Economic Systems

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Economic Systems

  1. 1. Economic Systems By James Blake 4 th Period Mrs. Dennard Market Your Self
  2. 2. Capitalism <ul><li>Capitalism is a difficult, problematic term; it applies to a diversity of phenomenon spread across disparate historical cultures with substantially variable world views. However, the term is an Enlightenment European term used to describe European practices; so the term &quot;capitalism&quot; means more than just a body of social practices easily applied across geographical and historical distances, it is also a &quot;way of thinking,&quot; and as a way of thinking does not necessarily apply to earlier European origins of capitalism or to capitalism as practiced in other cultures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The earliest forms of capitalism—which we call &quot;mercantilism&quot;—originate in Rome, the Middle East, and the early Middle Ages. Mercantilism might be roughly defined as the distribution of goods in order to realize a profit. Goods are bought at one site for a certain price and moved to another site and sold at a higher price. As the Roman empire expanded, mercantilism correspondingly expanded. But the contraction of the Roman empire from the fifth century onwards also contracted mercantilism until, by the 700's </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communism <ul><li>Communism - Marxism & The Communist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>Communism, which is also described as &quot;Revolutionary Proletarian Socialism&quot; or &quot;Marxism,&quot; is both a political and economic philosophy. The abridgment of Communism is enclosed in two primary writings: (1) The Communist Manifesto , which was first published in 1848 by Karl Marx. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Socialism <ul><li>This conviction puts socialism in opposition to capitalism , which is based on private ownership of the means of production and allows individual choices in a free market to determine how goods and services are distributed. Socialists complain that capitalism necessarily leads to unfair and exploitative concentrations of wealth and power in the hands of the relative few who emerge victorious from free-market competition—people who then use their wealth and power to reinforce their dominance in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Because such people are rich, they may choose where and how to live, and their choices in turn limit the options of the poor. As a result, terms such as individual freedom and equality of opportunity may be meaningful for capitalists but can only ring hollow for working people, who must do the capitalists’ bidding if they are to survive. As socialists see it, true freedom and true equality require social control of the resources that provide the basis for prosperity in any society. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels made this point in Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) when they proclaimed that in a socialist society “the condition for the free development of each is the free development of all.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>social and economic doctrine that calls for public rather than private ownership or control of property and natural resources. According to the socialist view, individuals do not live or work in isolation but live in cooperation with one another. Furthermore, everything that people produce is in some sense a social product, and everyone who contributes to the production of a good is entitled to a share in it. Society as a whole, therefore, should own or at least control property for the benefit of all its members. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Market Economy <ul><li>An economic system in which economic decisions and the pricing of goods and services are guided solely by the aggregate interactions of a country's citizens and businesses and there is little government intervention or central planning. This is the opposite of a centrally planned economy, in which government decisions drive most aspects of a country's economic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Market economies work on the assumption that market forces, such as supply and demand, are the best determinants of what is right for a nation's well-being. These economies rarely engage in government interventions such as price fixing, license quotas and industry subsidizations. </li></ul><ul><li>While most developed nations today could be classified as having mixed economies, they are often said to have market economies because they allow market forces to drive most of their activities, typically engaging in government intervention only to the extent that it is needed to provide stability. Although the market economy is clearly the system of choice in today's global marketplace, there is significant debate regarding the amount of government intervention considered optimal for efficient economic operations. </li></ul>

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