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HISTORY OF INTERIOR
      DESIGN
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
             Elizabethan Style 1558­1603

                                    • Named after Queen
                                      Elizabeth of England last
                                      of the Tudor Monarchy
                                    • Nicknamed “Good Queen
                                      Bess”
       QuickTimeª and a
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                                      flirtatious and extravagant
                                    • Queen during Religious
                                      unrest between Catholics
                                      and Protestants
                                    • Shakespeare was writing
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                    Elizabethan Style 1558­1603

                                     •   Oak
                                     •   “Heavy”
           QuickTimeª and a          •   Elaborate carvings
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                                     •   Carved cornerpost beds
                                     •   Canopy Beds
                                     •   Velvet Drapery
                                     •   Bulbous table legs
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                      Jacobean 1603­1649

                                     • Under the rule of James I
                                       and later brother, Charles I
                                     • After the English
           QuickTimeª and a
                                       Monarchy ended with
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                                     • Puritans began to slightly
                                       influence design
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                  Jacobean 1603­1649

                                     •   Oak
                                     •   Simple
                                     •   Functional
                                     •    Chest of drawers designed
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                                     •   Writing table designed
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                                     •   Chairs with no arms for the
                                         large dresses
                                     •   Gate-leg table introduced
                                     •   Panel Beds
                                     •   X-crossed chairs
                                     •   Carpets being introduced
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
     Commonwealth or Cromwellian 1649­1660

                                     • 1642 Civil War broke
                                       between the ruling class
                                       and the Puritans, led by
                                       Oliver Cromwell
          QuickTimeª and a
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                                       “commonwealth” or
                                       Republic society in
                                       England until 1660
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
      Commonwealth or Cromwellian 1649­1660

                                  • Puritan extremely
                                    influential
                                  • Simplicity
                                  • Functionality over
        QuickTimeª and a
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                                  • Utility over comfort
                                  • Leather covered chairs
                                    instead of upholstered
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                 Restoration 1660­1689

                                     • Reestablishment of
                                       the throne in England
                                       with Charles II
                                     • Prior to this he and
          QuickTimeª and a
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                                       Commonwealth years
                                       in exile to France
                                     • Styles taken from
                                       French Baroque
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                       Restoration 1660­1689

                                     •   Walnut for carving
                                     •   Ornamental
                                     •   Caning in chair backs
           QuickTimeª and a
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                                     •   Japanese influence on
                                         veneering furniture
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                    William and Mary 1689­1694

                                     • King William III came
                                       from Holland and ruled in
                                       England with his wife
                                       Mary
          QuickTimeª and a
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                                     • Brought with him his
   are needed to see this picture.     Dutch craftsmen
                                     • Highly opposed King
                                       Louis XIV of France but
                                       stayed very competitive
                                       with him, even to the
                                       point of speaking French
                                       over Dutch or English
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
             William and Mary 1689­1694

                                    • Walnut
                                    • Veneers, and veneer inlay
                                    • Turned legs
                                    • High back lavishly
         QuickTimeª and a
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                                      upholstered chairs
                                    • Some caning of backs
                                      (influenced from Asia)
IN AMERICA AT THIS TIME:
                                      Early Colonial 



                                                 •   Log Cabin
           QuickTimeª and a
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                                                 •   Early Colonies settling
                                                 •   Styles influenced and
                                                     brought over by the
                                                     early settlers
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ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                  Queen Anne 1702­1714

                                     • Brought England to
                                       par with France and
                                       Italy with design
                                     • Baroque style of
          QuickTimeª and a             France influential and
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   are needed to see this picture.     then Asian simplicity
                                       at the very end of her
                                       reign
                                     • Middle class was
                                       growing in aesthetics
                                       and wealth
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                        Queen Anne 1702­1714
                                                              • Walnut some beech and in
                                                                the country-oak
                                                              • Claw and ball feet
                                    QuickTimeª and a          •
                            TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor Curved backs and rounded
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                                                                top rails
                                                              • Cabriole legs -curved
        QuickTimeª and a                                        outward because of no
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                                                              • Comfort of most importance
                                                              • First Winged Back chairs
                                                              • Gesso furniture- furniture
                                                                applied with sizing which
                                                                was white and could be
                                                                easily carved in to.
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                                     Three Georgian Styles 1714­1812

