Mastaba • The first pyramids are referred to as mastabas. These were Relatively low, rectangular, flat-roofed burial mounds for the pharaohs. They were made of mud brick or stone. Step Pyramid • In about 2780 B.C. the architect Imhotep stacked six progressively smaller mastabas one on top of the other for King Djoser. This, the first step pyramid, still stands at Sakkara, near Memphis. Bent Pyramid • During the reign of Snefru, founder of the Fourth Dynasty (2680-2560 B.C.), the sides of a step pyramid were filled in with stone and covered with lime. This was a necessary step in the evolution of the straight-sided pyramid, but there was an intermediary step -- the bent pyramid. Halfway up the pyramid, the angle was a steep approximately 51 degrees, but then for the top half, the incline was more gradual (only about 43 degrees). Pyramid • During the reign of Khufu, (Cheops) Snefru's son, the straight-sided Pyramid of Giza, angled at about 51 degrees, was built. 4
Doric and Iconic -doric first simple flute, slab top iconic -fluted, curled leaves at top and a frieze that went all around
Roman architecture came after or was influenced by Greek architecture. They are known for contributingt eh arch and the use of concrete and the colussium (greece had ampitheaters) The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. Construction was initiated by Emperor Vespasian and completed by his sons, Titus and Domitian, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot, or 40-metre, statue) of Nero which once stood nearby. The Colosseum is located at 41.53° N 12.293° E.The construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians believe that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand, presumably to allow the blood to drain away.The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals (see: Zoophilia: Roman games and circus) and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena) up until AD 81, and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that several hundreds of thousands died in the Colosseum games. Saint Ignatius of Antioch was martyred there. Tile-covered concrete quickly supplanted marble as the primary building material and more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes rather than dense lines of columns suspending flat architraves. The freedom of concrete also inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall.
Roman influence of arches but peaked stained glass rose windows symbols, ambiance Dripping sand castle, spires Vaults Flying Buttresses Gargoyles
Buddhist architecture was always symmetrical based on an axis and most temples had an underground palace
The Taj Mahal in Agra is indisputably the most famous example of Mughal architecture. Described by Rabindranath Tagore as &quot;a tear on the face of eternity&quot;, it is in popular imagination a veritable &quot;wonder of the world&quot;.The white-splendored tomb was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his favourite wife, Arjumand Banu Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal (&quot;Chosen of the Palace&quot;). She married Shah Jahan in 1612 to become his second wife and inseparable companion, and died in childbirth at Burhanpur while on a campaign with her husband in 1629. Shah Jahan was, it is said, inconsolable to the point of contemplating abdication in favour of his sons. The court went into mourning for over two years; and Shah Jahan decided to commemorate the memory of Mumtaz with a building the like of which had never been seen before.Detail of carving on wall of Taj MahalThe dead queen was brought to Agra and laid to rest in a garden on the banks of the Jamuna river. A council of the best architects was assembled to prepare designs for the tomb. Though some attribute the design to Geronimo Verroneo, an Italian in the Mughal service, evidence suggests that it was designed by Ustad Isa Khan Effendi, a Persian, who assigned the detailed work to his pupil Ustad Ahmad. The dome was designed by Ismail Khan.The tomb which is higher than a modern 20-storey building took 22 years to complete with a workforce of 20,000. Craftsmen from as far as Turkey came to join in the work. The marble was quarried at Makrana near Jodhpur in Rajasthan. Precious stones were imported from distant lands. A two mile ramp was built to lift material up to the level of the dome. It is alleged that on its completion, Shah Jahan ordered the right hand of the chief mason to be cut off so that the masterpiece could never be recreated. As one might expect, numerous other legends are associated with the Taj Mahal: thus, according to one story, Shah Jahan desired to have another Taj built across the river, this one entirely in black marble
PALACE OF VERSAILLES he Palace of Versailles was the official residence of the Kings of France from 1682 until 1790. It was originally a hunting lodge, built in 1624, by Louis XIII. It was expanded by Louis XIV beginning in 1669. He used it as a little lodge as a secret refuge for his amorous trysts with the lovely Louise de la Valliere and built a fairy tale park around it. Jules Hardouin Mansart, the king's principal architect, drew the plans to enlarge what was turning more and more into a palace from A Thousand and One Nights. The terrace that overlooked the gardens was removed to make way for the magnificent Hall of Mirrors, the Galarie de Glaces. It is here from which the king radiated his power and where the destiny of Europe was decided over a century. The French classical architecture was complemented by extensive gardens.
Batten door --the z shaped door z to keep the door square. Not always in a z shape.
