D.4) Rear Setback 5 m (facing boardwalk) (D.5) Frontage Buildout 80% min at setback F. Private Frontages Promenade permitted Gallery permitted Arcade permitted Forecourt permitted Shopfront & Awning permitted Building Configuration: 1.All buildings shall have a 0m setback on primary and secondary frontages includ- ing 0m side setbacks. 3. All buildings are required to provide a 5m rear yard where buildings have direct frontage to the Boardwalk. Building Setbacks:
  74. 74. 74 Chapter Number and Section Title (Ex: 2.1: Section Title Urban Center District (UC) T6 1. Building height is mea- sured in number of stories. 2. The first and second floor must be a minimum of 5 m in height from finished floor to finished ceiling, with a maximum height of 6 m. The remaining stories cannot ex- ceed 5 m in height from floor to ceiling. 3. Height shall be measured to the roof deck as specified in the corresponding diagram. 4. Above the 4th and 8th sto- rey, additional stories must be setback 1 m to 3 m as shown. A. Building Function Residential permitted Lodging permitted Office permitted Civic permitted Commercial permitted Retail permitted B. Building Configuration Principal Building 8 stories min. 25 stories max Anxillary Buildings not permitted C. Lot Occupation Lot Coverage 80% min. D. Building Typology Flex Box permitted Sliced Courtyard Block permitted Topographic Podium permitted Sculpture not permitted E. Setbacks (D.1) Front Setback Primary 0 m (D.2) Front Setback Secondary 0 m (D.3) Side Setback 0 m (D.4) Rear Setback 5 m (facing boardwalk) (D.5) Frontage Buildout 80% min at setback F. Private Frontages Promenade not permitted Gallery permitted Arcade permitted Forecourt permitted Building Configuration: 1.All buildings shall have a 0.0m setback on primary and secondary frontages in- cluding 0.0m side setbacks. 3. All buildings are required to provide a 5m rear yard where buildings have direct frontage to the Boardwalk. Building Setbacks: District Provisions
  75. 75. 75 Southend District Building Configuration T6T5 Building Configuration. This table shows the Configurations for different building heights for each Transect Zone. It must be modified to show actual calibrated heights for local conditions. Setback Lines and Expression Lines shall occur on higher buildings as shown.
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  77. 77. 77 Summary, Frontage Conditions & Typologies
  78. 78. 78 Bridge The Gap: Code Summary District Designations ER BN SN CC PN Densities DUA not applicable 232* 232* 232* 1,352 FAR not applicable 1.1* 1.1* 1.1* 2.6 A. District Provisions Lot Size or Block Perimeter not applicable 144 sm min. 225 sm min. 225 sm min. 3,000 sm Lot Disposition not applicable Edgeyard Edgeyard Edgeyard Edgeyard Lot Coverage not applicable 80% 80% 90% 60% Building Setbacks Primary Front Setback not applicable 0-0.5 m 0-0.5 m 0- 0.5 m 0-2 m Secondary Front Setback not applicable 0-1 m 0-1 m 0-1 m 0-2 m Side Setback not applicable 1.5-2.5 m 1.5-2.5 m 1.5-2.5 m 0-2 m Rear Setback not applicable 0-0.5 m 0-0.5 m 0-0.5 m 0- 2 m Frontage Buildout not applicable 60% 90% 80% 80% B. Public Frontage Conditions Ecological Boulevard permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Parkway permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Pedestrian Street not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted Shared Avenue not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Village Alley not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted C. Private Frontage Conditions Arcade not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Balcony not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Courtyard not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Forecourt not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Gallery not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Shopfront not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Step Entry not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted D. Building Typology Fragmented Tower not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Monument not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Knoll not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted Sculpture not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Sliced Courtyard Block not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Topographic Podium not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Village Box not permitted permitted permitted permitted not permitted E. Spatial Typology Ampitheater not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Civic Courtyard not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Floating Bridges not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Island Ecologies permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Open Market not permitted permitted not permitted permitted not permitted Plaza not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Rooftop Gardens not permitted permitted permitted permitted permitted Urban Park permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted permitted T1 T4 T5A T5B T5C *Figures are for the entire Village (CC, CSN, CBN)