                                                                  • Influenced by Kings’
                                                                    George I. II, and III
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                                                                  • Early Georgian: Roman
                                                                    Architecture
                                                                  • Middle Georgian:
                                                                    Rococo Style
                                                                  • Late Georgian: Greek
                                                                    influence and
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                                                                    Chinoiserie
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                                            Early and Mid Georgian

                                                                          • Mahogany replaced
           QuickTimeª and a
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                                                                            walnut
                                                                          • Roman architectural
                                                                            elements like friezes,
                                                                            pediments, sphinxes,
                                                QuickTimeª and a
                                                                            symmetry
                                     TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                        are needed to see this picture.   • Later influenced by the
                                                                            “grotesque” or highly
                                                                            elaborate Rococo style of
                                                                            France
                                                                          • Chippendale famous
                                                                            furniture maker of the
                                                                            time
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                        Late Georgian

                                     • Travels to Rome and
                                       Greece with excavations
                                       of Pompeii
                                     • Neo Classical Style
           QuickTimeª and a
                                     • In France Louis XIV was
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                                       already dominating this
                                       style
                                     • Famous: Adams as the
                                       prominent furniture and
                                       interior designer
                                     • Light and straight lines,
                                       inlay, marquetry
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                      Other Georgian Style

                                     • Chinoiserie
                                     • This type of furnishing
                                       would typically be
                                       found in one single
           QuickTimeª and a
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                                       home (to look
                                       “cultured”) often the
                                       tea room or a lady’s
                                       dressing room
                                     • Faux Bamboo
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                  Regency 1812­1830

                                     • Prince Regent George
                                     • Tried to make actual
                                       replicas of ancient
          QuickTimeª and a
                                       Greek and Roman
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                                     • Egyptian influence too
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                     Regency 1812­1830

                                     • Beech
                                     • Faux finishes, faux
                                       marbling
                                     • Egyptian, Greek and
          QuickTimeª and a
                                       Roman influences:
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                                       Sphinxes, claw and ball
                                       feet
                                     • Chinese influences:
                                     • Pagodas, dragons, gold
                                       and black
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                Victorian 1837­1901

                                    • Luxury and Ease
                                    • Comfortablity
                                    • Middle Class rise as
                                      Industrial Revolution
        QuickTimeª and a
                                      Increases
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  are needed to see this picture.   • “Hide the ugly”
                                    • “Plush”
                                    • Combination of all early
                                      style influences
ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS:
                Victorian 1837­1901

                                    • Oak returns with beech
                                      wood
                                    • Famous Windsor chair
                                       – Saddle back seat and
                                         straight slatted spindles in a
        QuickTimeª and a                 curved form for back;
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  are needed to see this picture.        typically of beech wood
                                    • Late Victorian took on
                                      Asian influence of black
                                      straight and simple and
                                      also was decorated with
                                      painting instead of inlays
THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1851­1914
A return to naturalism & craftsmanship Victorian England
 – "Forget six counties overhung with smoke,  Forget the snorting steam and piston
   stroke,  Forget the spreading of the hideous town;  Think rather of the pack-horse
   on the down,  And dream of London, small, and white, and clean."