A desire for architects to move away from the gaudy Baroque and return to classicism and purity of architecture
The Arts and Crafts Movement, with its call to return to the ideals of craftsmanship and the honest use of materials that characterized past eras, evolved as a reaction to the increasing industrialization of the Victorian era. Spanning the Victorian Age and extending into the World War II years, the architectural and decorative impulses of the Art and Crafts Movement were expressed in various forms around the world.The founder, and one of the main voices shaping this movement, was the Victorian Englishman, William Morris. A poet, writer, designer and socialist, Morris spent time studying at Oxford University, intending to become a clergyman. He soon discovered he was far more interested in the decorative arts.The American Arts and Crafts Movement is characterized by the Craftsman style in architecture. Craftsman houses were generally one and a half to two stories tall. They were environmentally sensitive structures that not only suited, but made good use of their surroundings – the materials that went into Craftsman houses were usually native.In both architecture and art, the American Arts and Crafts movement shows a nostalgia for the personal and private in design and use. Decoration and color are muted and made useful rather than eliminated. Quality and craftsmanship is emphasized, and each element is given weight as part of integrating the design into the complete environment.
History of architecture
The History of Architecture
Egyptian Architecture Mastabas 3000 BC Step Pyramids 2600 BC Straight Pyramids 2000 BC
Greek Architecture Temple to Athena at the Acropolis, The Parthenon 448-432 BCTemple to Nike420 BC
Roman Architecture The Coliseum 72AD The Pantheon
Medieval Gothic Notre Dame Cathedral, France 1145-1220 AD
Ancient Far East Most commoners lived in one room mud hutsForbidden City: Imperial Palace, Beijing 1200-1400 AD built/ rebuilt 1st Century AD stacked Pagoda
Early Southwest and South American Dwellings/StructuresAztec Burial Pyramid 1100 AD Mesa Verde, Colorado 1100 AD
BaroquePalace of Versailles, France Originally a hunting lodge, 1624 Louis XIV, rebuilt it in later 1600’s
American Architecture can fit into four main categories• Renaissance Revival -based on English, Italian, French and Dutch Architectural Methods of the 14th+ Century• Classical Revival -based on Greek and Roman Architecture• Medieval Revival -based on Dark Ages/Medieval Architecture• Modern -based on putting aside the past and looking toward the future
Renaissance Revival: (Colonial 1607-1830)1775—1783: American Revolutionary War. Despite winning their independence, the colonies continue to model their architecture on English forms for many years.1789: US Constitution Ratified. George Washington becomes 1st President.1801: Thomas Jefferson becomes President of the United States. Rise of Federal Era.
English Colonial Seventeenth-century settlers from England brought with them a rural English architecture that resembled late medieval forms. The familiar New England Saltbox and Cape Cod styles were common to this era.
Dutch Colonial Houses in the Dutch colonies incorporated steeply pitched gambrel roofs, batten doors and paired chimneys — details common to the architecture in their homeland.
French Colonial Elements of French Colonial architecture still exist in southern Louisiana and Mississippi. French Colonial homes featured tall, narrow doors and windows. The roofs were hipped or side gabled, and windows often had paired shutters.
Spanish Colonial One story, low-roofed dwellings characterized the homes and public buildings of Spains American colonies. These homes often had a number of external doors but few windows. Stucco and adobe walls and flat or red tile roofs gave these dwellings their distinctive appearance. This style continues to influence the architecture of the American Southwest
Georgian Georgian homes incorporated characteristics of the well-known English Colonial homes along with paneled doors with ornate crowns and support pilasters. Georgian homes were designed to be high- style formal dwellings. They were typically symmetricalSquare, symmetrical shape and evenly proportioned,Paneled front door at center with gabled or hipped roofsDecorative crown over front door and double-hung windowsFlattened columns with nine to twelve paneson each side of door for each sash.Five windows across frontPaired chimneysMedium pitched roof Mostly found in theMinimal roof overhang southern states.
Federalist/Adam Shortly after the adoption of the U.S. Constitution, the Federal, or Adam, style became widely popular throughout the newly unified country. Based on the designs of British architect Robert Adam, this style incorporates many features found in Georgian homes, such as cornices with tooth-like dentils orLow-pitched roof, or flat roof other decorative moldingWindows arranged symmetrically around a and double-hung windowscenter doorway with six panes in each sash.Semicircular fanlight over the front door Additionally, they oftenNarrow side windows flanking the front door incorporate an ellipticalDecorative crown or roof over front door fanlight over the front door,Tooth-like dentil moldings in the cornice with side lights andPalladian window•Circular or elliptical windows decorative crowns asShutters•Decorative swags and garlands ornamentationOval rooms and arches
Classical Revival (1780-1940)Significant Dates• 1800: Completion of first White House -Federal style heavily influenced by Georgian architecture.• 1803: Louisiana purchase. Americas territory expands past the Mississippi River. Westward immigration begins.• 1812 — 1815: War of 1812. The war marks a shift from Americas dependence on English trade and architectural forms.• 1814: British forces burn the first White House and much of Washington DC.• 1825: Erie Canal is completed, speeding the immigration of European settlers into the western territories.• 1861—1865: US Civil War. The war marks the end of the popularity of Federal architecture. Much of the historical architecture of the Southern states is destroyed during the war
Greek Revival America began to define its own emerging architectural independence from its European heritage. Greek Revival exteriors may include an entry porch supported by square or round columns, decorative pilasters, hipped or gabled roofs, transom windows and side lights surrounding the front door. These buildings often had flat roofs and colonnades inspired by thePedimented gable monuments of ancientSymmetrical shape Greece.Heavy corniceWide, plain friezeBold, simple moldingsEntry porch with columnsNarrow windows around front door
Neo-Classical Very similar to Greek Revival but may have more elaborate column work- Corinthian columns rather than Doric, always extending the full height of the house and with front gable pediment.
