SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Radioactivity.pptx

R
R
Rachana ChoudharyAsst. Professor at Shri Shankaracharya Mahavidyalaya, Junwani Bhilai

radioactivity is the act of emitting radiation spontaneously. This is done by an atomic nucleus that, for some reason, is unstable; it "wants" to give up some energy in order to shift to a more stable configuration.

Radioactivity.pptx

1 of 25
Download to read offline
Dr. Rachana Chaudhary
Department of Microbiology
Shri Shankaracharya Mahavidyalaya Junwani Bhilai
Radioactivity
Synopsis
Introduction
History
Radioactive decay
Types of radioactivity
 Alpha
 Beta
 gamma
Radioactive isotopes
Measurement of Radioactivity
• Geiger Molar Counter
• Liquid Scintillation Counter
• Solid Scintillation Counter
Sources of radioactivity
Clinical application
Advantages of radioactivity
Reference
What is Radioactivity
Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable
atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the
form of particles or electromagnetic waves. There are
numerous types of radioactive decay. The general idea:
An unstable nucleus releases energy to become more
stable
Solid Sphere Model or
Billiard Ball Model
proposed by John Dalton
Plum Pudding Model or
Raisin Bun Model
proposed by J.J. Thomson
Planetary Model or
Nuclear Model
proposed by E. Rutherford
Bohr Model or
Orbit Model
proposed by Nails Bohr
Electron Cloud Model or
Quantum Mechanical Model
proposed by Louis de Broglie
& Erwin Schrodinger
HISTORY
…1808 …1897
…1909 …1913
…1924
Radioactive Decay
•A neutron is very unstable. A lone neutron will
spontaneously decay into a proton + an electron.
•If you have a lot of neutrons, within 11 minutes ½ of
them will have decayed
•Particles that decay are said to be radioactive
•A lone neutron is radioactive
Radioactive Decay

Recommended

Production of radio nuclides + Production of Short-Lived Radionuclide
Production of radio nuclides + Production of Short-Lived RadionuclideProduction of radio nuclides + Production of Short-Lived Radionuclide
Production of radio nuclides + Production of Short-Lived RadionuclideAhmad Hassan
 
Types of radioactive decay
Types of radioactive decayTypes of radioactive decay
Types of radioactive decayDavid Graff
 
Radioisotope production and application
Radioisotope production and applicationRadioisotope production and application
Radioisotope production and applicationmadhavmb
 
Radioactivity and laws of radioactivity
Radioactivity and laws of radioactivityRadioactivity and laws of radioactivity
Radioactivity and laws of radioactivitydypradio
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Gas filled detectors
Gas filled detectorsGas filled detectors
Gas filled detectorsAmara Usman
 
Radiation detection and measurement
Radiation detection and measurement Radiation detection and measurement
Radiation detection and measurement Shahid Younas
 
Basic dosimetric principle and dosimeters
Basic dosimetric principle and dosimetersBasic dosimetric principle and dosimeters
Basic dosimetric principle and dosimetersVinay Desai
 
challenges of small field dosimetry
challenges of small field dosimetrychallenges of small field dosimetry
challenges of small field dosimetryLayal Jambi
 
Nuclear medicine 2
Nuclear medicine 2Nuclear medicine 2
Nuclear medicine 2Rad Tech
 
Radiation dosimtery princicles
Radiation dosimtery princiclesRadiation dosimtery princicles
Radiation dosimtery princiclesSabari Kumar
 
Biological effects of radiation
Biological effects of radiationBiological effects of radiation
Biological effects of radiationSabari Kumar
 
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Interaction of  Radiation with  MatterInteraction of  Radiation with  Matter
Interaction of Radiation with MatterArnab Bose
 
Ionization chamber
Ionization chamberIonization chamber
Ionization chamberAnas Yess
 
MRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdf
MRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdfMRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdf
MRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdfKrishnaPrints
 
Therapeutic Application in Nuclear Medicine
Therapeutic Application in Nuclear MedicineTherapeutic Application in Nuclear Medicine
Therapeutic Application in Nuclear MedicineShatha M
 