                                         The Earthly Paradise William Morris



The main figure associated with the Arts and
Crafts Movement is William Morris -designer,
writer and poet. A Victorian, also a Romantic,
he was a man idealizing the traditional life
        of England while all around him raged
the Industrial Revolution; a totally new
phenomenon, his being the first nation to
experience rapid industrialization.
Product design was driven by
                                     technology and was treated as
                                     a process of decorating the
                                     surface of the product, an
                                     afterthought rather than
          QuickTimeª and a           incorporating its essential
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                                     Morris and his contemporaries
                                     who rejected this use of
                                     unnecessary decoration, seeing
                                     instead the need for a new
                                     design to clearly express the
                                     function of the thing itself, and
                                     to emphasize the materials and
                                     quality of construction.
       A High Victorian              Decoration, when used, was to
       piece in the 1851             be in harmony with these
                                     principles.
       Great Exhibition
"If you want a golden rule..this is it: have nothing in your
           houses
           that you do not know to be useful or believe to be
           beautiful."
                                           William Morris saw the over-
                                           ornamentation of mass
          QuickTimeª and a                 produced goods that
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                                           “alienated” the workers from
                                           the products they made. In the
                                           factories, designs were drawn
                                           from pattern books and
                                           workers and designers had no
                                           individual control over the
                                           finished article, so quality
                                           suffered. The answer, Morris
                                           believed, lay in a return to the
            QuickTimeª and decompressor
       TIFF (Uncompressed) a picture.      crafts traditions of old England.
        are needed to see this             He wanted to return to the
                                           mediaeval tradition of the
                                           Guild, the association of
                                           craftsmen working together.
                                           He was most known for his
                                           wallpaper designs.
THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1851­1914
                       In America

                                                                     •   Gustav Stickley
                                                                     •   Craftsman style Furniture
           QuickTimeª and a
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                                                                     •   Prairie and Mission
                                                                         – Frank Lloyd Wright
                                                                         – Influenced by Spanish
                                                                           missions and Japanese Low
                                           QuickTimeª and a                overhanging eaves
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ART  NOUVEAU  1880’s  

            The importance of new decoration.

                                    Art Nouveau is French for new art.
                                    The art form began in the 1880s
                                    as a result of the Arts and Crafts
                                    Movement, which rejected the
                                    mass-produced techniques of
       QuickTimeª and a
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                                    industrialization. Art Nouveau
  are needed to see this picture.   developed a new style of
                                    exuberant curving lines,
                                    asymmetrical design and
                                    elements of fantasy.
Art Nouveau
                                     resurrected the lines
           QuickTimeª and a
                                     of Celtic art and the
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                                     fluid arches and
                                     curves of Gothic
                                     architecture
                                         in exuberant style,
                                     but the arts and
                                     artifacts of Japan were
                                     the crucial inspiration.
"Lean upon the staff of line - line determinative, line emphatic, line

           delicate, line expressive, line controlling and uniting."



                                       Originating in France as a
                                       decorative art movement in the
                                       1880s and evolving to different
                                       forms up to 1914, it is
                                       remembered mainly for its
            QuickTimeª and a             richly ornamental, and
                                       asymmetrical use of of whiplash
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                                       lines reminiscent of intertwining
                                       plants and organic forms. It
                                       reached its highpoint at the 1900
                                       trade fair, the Paris Exposition
                                       Universelle.
Henry van de Velde also called for the unification of art. He
         wished to see the re-evaluation of the role of craftsman
  and                designer; the recognition that we are able:
  "to impress beauty upon every aspect of our lives, that the artist
   should no longer simply paint pictures, but rather create whole
 rooms, or even whole dwellings, with wallpapers and furniture as

                                        well as paintings".




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Modernism 
                     1910­1930’s
Form follows function, and the aesthetic of the machine.
                            