Medieval Revival 1837 – 1914Significant Dates• 1837: Queen Victoria I begins reign in United Kingdom.• 1848: European and American immigrants populate the newly opened territories, spreading American architectural forms into Texas, California, and the Midwest.• 1865: Transcontinental Railroad finished, speeding Americas industrialization and westward expansion.• 1890: Louis Sullivan designs the Wainwright Bldg. — considered by some the first skyscraper.• 1914—1918: World War I marks the decline of Victorian styles.
Gothic Revival Early Victorian houses drew inspiration mostly from Western Europe, usually reinterpreting medieval forms. Multi-colored and textured walls, steeply pitched roofs and asymmetrical facades are traditional features. Gothic Revival homes are most easily identified by the elaborate “gingerbread” trim below the gables, and the strong vertical emphasis of the windows and rooflinesSteeply pitched roofPointed windowsGrouped chimneysAsymmetrical floor planVerandaSpiresGabled roofsTowers
Italianate Italianate homes featured elaborate porch decoration, decorative eaves, symmetrical facades and arched windows which were often paired. Some Italianate homesLow-pitched hip or flat roof featured a central squareBalanced, symmetrical rectangular shape tower or cupola, andTall appearance, with 2, 3, or 4 stories most had flat or low-Wide, overhanging eaves with brackets/corbelsSquare cupola pitched hipped roofs.Tall, narrow, double-paned windows with hood moldingsSide bay windowHeavily molded double doorsRoman or segmented arches above windows and doors
Second Empire Inspired by the ornate cityscapes of Paris, Second Empire architecture incorporates rectangular or square floor plans, tall flatMansard roof facades capped byDormer windows project like eyebrows from roof Mansard roofs withBrackets beneath the eaves, balconies, and bay dormer windows, andCupola double entry doors.Patterned slate on roof Roofs are frequentlyWrought iron cresting above upper cornice patterned and bayClassical pediments windows are alsoPaired columns common.Tall windows on first storySmall entry porch
The Voigt House Victorian: Queen Anne Queen Anne homes frequently feature irregular floor plans, multiple steep roofs and porches with decorative gables. Dominant octagonal or circular towers, corbelled chimneys, and highlySteep roof decorative windows andComplicated, asymmetrical shapeOften front-facing gable entry doors with glassOne-story porch that extends across one panels.or two sides of the houseRound turrets or square towersWall surfaces textured with decorative shinglesOrnamental spindles and bracketsBay windows
Victorian: EastlakeHackley and Hume Homes in Muskegon This colorful Victorian home is a Queen Anne, but the lacy, ornamental details are called Eastlake or Stick. The ornamental style is named after the famous English designer, Charles Eastlake, who was famous for making furniture decorated with fancy spindles.
Victorian: Shingle Style A Victorian home covered in shingles. Typically found in New England coastal regions.AsymmetricalShinglesArchesOpen Porches
Richardson Romanesque Romanesque architecture features massive stone walls, large arched windows, porches, and entries, paired columns, extensive use of sculptural stonework, and grandly scaled interiors reminiscent of the great palaces of Europe. Often found in public buildings, rarely in homes.Constructed of rough-faced, square stonesRound towers with cone-shaped roofsColumns and pilasters with spirals and leaf designsLow, broad "Roman" arches over arcades and doorwaysPatterned masonry arches over windows
Tudor Revival The inclination away from standardization was nowhere better portrayed than in the ideals of the Tudor Revival. Exterior color schemes were typically of brown, white and black, sometimes combined with red brick. IncorporatingDecorative half-timbering exposed framing, thatch or shingle roofs, and rough-Steeply pitched roof hewn stonework, TudorProminent cross gables Revival homes were intentionally made toTall, narrow windows appear older than theySmall window panes actually were. In fact, the apparently primitiveMassive chimneys construction details of suchDecorative chimney pots houses were often purely decorative
Modern 1890 – 1940+Significant Dates• 1830: Inventions of Railroad and Steam Power. Arts & Crafts movement is a reaction against industrialization.• 1849: California Gold Rush prompts many to go west. Spanish Colonial architecture influences the rise of Mission style architecture.• 1865: End of Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction mark the rise of Arts and Crafts Movement in earnest.• 1901: Gustav Stickley begins publication of "The Craftsman". The first issue is dedicated to William Morris and the second to John Ruskin, leaders of the Arts & Crafts movement in Europe.• 1908: Sears Roebuck catalog introduces the mail order house: the average kit home has 30,000 pieces. Between 1908 and 1940, 100,000 homes are sold.• 1929 — 1939— The Great Depression: The comparatively affordable bungalow gains popularity over more elaborate styles.• 1935: Frank Lloyd Wright builds Fallingwater; modern architecture with elements drawn from the Arts & Crafts Movement.• 1941: Start of World War II marks the decline of Arts & Crafts movement.