  79. 79. 79 Bridge The Gap: Code Summary T5D T6 T6A T6B District Designations UMX UC M-UC H-UC Densities DUA 324 ha / 131 ac 183 ha / 74 ac 337 units/hectre 540 units/hectre FAR 3.6 2.7 2.25 2.5 A. District Provisions Lot Size 440 meters max 460 meters max 840 m2 min 1334 m2 min Lot Disposition not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable Lot Coverage 80% min. 80% min. 60% min. 80% min. Building Setbacks Primary Front Setback 0 m 0 m 0 m - 1 m 0 m - 1 m Secondary Front Setback 0 m 0 m 0 m - 1 m 0 m - 1 m Side Setback 0 m 0 m 1.5 m - 2.5 m 1.5 m - 2.5 m Rear Setback 5 m 5 m varies varies Frontage Buildout 80% min. 80% min. 75% min. 80% min. B. Public Frontage Conditions Ecological Boulevard permitted not permitted permitted permitted Parkway permitted permitted permitted permitted Pedestrian Street permitted permitted permitted permitted Shared Avenue permitted permitted permitted permitted Village Alley not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted C. Private Frontage Conditions Arcade permitted permitted permitted permitted Balcony permitted permitted permitted permitted Courtyard permitted permitted permitted permitted Forecourt permitted permitted permitted permitted Gallery permitted permitted not permitted not permitted Shopfront permitted permitted permitted permitted Step Entry not permitted not permitted permitted permitted D. Building Typology Fragmented Tower permitted permitted permitted permitted Monument not permitted not permitted not permitted required Knoll not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted Sculpture permitted permitted not permitted not permitted Sliced Courtyard Block permitted permitted permitted permitted Topographic Podium permitted permitted permitted permitted Village Box not permitted not permitted permitted not permitted E. Spatial Typology Ampitheater permitted not permitted not permitted permitted Civic Courtyard permitted permitted permitted permitted Floating Bridges permitted permitted permitted permitted Island Ecologies not permitted not permitted permitted permitted Open Market permitted permitted not permitted not permitted Plaza permitted permitted permitted permitted Rooftop Gardens permitted permitted permitted permitted Urban Park not permitted not permitted not permitted not permitted
  80. 80. 80 Public Frontages Ecological Boulevard The Ecological Boulevard acts as a divider between the beach and developable land. The Boulevard should accomodate at least 2 Sharrows. Pedestrians should be the focus of the Boulevard, and as such there should not be any raised curbs throughout the space. Complimentary pavers should be utilized to differentiate travel lanes and pedestrian walkways; painted lanes are prohibited. Heavy landscaping should be used to separate the beach from the Boulevard, with cut throughs randomly placed at its length every 5-9 m to allow for pedestrian access to the beach. Evenly spaced trees will separate the Boulevard from the developable land. Street furniture should be made widely available for the public along the Boulevard’s edges. Parkway The Parkway is the only public frontage that could be considered a complete street, because it is intended to be used for normal vehicular traffic. Raised curbs and evenly spaced trees along the curb line is mandatory. The Parkway must accomodate two lanes of traffic. Bike lanes should be differentiated from regular vehicular traffic. Lastly, the Parkway shall only be made available within T6 zones and provides entrances and exits out of parking gararges. Pedestrian Street The Village Street provides access for emergency vehicles into the narrow Alleys of the Cultural District, but is mainly for pedestrian circulation. Trees and other landscaping features are spread sporadically throughout the Street. Permeable pavers should be utilized to assist with water drainage. Street furniture can be placed along the sides of ROW, but is significantly less present compared to the Green Avenue.
  81. 81. 81 Shared Avenue Public Frontages A Green Aveue connects mutliple districts together and allows for vehicular traffic, but is created for mainly pedestrian activity. The Green Avenue can grow or shrink depending on the district, and must accomodate at least one Sharrow lane, for both vehicles and bicycles. The Avenue should have 1 to 2 rows of evenly spaced trees on either side of the Sharrow to separate the Pedestrian lanes. Additionally, complimentary pavers should differentiate pedestrian lanes from vehicular and bicycle lanes. Lastly, street furniture, such as benches, bicycle sheters and racks, trash receptacles, mail boxes, should have a significant presence throughout the space. Village Alley The Village Alley is created from public easements along lot lines in between buildings and is solely for the use of pedestrian use. Permeable pavers are recommended for water drainage. Trees and landscaping will not be provided by the municipality, but residents are permitted to utilize up to .5 m of the Alley for personal landscaping. Village Alleys may have Connected Vertical Buildings transversing the space at various points. When this occurs, public lighting should be provided underneath the elevated building.