                                               Le Corbusier (the Raven) 
                                               -French architect who created 
                                               "machines for living," they are 
                                               designed around the needs of 
                                               the people who occupy them 
              QuickTimeª and a
   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor            -felt that architecture should be 
                                               designed independent of nature 
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                                               so that it would not be tied to 
                                               any one environment. 
At the turn of the century,
                                        technology and new industrial
                                        processes were spreading; and in
                                        Europe designers were becoming
                                        agreeable to the possibilities of
                                        mass-produced well-designed
                                        products as artists, architects and
                                        industry increasingly worked
              QuickTimeª and a
   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor     together. The materials and
      are needed to see this picture.   processes of mass
                                        production being developed in the
                                        United States were seized upon
                                        and the concept of ‘Functionalism’
                                        was becoming an important
Le Corbusier Chaise Lounge                    influence.
In architecture,
                                     Functionalism meant the
                                     elimination of
                                        ornament so the
                                     building plainly
                                     expressed its purpose,
           QuickTimeª and a
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                                     principle led to the idea
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                                     of designing buildings
                                     from the inside
                                     outwards, letting the
                                     essential structure
                                     dictate the form and
                                     therefore its external
                                     appearance
ART  DECO
                                1920’s­30’s 

Organic form, space ships, cars & the rise of youth culture

                                        It is a term that covers a range of
                                        designs popular in the inter-war
                                        years. Art Deco sought to portray
                                        through design the essence of modern
                                        living. This could embrace the age of
                                        machines, technology, jazz, and other
            QuickTimeª and a            symbols of 20th century progress.
   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
      are needed to see this picture.    The years after the war, the 1920s,
                                        were a boom time of jobs, money
                                                   and consumerism and people
                                        bought goods that had ‘consumer
                                        appeal’.               They looked for
                                        goods that exhibited status, more
                                        than just            functionalism.
This new style took inspiration
                                    from modern art, traditional
                                    sculpture, and ancient Egypt.
                                    Tutankhamen’s tomb was
                                    unearthed in 1922,
                                      and its complete collection
                                    of treasures inspired popular
       QuickTimeª and a             taste in design. Ancient
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  are needed to see this picture.   Egyptian motifs appeared in
                                    designs everywhere.
                                        Coiled adders, chariots,
                                    porcelain goddesses, and
                                    other old Egyptian styles
                                    became part of Art Deco as a
                                    result.
A new profession
                                     emerged in the 1930s, as
                                     industrial
                                     designers applied art
           QuickTimeª and a
                                     deco styling to consumer
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   are needed to see this picture.   products, to
                                     attract Depression
                                     buyers. This new styling
                                     was alluring and
                                          looked expensive,
                                     but it could be mass-
                                     produced by machines
                                                at lower cost.
1950’s/60’s Mid ­Century Modern
              High technology is just around the corner;
                 youth, and the impact of consumerism.
                                     The United States didn’t suffer the
                                     economic devastation of the
                                     war as did the European countries, and
                                     by the 50's it had established itself as the
                                     world leader in economic and political
                                     power. America provided financial aid to
           QuickTimeª and a          rebuild the countries devastated
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   are needed to see this picture.   rapid economic growth. It had become
                                     the world's most advanced consumer
                                     culture, with consumers enjoying an
                                     enormous growth in spending power.
                                     One of the most enduring images of
                                     design for consumer luxury was in the
                                     appearance of 50's American cars which
                                     combined the hugesweeping forms of
                                     streamlined luxury with chrome detail
                                     and               space age tail fins.
"The situation now is the exact opposite of the past when
    design was only sold in a few deluxe shops. Clients do not
  exist any more. Instead there are consumers, and we have to
               think in terms of mass production."
                                     The Second World War had halted
                                     the development of product
                                     design, but manufacturing during
                                     the war years saw the rapid
                                     development of technology. New
                                     materials such as fiberglass,
           QuickTimeª and a          plastics like             nylon
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor     (invented by DuPont in 1939),
   are needed to see this picture.   polythene and polyester (1942),
                                     processed woods -especially
                                     plywood used in warplanes, and
                                     metal alloys. After the war,
                                     designers turned to bright colors
                                     to remove the drabness of
                                     wartime colors and shortages.
                                     Bright pinks, oranges, blues and
                                     yellows appeared on walls, carpets
                                     and furniture.
The Herman Miller
                                     Company was a leader in
                                     furniture manufacturing;
                                     pioneers in the
                                     development of
                                     innovative contemporary
          QuickTimeª and a
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                                     radical rethinking of
                                     function and materials.
                                     Their
                                     products embodied
                                     technical innovation.
                                     Miller produced works of
                                     Charles Eames.
The 50s saw the benefits of
                                     wartime technical
                                     innovation, and plywood
                                                became more
                                     versatile with the
                                     introduction of new
           QuickTimeª and a          synthetic glues. It could be
                                     bent and shaped into
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                                     dramatic sculptural
                                          forms. Charles Eames
                                     had used it for medical
                                     equipment, creating
                                           leg splints for the US
                                     Navy, and also for aircraft
                                     sections.                 He
                                     experimented with it
                                     together with Eero Saarinen
                                     to develop his famous series
                                     of plywood stacking chairs
POSTMODERNISM 1970’s ­present 
The aesthetic of ‘less is more’ was sounding more like ‘less is a