Medical use of Radiation.ppt
Medical use of Radiation.pptMedical use of Radiation.ppt
Medical use of Radiation.pptmrmeredith
 
Applications of Isotopes in Medicine
Applications of Isotopes in MedicineApplications of Isotopes in Medicine
Applications of Isotopes in MedicinePradeep Singh Narwat
 
Principles of beam direction and use of simulators
Principles of beam direction and use of simulators Principles of beam direction and use of simulators
Principles of beam direction and use of simulators Anil Gupta
 

What's hot (20)

Linear Accelerator
Linear AcceleratorLinear Accelerator
Linear Accelerator
 
Gas filled detectors
Gas filled detectorsGas filled detectors
Gas filled detectors
 
Radioactive decay
Radioactive decayRadioactive decay
Radioactive decay
 
Radiation detection and measurement
Radiation detection and measurement Radiation detection and measurement
Radiation detection and measurement
 
Basic dosimetric principle and dosimeters
Basic dosimetric principle and dosimetersBasic dosimetric principle and dosimeters
Basic dosimetric principle and dosimeters
 
Radioactivity
RadioactivityRadioactivity
Radioactivity
 
challenges of small field dosimetry
challenges of small field dosimetrychallenges of small field dosimetry
challenges of small field dosimetry
 
Nuclear medicine 2
Nuclear medicine 2Nuclear medicine 2
Nuclear medicine 2
 
Radioactivity
RadioactivityRadioactivity
Radioactivity
 
Radiation dosimtery princicles
Radiation dosimtery princiclesRadiation dosimtery princicles
Radiation dosimtery princicles
 
Biological effects of radiation
Biological effects of radiationBiological effects of radiation
Biological effects of radiation
 
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Interaction of  Radiation with  MatterInteraction of  Radiation with  Matter
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
 
Radiotherapy Equipment
Radiotherapy EquipmentRadiotherapy Equipment
Radiotherapy Equipment
 
Ionization chamber
Ionization chamberIonization chamber
Ionization chamber
 
Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicineNuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine
 
MRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdf
MRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdfMRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdf
MRI CONTRAST AGENT.pdf
 
Therapeutic Application in Nuclear Medicine
Therapeutic Application in Nuclear MedicineTherapeutic Application in Nuclear Medicine
Therapeutic Application in Nuclear Medicine
 
Medical use of Radiation.ppt
Medical use of Radiation.pptMedical use of Radiation.ppt
Medical use of Radiation.ppt
 
Applications of Isotopes in Medicine
Applications of Isotopes in MedicineApplications of Isotopes in Medicine
Applications of Isotopes in Medicine
 
Principles of beam direction and use of simulators
Principles of beam direction and use of simulators Principles of beam direction and use of simulators
Principles of beam direction and use of simulators
 

Similar to Radioactivity.pptx

Radiation Interactions.pptx
Radiation Interactions.pptxRadiation Interactions.pptx
Radiation Interactions.pptxMunir Ahmad
 
Radiopharmaceuticals
RadiopharmaceuticalsRadiopharmaceuticals
RadiopharmaceuticalsHemantAlhat1
 
Radiopharmaceuticals
RadiopharmaceuticalsRadiopharmaceuticals
RadiopharmaceuticalsSONALI GADGE
 
Final raman spectroscopy
Final raman spectroscopyFinal raman spectroscopy
Final raman spectroscopyshekhar suman
 
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptx
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptxNATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptx
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptxiramaziz13
 
MI PPT 3.pptx
MI  PPT 3.pptxMI  PPT 3.pptx
MI PPT 3.pptxsugivasu
 
Chap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorption
Chap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorptionChap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorption
Chap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorptionKorea Cancer Center Hospital
 
Microwave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules
Microwave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic moleculesMicrowave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules
Microwave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic moleculesAreebaWarraich1
 
XRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptx
XRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptxXRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptx
XRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptxKhushiManiktala
 
Electromagnetism PPT.pdf
Electromagnetism PPT.pdfElectromagnetism PPT.pdf
Electromagnetism PPT.pdfAhsaasBlaggan
 
