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History of interior design

History of Interior Design Powerpointe for High school design class

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History of interior design

  2. 2. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Elizabethan Style 1558­1603 • Named after Queen Elizabeth of England last of the Tudor Monarchy • Nicknamed “Good Queen Bess” QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Never married, but flirtatious and extravagant • Queen during Religious unrest between Catholics and Protestants • Shakespeare was writing
  3. 3. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Elizabethan Style 1558­1603 • Oak • “Heavy” QuickTimeª and a • Elaborate carvingsTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Pewter tableware • Carved cornerpost beds • Canopy Beds • Velvet Drapery • Bulbous table legs
  4. 4. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Jacobean 1603­1649 • Under the rule of James I and later brother, Charles I • After the English QuickTimeª and a Monarchy ended withTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Queen Elizabeth • Puritans began to slightly influence design
  5. 5. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Jacobean 1603­1649 • Oak • Simple • Functional • Chest of drawers designed QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor • Writing table designed are needed to see this picture. • Chairs with no arms for the large dresses • Gate-leg table introduced • Panel Beds • X-crossed chairs • Carpets being introduced
  6. 6. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Commonwealth or Cromwellian 1649­1660 • 1642 Civil War broke between the ruling class and the Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Cromwell led a “commonwealth” or Republic society in England until 1660
  7. 7. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Commonwealth or Cromwellian 1649­1660 • Puritan extremely influential • Simplicity • Functionality over QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor ornamentation are needed to see this picture. • Utility over comfort • Leather covered chairs instead of upholstered
  8. 8. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Restoration 1660­1689 • Reestablishment of the throne in England with Charles II • Prior to this he and QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor his court spent the are needed to see this picture. Commonwealth years in exile to France • Styles taken from French Baroque
  9. 9. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Restoration 1660­1689 • Walnut for carving • Ornamental • Caning in chair backs QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Japanese influence on veneering furniture
  10. 10. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: William and Mary 1689­1694 • King William III came from Holland and ruled in England with his wife Mary QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor • Brought with him his are needed to see this picture. Dutch craftsmen • Highly opposed King Louis XIV of France but stayed very competitive with him, even to the point of speaking French over Dutch or English
  11. 11. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: William and Mary 1689­1694 • Walnut • Veneers, and veneer inlay • Turned legs • High back lavishly QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. upholstered chairs • Some caning of backs (influenced from Asia)
  12. 12. IN AMERICA AT THIS TIME: Early Colonial  • Log Cabin QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Country Rustic • Early Colonies settling • Styles influenced and brought over by the early settlers QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  13. 13. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Queen Anne 1702­1714 • Brought England to par with France and Italy with design • Baroque style of QuickTimeª and a France influential andTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. then Asian simplicity at the very end of her reign • Middle class was growing in aesthetics and wealth
  14. 14. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Queen Anne 1702­1714 • Walnut some beech and in the country-oak • Claw and ball feet QuickTimeª and a • TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor Curved backs and rounded are needed to see this picture. top rails • Cabriole legs -curved QuickTimeª and a outward because of noTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. bottom chair stretcher • Comfort of most importance • First Winged Back chairs • Gesso furniture- furniture applied with sizing which was white and could be easily carved in to.