                                bore’.
                                         What had happened to
                                             personality and imagination
                                         among all this homogeneity?
                                         Modernist design had produced
                                         inner city buildings that all
                                         looked the same and were
                                         socially detrimental in their
       QuickTimeª and a                  uniformity. The development of
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  are needed to see this picture.        Postmodernism was part of a
                                         general shift in design away
                                         from a focus on problem
                                         solving and improvement,
                                                  towards a wider
                                         engagement with the world of
                                         imagination, with ideas,
                                         humour and visual excitement.
Design is no longer seen as a unity but as a sum of parts. We
concentrate              more on the elements that determine an

         object than on the                         object itself.’




                          QuickTimeª and a
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Naturalist 2000+

                                           Designing for comfort and
                                           ergonomics and sustainability
                                           became an increasing concern
                                                       for designers as
                                           environmental issues grow.
                                           Many designers are working
           QuickTimeª and a                towards LEED certified or
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor           GREEN building by creating
   are needed to see this picture.         products that are
                                       •   Non toxic textiles and materials
                                       •   Biodegradable materials
                                       •   Materials that are fair trade
                                       •   Recyclable materials
History of interior design

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History of interior design

  • 2. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Elizabethan Style 1558­1603 • Named after Queen Elizabeth of England last of the Tudor Monarchy • Nicknamed “Good Queen Bess” QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Never married, but flirtatious and extravagant • Queen during Religious unrest between Catholics and Protestants • Shakespeare was writing
  • 3. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Elizabethan Style 1558­1603 • Oak • “Heavy” QuickTimeª and a • Elaborate carvings TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Pewter tableware • Carved cornerpost beds • Canopy Beds • Velvet Drapery • Bulbous table legs
  • 4. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Jacobean 1603­1649 • Under the rule of James I and later brother, Charles I • After the English QuickTimeª and a Monarchy ended with TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Queen Elizabeth • Puritans began to slightly influence design
  • 5. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Jacobean 1603­1649 • Oak • Simple • Functional • Chest of drawers designed QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor • Writing table designed are needed to see this picture. • Chairs with no arms for the large dresses • Gate-leg table introduced • Panel Beds • X-crossed chairs • Carpets being introduced
  • 6. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Commonwealth or Cromwellian 1649­1660 • 1642 Civil War broke between the ruling class and the Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Cromwell led a “commonwealth” or Republic society in England until 1660
  • 7. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Commonwealth or Cromwellian 1649­1660 • Puritan extremely influential • Simplicity • Functionality over QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor ornamentation are needed to see this picture. • Utility over comfort • Leather covered chairs instead of upholstered
  • 8. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Restoration 1660­1689 • Reestablishment of the throne in England with Charles II • Prior to this he and QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor his court spent the are needed to see this picture. Commonwealth years in exile to France • Styles taken from French Baroque
  • 9. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Restoration 1660­1689 • Walnut for carving • Ornamental • Caning in chair backs QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Japanese influence on veneering furniture