  82. 82. 82 Arcade A colonnade supporting habitable space that overlaps the Sidewalk, while the Facade at Sidewalk level remains at or behind the Frontage Line. This type is convential for Retail use and is a typical frontage type for Xiamen, and the entire southern Chinese region. The Arcade shall be no more than 4 m wide and should overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of the ROW. The space underneath the Arcade and on the Sidewalk can support signage for shops both on the vertical plane of the building and on the roof of the colonnade, in addition stores can place tables and chairs for customers to use. Forecourt A Frontage wherein a portion of the Facade is close to the Frontage Line and the central portion is set back. While, the Forecourt created is suitable for vehicular drop-offs, it also provides a paved and landscaped space for the use of private residents. This type can be allocated with in conjunction with other Frontage types. Large trees within the Forecourt should overhang the Sidewalks and planters should be used to separate the Forecourt from the public street. Step Entry Shopfront & Awning A Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line with the building entrance. This type is conventional for Retail use. It has a significant glazing on the Sidewalk level and an awning that may overlap the Sidewalk up to .75 m. A Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Front- age Line with the building entrance. A small entrance at various points along the building Facade will provide a small step up to a door for building access. This type is usually used for Residential use and will be no more than 1 m inside the building. Lot Private Frontage ROW Public Frontage Lot Private Frontage ROW Public Frontage Section Plan Private Frontages
  83. 83. 83 Courtyard A Courtyard is enclosed by building Facades and provides paved or landscaped space for private resident use. The entrance of the Courtyard should be set back from public space by a min- imum of 1 m and should be further separated from the public realm by planters or trees. Lastly, the Courtyard may be en- closed on one side by a small fence that cannot exceed 2 meters in height and must be 90% transparent. Balcony A Frontage wherein a part of the living dwellings floor is extend- ed out past the ROW. Balconies can be included amongst all built stories, so long as the any and all stepbacks are honored. Balconies are not permitted to extend 2 meters past the ROW. Gallery a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage line with an attached cantilevered shed or a lightweight colonnad overlapping the Sidewalk. This type is conventional for Retail use. The Gallery shall be no less than 3 meters wide and should overlap the Sidewalk to within 1.5 meters of the Curb. Lot Private Frontage ROW Public Frontage Lot Private Frontage ROW Public Frontage Section Plan Private Frontages
  84. 84. 84 Building Typologies Berkeley Live-Work, Toronto, Canada Village Box Description Program A tall, thin, rectilinear structure with a relatively small building footprint. When grouped in a complex of similar forms, the historic fabric of traditional village scale is mimicked, while over- all density is increased. Mixed-Use, Residential, Office Knoll Form Program A habitable ecology, an artificial mound or hill serving both a programatic function in addition to operating as a foundation for a more complex urban fabric above. Public green space, parking garages Vankely, Xiamen, China Sliced Courtyard Block Form Program Larger scale mixed- use, retail and commerical oriented Linked Hybrid, Beijing, China Flex Box Form Program Mixed-Use, Retail, Residential, Office Form Description Typical contemporary scale rectilinear structure housing a mix of uses. Description A ‘sliced’ mid-rise perimeter-block form. When grouped within a series, multiple variations of open space can be articulated between public, semi-public, and private open space, both within and between individual group forms. Description T5 T5 T5 T6 T5 T6 VB Code Abbreviation: KL FB SC Lafayette 148, Shantou, China
  85. 85. 85 Building Typologies Zorlu Center, Istanbul, Turkey Topographic Podium Description Program A low to mid-rise podium form with an articulated habitable roof plane used as both an ecological element as well as a vertical extension of the public realm. Mid-level to high-rise towers are extruded vertically through this surface for various programmatic uses. Mixed-Use, Residential, Office, Open Space Fragmented Tower Form Program A high-rise form ‘fragmented’ by voids of varying heights and depths stepping or wrap- ping vertically around a tower, such as to create a series of shared spaces to be enjoyed by the occupants (such as rooftop gardens, pool areas, outdoor dining, etc.) throughout the entire vertical column. Mixed-Use, Retail, Office, Residential, Open Space Essence Financial, Shenzhen, China Sculpture Form Program Civic, Cultural, Entertainment Centers Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain Monument Form Program Mixed-Use, Retail and Office Oriented Prince Plaza, Shenzhen, China Form Description A dynamic, high-rise urban form typically used to anchor a district at the nexus of it’s social and economic activity. Iconic in nature, with a highly transparent/translucent skin, the building should operate as a ‘lantern’, an element of luminosity activating the nighttime skyline. Description A unique form of ‘high architectural character’ framed by it’s immediate context, to be viewed as a sculptural object, or work of art. The sculptural form should be reserved for works of civic architecture like, yet not limited to; museums, schools, amphitheaters, sports stadiums, etc. Description T5 T6 T5 T6 T6 T5 T6 TP FT MT SP