X-Ray Spectroscopy.pptx
X-Ray Spectroscopy.pptxX-Ray Spectroscopy.pptx
X-Ray Spectroscopy.pptxKarismaDash1
 
Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1
Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1
Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1jtbkm
 
PARTICLE RADIATION.pptx
PARTICLE RADIATION.pptxPARTICLE RADIATION.pptx
PARTICLE RADIATION.pptxDr Monica P
 

Similar to Radioactivity.pptx (20)

Radiography introduction
Radiography introductionRadiography introduction
Radiography introduction
 
Radiation Interactions.pptx
Radiation Interactions.pptxRadiation Interactions.pptx
Radiation Interactions.pptx
 
Radiopharmaceuticals
RadiopharmaceuticalsRadiopharmaceuticals
Radiopharmaceuticals
 
Radiopharmaceuticals
RadiopharmaceuticalsRadiopharmaceuticals
Radiopharmaceuticals
 
Em radiation x
Em radiation xEm radiation x
Em radiation x
 
Final raman spectroscopy
Final raman spectroscopyFinal raman spectroscopy
Final raman spectroscopy
 
Raman spectroscopy
 Raman spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy
 
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptx
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptxNATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptx
NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY.pptx
 
Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicineNuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine
 
MI PPT 3.pptx
MI  PPT 3.pptxMI  PPT 3.pptx
MI PPT 3.pptx
 
Strawberry model2new
Strawberry model2newStrawberry model2new
Strawberry model2new
 
Basics of Radiation
Basics of RadiationBasics of Radiation
Basics of Radiation
 
Chap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorption
Chap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorptionChap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorption
Chap1 physics and chemistry of radiation absorption
 
Microwave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules
Microwave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic moleculesMicrowave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules
Microwave and infrared spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules
 
XRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptx
XRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptxXRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptx
XRD(X RAY DIFFRACTION).pptx
 
Electromagnetism PPT.pdf
Electromagnetism PPT.pdfElectromagnetism PPT.pdf
Electromagnetism PPT.pdf
 
X-Ray Spectroscopy.pptx
X-Ray Spectroscopy.pptxX-Ray Spectroscopy.pptx
X-Ray Spectroscopy.pptx
 
Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1
Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1
Bikramjit radiation physics lecture1
 
PARTICLE RADIATION.pptx
PARTICLE RADIATION.pptxPARTICLE RADIATION.pptx
PARTICLE RADIATION.pptx
 
2.ir jntu pharmacy
2.ir jntu pharmacy2.ir jntu pharmacy
2.ir jntu pharmacy
 

More from Rachana Choudhary (20)

TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
TRANSCRIPTION IN EUKARYOTES
 
MUTATION.pptx
MUTATION.pptxMUTATION.pptx
MUTATION.pptx
 
DNA Vaccine.pptx
DNA Vaccine.pptxDNA Vaccine.pptx
DNA Vaccine.pptx
 
bioremediation.pptx
bioremediation.pptxbioremediation.pptx
bioremediation.pptx
 
hypersensitivity.pptx
hypersensitivity.pptxhypersensitivity.pptx
hypersensitivity.pptx
 
DIPTHERIA.ppt
DIPTHERIA.pptDIPTHERIA.ppt
DIPTHERIA.ppt
 
Clostridium.pptx
Clostridium.pptxClostridium.pptx
Clostridium.pptx
 
Transposons2.pptx
Transposons2.pptxTransposons2.pptx
Transposons2.pptx
 
Gene Regulation.pptx
Gene Regulation.pptxGene Regulation.pptx
Gene Regulation.pptx
 
GENETIC RECOMBINATION.pptx
GENETIC RECOMBINATION.pptxGENETIC RECOMBINATION.pptx
GENETIC RECOMBINATION.pptx
 
Molds and Mycotoxin.pptx
Molds and Mycotoxin.pptxMolds and Mycotoxin.pptx
Molds and Mycotoxin.pptx
 
History of Microbiology.pptx
History of Microbiology.pptxHistory of Microbiology.pptx
History of Microbiology.pptx
 
Mushroom Product.pptx
Mushroom Product.pptxMushroom Product.pptx
Mushroom Product.pptx
 