  15. 15. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Three Georgian Styles 1714­1812 • Influenced by Kings’ George I. II, and III QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. • Early Georgian: Roman Architecture • Middle Georgian: Rococo Style • Late Georgian: Greek influence and QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Chinoiserie
  16. 16. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Early and Mid Georgian • Mahogany replaced QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. walnut • Roman architectural elements like friezes, pediments, sphinxes, QuickTimeª and a symmetry TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Later influenced by the “grotesque” or highly elaborate Rococo style of France • Chippendale famous furniture maker of the time
  17. 17. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Late Georgian • Travels to Rome and Greece with excavations of Pompeii • Neo Classical Style QuickTimeª and a • In France Louis XIV wasTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. already dominating this style • Famous: Adams as the prominent furniture and interior designer • Light and straight lines, inlay, marquetry
  18. 18. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Other Georgian Style • Chinoiserie • This type of furnishing would typically be found in one single QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor room of a upper class are needed to see this picture. home (to look “cultured”) often the tea room or a lady’s dressing room • Faux Bamboo
  19. 19. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Regency 1812­1830 • Prince Regent George • Tried to make actual replicas of ancient QuickTimeª and a Greek and RomanTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. furnishings • Egyptian influence too
  20. 20. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Regency 1812­1830 • Beech • Faux finishes, faux marbling • Egyptian, Greek and QuickTimeª and a Roman influences:TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sphinxes, claw and ball feet • Chinese influences: • Pagodas, dragons, gold and black
  21. 21. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Victorian 1837­1901 • Luxury and Ease • Comfortablity • Middle Class rise as Industrial Revolution QuickTimeª and a IncreasesTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • “Hide the ugly” • “Plush” • Combination of all early style influences
  22. 22. ENGLISH PERIOD FURNISHINGS: Victorian 1837­1901 • Oak returns with beech wood • Famous Windsor chair – Saddle back seat and straight slatted spindles in a QuickTimeª and a curved form for back;TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. typically of beech wood • Late Victorian took on Asian influence of black straight and simple and also was decorated with painting instead of inlays
  23. 23. THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1851­1914A return to naturalism & craftsmanship Victorian England – "Forget six counties overhung with smoke,  Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke,  Forget the spreading of the hideous town;  Think rather of the pack-horse on the down,  And dream of London, small, and white, and clean." The Earthly Paradise William MorrisThe main figure associated with the Arts andCrafts Movement is William Morris -designer,writer and poet. A Victorian, also a Romantic,he was a man idealizing the traditional life of England while all around him ragedthe Industrial Revolution; a totally newphenomenon, his being the first nation toexperience rapid industrialization.
  24. 24. Product design was driven by technology and was treated as a process of decorating the surface of the product, an afterthought rather than QuickTimeª and a incorporating its essentialTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor design. This was ghastly to are needed to see this picture. Morris and his contemporaries who rejected this use of unnecessary decoration, seeing instead the need for a new design to clearly express the function of the thing itself, and to emphasize the materials and quality of construction. A High Victorian Decoration, when used, was to piece in the 1851 be in harmony with these principles. Great Exhibition
  25. 25. "If you want a golden rule..this is it: have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful." William Morris saw the over- ornamentation of mass QuickTimeª and a produced goods thatTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. “alienated” the workers from the products they made. In the factories, designs were drawn from pattern books and workers and designers had no individual control over the finished article, so quality suffered. The answer, Morris believed, lay in a return to the QuickTimeª and decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) a picture. crafts traditions of old England. are needed to see this He wanted to return to the mediaeval tradition of the Guild, the association of craftsmen working together. He was most known for his wallpaper designs.
  26. 26. THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1851­1914 In America • Gustav Stickley • Craftsman style Furniture QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Shaker • Prairie and Mission – Frank Lloyd Wright – Influenced by Spanish missions and Japanese Low QuickTimeª and a overhanging eaves TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  27. 27. ART  NOUVEAU  1880’s   The importance of new decoration. Art Nouveau is French for new art. The art form began in the 1880s as a result of the Arts and Crafts Movement, which rejected the mass-produced techniques of QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor industrialization. Art Nouveau are needed to see this picture. developed a new style of exuberant curving lines, asymmetrical design and elements of fantasy.
  28. 28. Art Nouveau resurrected the lines QuickTimeª and a of Celtic art and theTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. fluid arches and curves of Gothic architecture in exuberant style, but the arts and artifacts of Japan were the crucial inspiration.
  29. 29. "Lean upon the staff of line - line determinative, line emphatic, line delicate, line expressive, line controlling and uniting." Originating in France as a decorative art movement in the 1880s and evolving to different forms up to 1914, it is remembered mainly for its QuickTimeª and a richly ornamental, and asymmetrical use of of whiplash TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. lines reminiscent of intertwining plants and organic forms. It reached its highpoint at the 1900 trade fair, the Paris Exposition Universelle.
  30. 30. Henry van de Velde also called for the unification of art. He wished to see the re-evaluation of the role of craftsman and designer; the recognition that we are able: "to impress beauty upon every aspect of our lives, that the artist should no longer simply paint pictures, but rather create whole rooms, or even whole dwellings, with wallpapers and furniture as well as paintings". QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor QuickTimeª and a are needed to see this picture. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  31. 31. Modernism  1910­1930’sForm follows function, and the aesthetic of the machine.   Le Corbusier (the Raven)  -French architect who created  "machines for living," they are  designed around the needs of  the people who occupy them  QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor -felt that architecture should be  designed independent of nature  are needed to see this picture. so that it would not be tied to  any one environment. 