  86. 86. 86 Spatial Typologies Beijing Olympic Forest Park, Beijing, China Island Ecologies Description Program A series of man-made wetland islands that creates habitats for native species and acts as a barrier to the urban edge, while providing additional recreation space. Public Open Space Sunken Plazas Form Program Paved public space that is framed by high-rise towers or is depressed into the ground that acts as a gateway from the subterranean tunnel and public transit stations up into the surface or street level. Public Open Space Magok Central Plaza, Seoul, South Korea Rooftop Ecologies Form Program Private or Public Open Space Urban Garden, Los Angeles, California Image Description Open space directly accessible from a building interior. Description T5T2 T5 T6 T5 T6 Open Market Form Program Public Open Space Panjiayuan Market, Beijing, China A plaza type intended for street-commerce and social gathering space. Description T5T2
  87. 87. 87 Floating Bridges Circular Walkway, Shanghai, China Description Program Elevated pedestrian paths that can be used to create accessible open space between various buildings for private or public recreation and leisure purposes. Paths muust allow for some vegetation and cannot block all sunlight into lower levels; light wells may be utilized. Private or Public Open Space Image T5 T6 Spatial Typologies Ampitheater Form Program An outdoor space intended for performances and social gatherings with terraced seating and a central, usually sunken, stage area Public Open Space Magok Central Plaza, Seoul, South Korea Urban Park Form Program Public Open Space Buffalo Bayou Promenade, Houston, Texas Description A largely unbuilt public zone, framed by urban areas, which should link the overall site together as well as offer a variety of activities and ecological assets to the surrounding site context. Description T5 T6 T5T2 T6 Green Belt Courtyard Chengdu East Village CBED Plots, Chengdu East, China Description Program A fully-public, inclusive courtyard surrounded by high-rise, mixed-use buildings. Public Open Space Image T5 T6
  88. 88. 88 Appendix: Typology Lexicon, Definitions, References
  89. 89. 89 Precedent Library Linked Hybrid: Steven Holl Architects Beijing, China 2009 Inspired the Connective Vertical Element that the project wanted to incorporate as a means of increasing open space for building tenants and possibly other community mem- bers and visitors. Lafayette 148: Studio for Architecture Shantou, China 2010 Provides an example of the ‘Flex or Village Box’ typology that would be permitted throughout the site. Typically used for residential, it’s shape can chage to meet the code requirements within dedicated lot lines. Essence Financial: OMA Shenzhen, China 2014 This precedent depicts the fragmented tower imagined within the Bridge the Gap development project. To ensure plenty of open space, ‘missing levels’ of the building can be exposed to the elements and allow for landscaped and communal gathering spots. Prince Plaza: OMA Shekou, Shenzhen, China 2014 This precedent depicts a fragmented tower building typology. Guggenheim Museum: Gehry Partners, LLP Bilbao, Spain 1997 Provides an example of ‘sculptural architecture,’ which allows it to be unique amongst other buildings that surround it. This building type would be encouraged in the more dense areas of the site and act as a beacon for Xiamen’s proposed second city center. Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park: AECOM, Hargraves Associates, etc. London, England 2012 Depicts what the Urban Park would resem- ble. Magok Central Plaza: Wooridongin Architects Seoul, South Korea 2012 This plaza design helped influence the sunken plaza idea and how bridges would rise out of the plaza and connect to various paths throughout the site. Circular (Pedestrian) Walkway Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, China 2009 The circular walkway connects the Lujiazui metro station to a shopping mall that is located directly across a major intersection while offering views of Shanghai’s towers. Galaxy SOHO: Zaha Hadid Architects Beijing, China 2012 This precedent was utilized as a model for the projects sunken plazas, where retail was encouraged amongst various stories and provided a direct connection to a metro station. Mecidiyekoy Towers: Emre Arolat Architects Istanbul, Turkey Proposed in 2011 An image of a monumental building that is a requirement within the site and acts as a beacon for Xiamen’s second city center.