Role of Microorganism in Human Welfare.pptx
Role of Microorganism in Human Welfare.pptxRole of Microorganism in Human Welfare.pptx
Role of Microorganism in Human Welfare.pptx
 
Genetically Modified Organism.ppt
Genetically Modified Organism.pptGenetically Modified Organism.ppt
Genetically Modified Organism.ppt
 
Biofertilizer
BiofertilizerBiofertilizer
Biofertilizer
 
Rhizobium
RhizobiumRhizobium
Rhizobium
 
Biodegradation of hydrocarbon
Biodegradation of hydrocarbon Biodegradation of hydrocarbon
Biodegradation of hydrocarbon
 
Staining techniques
Staining techniquesStaining techniques
Staining techniques
 
Centrifugation
CentrifugationCentrifugation
Centrifugation
 

Recently uploaded

Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oil
Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oilHydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oil
Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oilZeeshan Nazir
 
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NinePlaneta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NineSérgio Sacani
 
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdfFINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdfThane Heins
 
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for websiteThornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for websitesuelcarter1
 
Grade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan third
Grade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan thirdGrade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan third
Grade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan thirdgmail227828
 
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisFrom Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisMarkus Roggen
 
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsxROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsxAnkitChoudhary955647
 
Introduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsIntroduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsAlaaOraby6
 
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its types
Study  of X  - Ray Spectra and its typesStudy  of X  - Ray Spectra and its types
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its typestanishashukla147
 
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptxQuality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptxDeviSky1
 
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesVolatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesAhmed Metwaly
 
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and ChargesPhysics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Chargesalinford
 
Construction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdf
Construction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdfConstruction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdf
Construction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdfLossian Barbosa Bacelar Miranda
 
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeGaia Science Pte Ltd
 
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...Advanced-Concepts-Team
 
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its typesPROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its typeseshasmalik27
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oil
Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oilHydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oil
Hydro-Thermal Liquefaction Of Lignocellulosic biomass to produce Bio-Crude oil
 
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NinePlaneta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
 
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdfFINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
FINAL Shehnaz and Thane Interview PowerPoint ;-).pdf
 
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for websiteThornyissue testing of slideshow for website
Thornyissue testing of slideshow for website
 
Grade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan third
Grade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan thirdGrade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan third
Grade 8, Quarter 3.pdf lesson plan third
 
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHESINTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
 
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of CannabisFrom Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
From Leaf to Lab: Uncovering the Molecular Mysteries of Cannabis
 
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsxROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
ROLES OF MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL BY ANKIT CHOUDHARY.ppsx
 
Introduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsIntroduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cells
 
ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...
ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...
ALL the evidence webinar: Appraising and using evidence about community conte...
 
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its types
Study  of X  - Ray Spectra and its typesStudy  of X  - Ray Spectra and its types
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its types
 
VEM 023- LESSON 1.pdf
VEM 023- LESSON 1.pdfVEM 023- LESSON 1.pdf
VEM 023- LESSON 1.pdf
 
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptxQuality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
Quality safety and legislations of cosmetics.pptx
 
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesVolatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
 
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and ChargesPhysics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
Physics Chapter Three - Electric Fields and Charges
 
Construction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdf
Construction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdfConstruction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdf
Construction of Magic Squares by Swapping Rows and Columns.pdf
 
Research methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional Wisdom
Research methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional WisdomResearch methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional Wisdom
Research methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional Wisdom
 
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in SingaporeELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
ELK ELISA Kits Manufacturer in Singapore
 
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
 
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its typesPROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
PROSTHETIC FEET description and its types
 