  • 10. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: William and Mary 1689­1694 • King William III came from Holland and ruled in England with his wife Mary QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor • Brought with him his are needed to see this picture. Dutch craftsmen • Highly opposed King Louis XIV of France but stayed very competitive with him, even to the point of speaking French over Dutch or English
  • 11. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: William and Mary 1689­1694 • Walnut • Veneers, and veneer inlay • Turned legs • High back lavishly QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. upholstered chairs • Some caning of backs (influenced from Asia)
  • 12. IN AMERICA AT THIS TIME: Early Colonial  • Log Cabin QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Country Rustic • Early Colonies settling • Styles influenced and brought over by the early settlers QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 13. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Queen Anne 1702­1714 • Brought England to par with France and Italy with design • Baroque style of QuickTimeª and a France influential and TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. then Asian simplicity at the very end of her reign • Middle class was growing in aesthetics and wealth
  • 14. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Queen Anne 1702­1714 • Walnut some beech and in the country-oak • Claw and ball feet QuickTimeª and a • TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor Curved backs and rounded are needed to see this picture. top rails • Cabriole legs -curved QuickTimeª and a outward because of no TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. bottom chair stretcher • Comfort of most importance • First Winged Back chairs • Gesso furniture- furniture applied with sizing which was white and could be easily carved in to.
  • 15. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Three Georgian Styles 1714­1812 • Influenced by Kings’ George I. II, and III QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. • Early Georgian: Roman Architecture • Middle Georgian: Rococo Style • Late Georgian: Greek influence and QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Chinoiserie
  • 16. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Early and Mid Georgian • Mahogany replaced QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. walnut • Roman architectural elements like friezes, pediments, sphinxes, QuickTimeª and a symmetry TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Later influenced by the “grotesque” or highly elaborate Rococo style of France • Chippendale famous furniture maker of the time
  • 17. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Late Georgian • Travels to Rome and Greece with excavations of Pompeii • Neo Classical Style QuickTimeª and a • In France Louis XIV was TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. already dominating this style • Famous: Adams as the prominent furniture and interior designer • Light and straight lines, inlay, marquetry
  • 18. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Other Georgian Style • Chinoiserie • This type of furnishing would typically be found in one single QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor room of a upper class are needed to see this picture. home (to look “cultured”) often the tea room or a lady’s dressing room • Faux Bamboo
  • 19. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Regency 1812­1830 • Prince Regent George • Tried to make actual replicas of ancient QuickTimeª and a Greek and Roman TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. furnishings • Egyptian influence too
  • 20. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Regency 1812­1830 • Beech • Faux finishes, faux marbling • Egyptian, Greek and QuickTimeª and a Roman influences: TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sphinxes, claw and ball feet • Chinese influences: • Pagodas, dragons, gold and black
  • 21. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Victorian 1837­1901 • Luxury and Ease • Comfortablity • Middle Class rise as Industrial Revolution QuickTimeª and a Increases TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • “Hide the ugly” • “Plush” • Combination of all early style influences
  • 22. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Victorian 1837­1901 • Oak returns with beech wood • Famous Windsor chair – Saddle back seat and straight slatted spindles in a QuickTimeª and a curved form for back; TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. typically of beech wood • Late Victorian took on Asian influence of black straight and simple and also was decorated with painting instead of inlays
  • 23. THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1851­1914 A return to naturalism & craftsmanship Victorian England – "Forget six counties overhung with smoke,  Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke,  Forget the spreading of the hideous town;  Think rather of the pack-horse on the down,  And dream of London, small, and white, and clean." The Earthly Paradise William Morris The main figure associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement is William Morris -designer, writer and poet. A Victorian, also a Romantic, he was a man idealizing the traditional life of England while all around him raged the Industrial Revolution; a totally new phenomenon, his being the first nation to experience rapid industrialization.