  90. 90. 90 Precedent Library Rising Currents: A New Urban Ground: DLand Studio and A.R.O. New York, New York, 2010 Inspired the ecological islands that create a new edge to the bay. Sanlitun SOHO: Kengo Kuma and Associates Chanyang District, Beijing, China 2010 Influenced design decisions for the Ecolog- ical Business Center to the north of the site. Panjiayuan Market Beijing, China An open air market that influenced the sunken plaza and open air market pagoda structures. Vankely: NL Architects Xiamen, China 2013 Influenced the shape of the Cultural Village and the inclusion of the Knoll building typol- ogy to ensure maximum amount of green space available to residents and visitors. Zorlu Center: Emre Arolat Architects Istanbul, Turkey 2008 Contributed to the design formation of topographic podiums and multiple levels of retail space.
  91. 91. 91 Bridge The Gap Definitions Accessory Building: an Outbuilding with an Accessory Unit. Affordable Housing: dwellings consisting of rental or for-sale units that have a rent (including utilities) or mortgage payment typically no more than 30% of the income of families earning no more than 80% of median incomes by family size for the country. (Alt. Definition: rental or for-sale dwellings that are economically within the starting salary of a local elementary school teacher.) Allee: a regularly spaced and aligned row of trees usually planted along a Throroughfare type. Apartment: a Residential unit sharing a building and a Lot with other units and/or uses; may be for rent or sale as a condominium. Arcade: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use wherein the Facade is a colonnade supporting habitable space that overlaps the Sidewalk, while the Facade at Sidewalk level remains at the Frontage Line. Bicycle Lane: a dedicated lane for cycling within a vehicular thoroughfare, demarcated by striping. Block: the aggregate of private Lots, Passages, Alleys, circmscribed by Thoroughfares. Ecological Boulevard: a Thoroughfare designed by no or minimal vehicular capacity and slow speed, traversing an Urbanized area by connecting and activating the site’s natural landscape. Civic: the term defining not-for-profit organizations dedicated to arts, culture, education, recreation, transit, and municipal parking. Civic Building: a building operated by not-for-profit organizations dedicated to arts, culture, education, government, transit, and municipal parking. Civic Space: an outdoor area dedicated for public use. Civic Space types are defined by their com- binations and constraints including the relationships among their intended use, their size, their land- scaping and their Enfronting buildings. Civic Zone: designation for public sites dedicated for Civic Buildings and Civic Space. Commercial: the term collectively defining workplace, Office, Retail, and Lodging Functions. Common Destination: An area of focused community activity, usually defining the approximate center of a Pedestrian Shed. It may include without limitation one or more of the following: a Civic Space, a Civic Building, a Commercial center, or a transit station, and may act as the social center of a neighborhood. Common Yard: a planted Private Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from the Frontage line. It is visually continuous with adjacent yards.
  92. 92. 92 Bridge The Gap Definitions Community Unit: a regulatory category defining the physical form, Density, and extent of a settlement. The three Community Unit types addressed in this Code are CLD, TND, and RCD. Variants of TND and RCD for Infill (Article 4) are called Infill TND and Infill RCD. The TOD Community Unit type may be created by an overlay on TND or RCD. Configuration: the form of a building, based on its massing, Private Frontage, and height. Connective Vertical Element: A bridge that affords additional habitable space, in the form of apartment units or communal gathering spaces, that connects to separate buildings and lots that are being developed by the same entity. Specific requirements for this element may be found in the District Provisions. Courtyard Building: a building that occupies the boundaries of its Lot while internally defining one or more private patios. Curb: the edge of the vehicular pavement that may be raised or flush to a Swale. It usually incorporates the drainage system. Density: the number of dwelling units within a standard measure of land area. Developable Areas: lands other than those in the O-1 Preserved Open Sector. Disposition: the placement of a building on its Lot. Drive: a Thoroughfare along the boundary between an Urbanized and a natural condition, usually along a waterfront, Park, or promontory. One side has the urban character of a Thoroughfare, with Sidewalk and building, while the other has the qualities of a Road or parkway, with naturalistic planting and rural details. Edgeyard Building: a building that occupies the center of its Lot with Setbacks on all sides. Elevation: an exterior wall of a building not along a Frontage Line. Encroach: to break the plane of a vertical or horizontal regulatory limit with a structural element, so that it extends into a Setback, into the Public Frontage, or above a height limit. Encroachment: any structural element that breaks the plane of a vertical or horizontal regulatory limit, extending into a Setback, into the Public Frontage, or above a height limit. Enfront: to place an element along a Frontage, as in “porches Enfront the street.” Extension Line: a line prescribed at a certain level of a building for the major part of the width of a Facade, regulating the maximum height for an Encroachment by an Arcade Frontage. Facade: the exterior wall of a building that is set along a Frontage Line.