Radioactivity.pptx

  • 1. Dr. Rachana Chaudhary Department of Microbiology Shri Shankaracharya Mahavidyalaya Junwani Bhilai Radioactivity
  • 2. Synopsis Introduction History Radioactive decay Types of radioactivity  Alpha  Beta  gamma Radioactive isotopes Measurement of Radioactivity • Geiger Molar Counter • Liquid Scintillation Counter • Solid Scintillation Counter Sources of radioactivity Clinical application Advantages of radioactivity Reference
  • 3. What is Radioactivity Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. There are numerous types of radioactive decay. The general idea: An unstable nucleus releases energy to become more stable
  • 4. Solid Sphere Model or Billiard Ball Model proposed by John Dalton Plum Pudding Model or Raisin Bun Model proposed by J.J. Thomson Planetary Model or Nuclear Model proposed by E. Rutherford Bohr Model or Orbit Model proposed by Nails Bohr Electron Cloud Model or Quantum Mechanical Model proposed by Louis de Broglie & Erwin Schrodinger HISTORY …1808 …1897 …1909 …1913 …1924
  • 5. Radioactive Decay •A neutron is very unstable. A lone neutron will spontaneously decay into a proton + an electron. •If you have a lot of neutrons, within 11 minutes ½ of them will have decayed •Particles that decay are said to be radioactive •A lone neutron is radioactive
  • 7. All the elements heavier than Bismuth (At # 83)
  • 9. Alpha decay Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into a different atomic nucleus, with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
  • 10. Beta Decay Beta decay is a radioactive decay in which a beta ray is emitted from an atomic nucleus. During beta decay, the proton in the nucleus is transformed into a neutron and vice versa. If a proton is converted to a neutron, it is known as β+ decay.
  • 11. Gamma Decay What is Gamma Decay? Gamma decay is the emission of electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency i.e. very high energy, giving out excess energy in order to stabilize the unstable nucleus. You must be quite familiar with the various energy levels in an atom. The Nucleus has its own energy levels.
  • 12. Isotopes They are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
  • 13. Measurement of Radioactivity: •It is because radiation reacts with matter that we have means to detect it. •We have seen how all radiation cause ionization and excitation. Both this types of interaction with matter are utilized in measuring radioactivity. •There are total four type of counters which are as follow:
  • 14. 1.Geiger Molar counter method • German physicist Hans Geiger(1882-1945) developed the idea in 1912 while working with Ernest Rutherford. •Geiger counter is a device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation •Basically it consist of a pair of electrode surrounded by a gas . the electrode have a high voltage across them .the gas used is usually helium or argon
  • 17. Liquid Scintillation Counter: •In liquid or internal scintillation counting, the radioactive sample is suspended in a scintillation composed of the solvent and an appropriate scintillate. •Liquid scintillation counting is extremely useful for quantitating soft β-emitters.
  • 18. Solid Scintillation Counting • Solid scintillation counting is particularly useful for measurement of γ-emitting isotopes. • This is so, since the γ-rays are electromagnetic radiation and only rarely collide with neighboring atoms to cause ionization or excitation.
  • 19. Sources of Radioactivity •Primordial - from before the creation of the Earth •Cosmogony - formed as a result of cosmic ray interactions •Human produced - enhanced or formed due to human actions (minor amounts compared to natural)
  • 20. NMR(MRI) Clinical Application In NMR, EM radiation is used to "flip" the alignment of nuclear spins from the low energy spin aligned state to the higher energy spin opposed state. The energy required for this transition depends on the strength of the applied magnetic field (see below) but in is small and corresponds to the radio frequency range of the EM spectrum.
  • 21. Computed Tomography is based on the x-ray principal: as x-rays pass through the body they are absorbed or attenuated (weakened) at differing levels creating a matrix or profile of x-ray beams of different strength. This x-ray profile is registered on film, thus creating an image. In the case of CT, the film is replaced by a banana shaped detector which measures the x-ray profile. . Computed Tomography Imaging (CT Scan, CAT Scan)
  • 22. Uses of Isotopes in Biological Sciences •Distribution studies •Isotope dilution studies •Membrane transport studies •Metabolic studies
  • 23. Advantages of radioactivity • Reliable, doesn't depend of weather • Produces a small volume amount of waste • Power stations don't contribute to carbon emissions • Reduces amount of energy generated from fossil fuels • Less fuel offers more energy
  • 24. References oBiophysical Chemistry By Upadhay , Upadhay & Nath o Biochemistry By U. Satynarayana oInstrumentation By B.K Sharma oBiophysics By Chatwal