  32. 32. At the turn of the century, technology and new industrial processes were spreading; and in Europe designers were becoming agreeable to the possibilities of mass-produced well-designed products as artists, architects and industry increasingly worked QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor together. The materials and are needed to see this picture. processes of mass production being developed in the United States were seized upon and the concept of ‘Functionalism’ was becoming an importantLe Corbusier Chaise Lounge influence.
  33. 33. In architecture, Functionalism meant the elimination of ornament so the building plainly expressed its purpose, QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor and the principle led to the idea are needed to see this picture. of designing buildings from the inside outwards, letting the essential structure dictate the form and therefore its external appearance
  34. 34. ART  DECO 1920’s­30’s Organic form, space ships, cars & the rise of youth culture It is a term that covers a range of designs popular in the inter-war years. Art Deco sought to portray through design the essence of modern living. This could embrace the age of machines, technology, jazz, and other QuickTimeª and a symbols of 20th century progress. TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The years after the war, the 1920s, were a boom time of jobs, money and consumerism and people bought goods that had ‘consumer appeal’. They looked for goods that exhibited status, more than just functionalism.
  35. 35. This new style took inspiration from modern art, traditional sculpture, and ancient Egypt. Tutankhamen’s tomb was unearthed in 1922, and its complete collection of treasures inspired popular QuickTimeª and a taste in design. AncientTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Egyptian motifs appeared in designs everywhere. Coiled adders, chariots, porcelain goddesses, and other old Egyptian styles became part of Art Deco as a result.
  36. 36. A new profession emerged in the 1930s, as industrial designers applied art QuickTimeª and a deco styling to consumerTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. products, to attract Depression buyers. This new styling was alluring and looked expensive, but it could be mass- produced by machines at lower cost.
  37. 37. 1950’s/60’s Mid ­Century Modern High technology is just around the corner; youth, and the impact of consumerism. The United States didn’t suffer the economic devastation of the war as did the European countries, and by the 50s it had established itself as the world leader in economic and political power. America provided financial aid to QuickTimeª and a rebuild the countries devastatedTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor by war, and this rebuilding led to are needed to see this picture. rapid economic growth. It had become the worlds most advanced consumer culture, with consumers enjoying an enormous growth in spending power. One of the most enduring images of design for consumer luxury was in the appearance of 50s American cars which combined the hugesweeping forms of streamlined luxury with chrome detail and space age tail fins.
  38. 38. "The situation now is the exact opposite of the past when design was only sold in a few deluxe shops. Clients do not exist any more. Instead there are consumers, and we have to think in terms of mass production." The Second World War had halted the development of product design, but manufacturing during the war years saw the rapid development of technology. New materials such as fiberglass, QuickTimeª and a plastics like nylonTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor (invented by DuPont in 1939), are needed to see this picture. polythene and polyester (1942), processed woods -especially plywood used in warplanes, and metal alloys. After the war, designers turned to bright colors to remove the drabness of wartime colors and shortages. Bright pinks, oranges, blues and yellows appeared on walls, carpets and furniture.
  39. 39. The Herman Miller Company was a leader in furniture manufacturing; pioneers in the development of innovative contemporary QuickTimeª and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor design as a are needed to see this picture. radical rethinking of function and materials. Their products embodied technical innovation. Miller produced works of Charles Eames.
  40. 40. The 50s saw the benefits of wartime technical innovation, and plywood became more versatile with the introduction of new QuickTimeª and a synthetic glues. It could be bent and shaped intoTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. dramatic sculptural forms. Charles Eames had used it for medical equipment, creating leg splints for the US Navy, and also for aircraft sections. He experimented with it together with Eero Saarinen to develop his famous series of plywood stacking chairs
  41. 41. POSTMODERNISM 1970’s ­present The aesthetic of ‘less is more’ was sounding more like ‘less is a bore’. What had happened to personality and imagination among all this homogeneity? Modernist design had produced inner city buildings that all looked the same and were socially detrimental in their QuickTimeª and a uniformity. The development ofTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Postmodernism was part of a general shift in design away from a focus on problem solving and improvement, towards a wider engagement with the world of imagination, with ideas, humour and visual excitement.
  42. 42. Design is no longer seen as a unity but as a sum of parts. Weconcentrate more on the elements that determine an object than on the object itself.’ QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  43. 43. Naturalist 2000+ Designing for comfort and ergonomics and sustainability became an increasing concern for designers as environmental issues grow. Many designers are working QuickTimeª and a towards LEED certified orTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor GREEN building by creating are needed to see this picture. products that are • Non toxic textiles and materials • Biodegradable materials • Materials that are fair trade • Recyclable materials