Arts and Crafts: Craftsman /Bungalow Its greatest American proponent was Gustav Stickley, whose periodical "The Craftsman" gave theWood, stone, or stucco sidingLow-pitched side gabled roof style its name. CraftsmanWide eaves with triangular brackets houses were generally oneExposed roof rafters and a half to two storiesPorch with thick square or round columnsStone porch supports tall. They wereExterior chimney made with stone environmentally sensitiveOpen floor plans; few hallways structures that madeNumerous windows exceptional use of theirSome windows with stained or leaded glassBeamed ceilings surroundings.Dark wood wainscoting and moldingsBuilt-in cabinets, shelves, and seating
Meyer -May House Arts and Crafts: Prairie Another stylistic variation within the Arts and Crafts Movement is the Prairie style, popularized through the work of Frank Lloyd Wright. Often appearing to nestle into their surroundings, Prairie forms often are horizontal in emphasis with low pitched roofs and large over-hanging eaves.Low-pitched roof Although firmly grounded in the Arts and Crafts tradition, theirOverhanging eaves forward looking use ofHorizontal lines materials such as reinforcedCentral chimney concrete and dramaticOpen floor plan expanses of windows, have lead many to consider this theRows of small windows first Modern style.One-story projections
Arts and Crafts:Four-Square Prairie Symmetrical design with a “box” foundation, although porch may be off- centered. Most prominent characteristic of prairie would be the long overhanging eaves.
Mission As populations in California and Americas Southwest expanded, architecture throughout America was increasingly influenced by the remnants of Spanish colonial design. One resulting style was Mission, spanning not onlySmooth stucco siding architecture but furnitureRoof parapets design and other decorative arts. Mission architectureLarge square pillars showcases stucco walls withArcaded entry porch decorative parapets, red tile roofs, arched rooflinesRed tile roof above square piers, and open, widely overhanging eaves.
Art Nouveau 1890-1905 Known as the New Style, Art Nouveau was first expressed in fabrics and graphic design. The style spread to interior architecture and furniture in the 1890s. Art Nouveau buildings often have asymmetrical shapes, arches and decorative surfaces with curved, plant-like designs.
Art Deco 1925-1935 These were the buildings of the future: sleek, geometric, dramatic. With their cubic forms and zigzag designs, art deco buildings embraced the machine age and scientific planetary discovery.Stream-lineCurved wallsVertical juxtaposition against rectilinearGlass wallsHorizontal or zig zag banding
International Style 1930’s - Part of the Modern Movement. Architects working in the International style gave new emphasis to the expression of structure, the lightening of mass, and the enclosure of dramatic spaces. Form follows Function.Box- likeWhite-typicallyGlassOpen floor plan
Post WW 2 Homes early 1950’s- • Pos- war housing. • Cheap, product- based home. • Pre-manufactured elements • Tight fit neighborhoods • Limited decorative exterior and interior
Mid Century Modern Ranch Influenced by the Early Modern Movement. Homes are known for being one story with walk out. Open floor plans with wood interior and large south facing glass exteriors to patio. Large stone fireplaces typically two sided.
Earth Friendly Homes -1960’s- • Earth bermed/ earth sheltered /hay bail homes • Solar-Passive • Natural Materials that are native to the land • Directional placement • Wind powered
Current Trends in Architecture • “Mc Mansions” – Urban sprawl – Building for the extremes
• New Urbanism – Combating urban sprawl – Building communities through intentional architecture andNew Town of Kentlands, MD landscape
• Co-Housing – Intentional community – Shared work and resources – Environmentally conscious
• Sustainable and Green Architecture – Recycling of materials – Advantages of the systems of the earth – Combating global housing needs – LEED certification – Concern for environment – Concern for social and political issues