  • 24. Product design was driven by technology and was treated as a process of decorating the surface of the product, an afterthought rather than QuickTimeª and a incorporating its essential TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor design. This was ghastly to are needed to see this picture. Morris and his contemporaries who rejected this use of unnecessary decoration, seeing instead the need for a new design to clearly express the function of the thing itself, and to emphasize the materials and quality of construction. A High Victorian Decoration, when used, was to piece in the 1851 be in harmony with these principles. Great Exhibition
  • 25. "If you want a golden rule..this is it: have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful." William Morris saw the over- ornamentation of mass QuickTimeª and a produced goods that TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. “alienated” the workers from the products they made. In the factories, designs were drawn from pattern books and workers and designers had no individual control over the finished article, so quality suffered. The answer, Morris believed, lay in a return to the QuickTimeª and decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) a picture. crafts traditions of old England. are needed to see this He wanted to return to the mediaeval tradition of the Guild, the association of craftsmen working together. He was most known for his wallpaper designs.
  • 26. THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1851­1914 In America • Gustav Stickley • Craftsman style Furniture QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Shaker • Prairie and Mission – Frank Lloyd Wright – Influenced by Spanish missions and Japanese Low QuickTimeª and a overhanging eaves TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 27.
  • 28. ART  NOUVEAU  1880’s   The importance of new decoration. Art Nouveau is French for new art. The art form began in the 1880s as a result of the Arts and Crafts Movement, which rejected the mass-produced techniques of QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor industrialization. Art Nouveau are needed to see this picture. developed a new style of exuberant curving lines, asymmetrical design and elements of fantasy.
  • 29. Art Nouveau resurrected the lines QuickTimeª and a of Celtic art and the TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. fluid arches and curves of Gothic architecture in exuberant style, but the arts and artifacts of Japan were the crucial inspiration.
  • 30. "Lean upon the staff of line - line determinative, line emphatic, line delicate, line expressive, line controlling and uniting." Originating in France as a decorative art movement in the 1880s and evolving to different forms up to 1914, it is remembered mainly for its QuickTimeª and a richly ornamental, and asymmetrical use of of whiplash TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. lines reminiscent of intertwining plants and organic forms. It reached its highpoint at the 1900 trade fair, the Paris Exposition Universelle.
  • 31. Henry van de Velde also called for the unification of art. He wished to see the re-evaluation of the role of craftsman and designer; the recognition that we are able: "to impress beauty upon every aspect of our lives, that the artist should no longer simply paint pictures, but rather create whole rooms, or even whole dwellings, with wallpapers and furniture as well as paintings". QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor QuickTimeª and a are needed to see this picture. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 32. Modernism  1910­1930’s Form follows function, and the aesthetic of the machine.   Le Corbusier (the Raven)  -French architect who created  "machines for living," they are  designed around the needs of  the people who occupy them  QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor -felt that architecture should be  designed independent of nature  are needed to see this picture. so that it would not be tied to  any one environment. 
  • 33. At the turn of the century, technology and new industrial processes were spreading; and in Europe designers were becoming agreeable to the possibilities of mass-produced well-designed products as artists, architects and industry increasingly worked QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor together. The materials and are needed to see this picture. processes of mass production being developed in the United States were seized upon and the concept of ‘Functionalism’ was becoming an important Le Corbusier Chaise Lounge influence.
  • 34. In architecture, Functionalism meant the elimination of ornament so the building plainly expressed its purpose, QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor and the principle led to the idea are needed to see this picture. of designing buildings from the inside outwards, letting the essential structure dictate the form and therefore its external appearance