  93. 93. 93 Bridge The Gap Definitions Forecourt: a Private Frontage wherein a portion of the Facade is close to the Frontage Line and the central portion is set back. Frontage: the area between a building Facade and the vehicular lanes, inclusive of its built and planted components. Frontage is divided into Private Frontage and Public Frontage. Frontage Line: a Lot line bordering a Public Frontage. Facades facing Frontage Lines define the public realm and are therefore more regulated than the Elevations facing other Lot Lines. Function: the use or uses accommodated by a building and its Lot, categorized as Restricted, Limited, or Open, according to the intensity of the use. Gallery: a Private Frontage conventional for Retail use wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line with an attached cantilevered shed or lightweight colonnade overlapping the Sidewalk. GIS (Geographic Information System): a computerized program in widespread municipal use that organizes data on maps.The protocol for preparing a Regional Plan should be based on GIS information. Green: a Civic Space type for unstructured recreation, spatially defined by landscaping rather than building Frontages. Green Avenue: a Thoroughfare of a low-vehicular capacity and low speed, acting as a short distance connector between urban centers, and usually equipped with landscaping details. Highway: a rural and suburban Thoroughfare of high vehicular speed and capacity. This type is allocated to the more rural Transect Zones (T-1, T-2, and T-3). Home Occupation: non-Retail Commercial enterprises. The work quarters should be invisible from the Frontage, located either within the house or in an Outbuilding. Permitted activities are defined by the Restricted Office category. House: an Edgeyard building type, usually a single-family dwelling on a large Lot, often shared with an Accessory Building in the back yard. Linear Pedestrian Shed: A Pedestrian Shed that is elongated along an important Mixed Use Corridor such as a main street. A Linear Pedestrian Shed extends approximately 1/4 mile from each side of the Corridor for the length of its Mixed Use portion. The resulting area is shaped like a lozenge. It may be used to structure a TND, RCD, Infill TND, or Infill RCD. Liner Building: a building specifically designed to mask a parking lot or a Parking Structure from a Frontage.
  94. 94. 94 Bridge The Gap Definitions Live-Work: a Mixed Use unit consisting of a Commercial and Residential Function.The Commercial Function may be anywhere in the unit. It is intended to be occupied by a business operator who lives in the same structure that contains the Commercial activity or industry. Lodging: premises available for daily and weekly renting of bedrooms. Lot: a parcel of land accommodating a building or buildings of unified design. The size of a Lot is controlled by its width in order to determine the grain (i.e., fine grain or coarse grain) of the urban fabric. Lot Line: the boundary that legally and geometrically demarcates a Lot. Lot Width: the length of the Principal Frontage Line of a Lot. Main Civic Space: the primary outdoor gathering place for a community.The Main Civic Space is often, but not always, associated with an important Civic Building. Meeting Hall: a building available for gatherings, including conferences, that accommodates at least one room equivalent to a minimum of 10 square feet per projected dwelling unit within the Pedestrian Shed in which it is located. Mixed Use: multiple Functions within the same building through superimposition or adjacency, or in multiple buildings by adjacency, or at a proximity determined by Warrant. Net Site Area: all developable land within a site including Thoroughfares but excluding land allocated as Civic Zones. Network Pedestrian Shed: a Pedestrian Shed adjusted for average walk times along Thoroughfares. This type may be used to structure Infill Community Plans. Office: premises available for the transaction of general business but excluding Retail, artisanal and Manufacturing uses. Open Space: land intended to remain undeveloped; it may be for Civic Space. Outbuilding: an Accessory Building, usually located toward the rear of the same Lot as a Principal Building, and sometimes connected to the Principal Building by a Backbuilding. Park: a Civic Space type that is a natural preserve available for unstructured recreation. Parking Structure: a building containing one or more Stories of parking above grade. Passage (PS): a pedestrian connector, open or roofed, that passes between buildings to provide shortcuts through long Blocks and connect rear parking areas to Frontages.

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