  • 35. ART  DECO 1920’s­30’s  Organic form, space ships, cars & the rise of youth culture It is a term that covers a range of designs popular in the inter-war years. Art Deco sought to portray through design the essence of modern living. This could embrace the age of machines, technology, jazz, and other QuickTimeª and a symbols of 20th century progress. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The years after the war, the 1920s, were a boom time of jobs, money and consumerism and people bought goods that had ‘consumer appeal’. They looked for goods that exhibited status, more than just functionalism.
  • 36. This new style took inspiration from modern art, traditional sculpture, and ancient Egypt. Tutankhamen’s tomb was unearthed in 1922, and its complete collection of treasures inspired popular QuickTimeª and a taste in design. Ancient TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Egyptian motifs appeared in designs everywhere. Coiled adders, chariots, porcelain goddesses, and other old Egyptian styles became part of Art Deco as a result.
  • 37. A new profession emerged in the 1930s, as industrial designers applied art QuickTimeª and a deco styling to consumer TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. products, to attract Depression buyers. This new styling was alluring and looked expensive, but it could be mass- produced by machines at lower cost.
  • 38. 1950’s/60’s Mid ­Century Modern High technology is just around the corner; youth, and the impact of consumerism. The United States didn’t suffer the economic devastation of the war as did the European countries, and by the 50's it had established itself as the world leader in economic and political power. America provided financial aid to QuickTimeª and a rebuild the countries devastated TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor by war, and this rebuilding led to are needed to see this picture. rapid economic growth. It had become the world's most advanced consumer culture, with consumers enjoying an enormous growth in spending power. One of the most enduring images of design for consumer luxury was in the appearance of 50's American cars which combined the hugesweeping forms of streamlined luxury with chrome detail and space age tail fins.
  • 39. "The situation now is the exact opposite of the past when design was only sold in a few deluxe shops. Clients do not exist any more. Instead there are consumers, and we have to think in terms of mass production." The Second World War had halted the development of product design, but manufacturing during the war years saw the rapid development of technology. New materials such as fiberglass, QuickTimeª and a plastics like nylon TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor (invented by DuPont in 1939), are needed to see this picture. polythene and polyester (1942), processed woods -especially plywood used in warplanes, and metal alloys. After the war, designers turned to bright colors to remove the drabness of wartime colors and shortages. Bright pinks, oranges, blues and yellows appeared on walls, carpets and furniture.
  • 40. The Herman Miller Company was a leader in furniture manufacturing; pioneers in the development of innovative contemporary QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor design as a are needed to see this picture. radical rethinking of function and materials. Their products embodied technical innovation. Miller produced works of Charles Eames.
  • 41. The 50s saw the benefits of wartime technical innovation, and plywood became more versatile with the introduction of new QuickTimeª and a synthetic glues. It could be bent and shaped into TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. dramatic sculptural forms. Charles Eames had used it for medical equipment, creating leg splints for the US Navy, and also for aircraft sections. He experimented with it together with Eero Saarinen to develop his famous series of plywood stacking chairs
  • 42. POSTMODERNISM 1970’s ­present  The aesthetic of ‘less is more’ was sounding more like ‘less is a bore’. What had happened to personality and imagination among all this homogeneity? Modernist design had produced inner city buildings that all looked the same and were socially detrimental in their QuickTimeª and a uniformity. The development of TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Postmodernism was part of a general shift in design away from a focus on problem solving and improvement, towards a wider engagement with the world of imagination, with ideas, humour and visual excitement.
  • 43. Design is no longer seen as a unity but as a sum of parts. We concentrate more on the elements that determine an object than on the object itself.’ QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 44. Naturalist 2000+ Designing for comfort and ergonomics and sustainability became an increasing concern for designers as environmental issues grow. Many designers are working QuickTimeª and a towards LEED certified or TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor GREEN building by creating are needed to see this picture. products that are • Non toxic textiles and materials • Biodegradable materials • Materials that are fair trade • Recyclable materials

Editor's Notes

  1. Mahagony did not scratch or warp as easily, tight closed grain did not cause infestation and was long lasting