Art history


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Art History

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  • Art was either portable or stationary – small figurines or on rock – not for decoration in a home,
    As at this stage almost all people were hunter/gatherers and did not have a permanent home
  • Crouching bison
  • Bedolina Map , Italy
    4m x2m big 12’ wide
    A rose
  • Venus of willendorf
    11 cm high about 5 “ tall
  • Decorative tools
  • Queen Nefertiti
    Established cities and communities
    Established rulers
  • Carved in loving relationship
    The Queen was 5x drawn and carved more than her husband and one time in a Kingly pose
    It is believed that Nefertiti was active in the religious and cultural changes initiated by her husband (some even maintain that it was she who initiated the new religion). She also had the position as a priest, and she was a devoted worshipper of the god Aten. In the royal religion, the King and Queen were viewed as "a primeval first pair". It was they who worshipped the sun disk named Aten and it was only through them that this god was accessed. Indeed, the remainder of the population was expected to worship the royal family, as the rays of the sun fell and gave life to, it would seem, only the royal pair.
  • Great sphinx
    “The base of the Sphinx had been laid out in channels, and in the corner facing the Great Pyramid the story was inscribed as to how all these were begun and built, giving the history of the first invading ruler and the ascension of Araaraat. From the right forepaw, a passage was made to lead to the entrance of the Record Chamber, or Pyramid of Records. This was to remain undiscovered until man overcame his ego and reached true spiritual understanding, at the beginning of the fifth root race.”[4]
  • Pyramids of Giza 480 ft high
    Burial tombs
  • Dying lioness -the Assyrians -horrific warriors in scripture
    Of Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the Assyrians came from Ham (Gen.10:6-11), and thus were related to the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Canaanites. The Assyrians descended from the man named Asshur. After travelling north from Shinar, where there were four great cities founded by his ancestor, Nimrod "the mighty hunter before the Lord" (Gen.10:8-12), Asshur built, among other cities, Nineveh, the future capital of the Assyrian Empire. Assyria was a kingdom located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that dominated the ancient world from the ninth century to the seventh century B. C. Its capital was Nineveh
    Nahum tells us that the merchants of Assyria were more numerous than "the stars of heaven" (3:16). Among the goods in which Assyrians traded were high-quality apparel, especially blue-colored clothing, exquisite embroidery, and fine furniture, expertly made of cedar "bound with cords" (Ezek.27:23-24). In Nahum, we are told that "there is none end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture" (2:9). Except for Babylon, God's people were harmed more by Assyria than any nation, but Assyria did this damage not for any long-standing hatred, such as the Edomites or Moabites held against Israel. Assyria warred against Israel simply as another nation along the road to empire building.
    The Assyrian general, in the name of Sennacherib, mocked the God which Hezekiah was telling the people to trust (2Kgs.18:28-35; 2Chron.32:9-17; Isa.36:13-20). It was the Assyrian general's fatal mistake. "Then Rabshekah stood and cried with a loud voice in the Jew's language, and spake, saying, `Hear the word of the great king, the king of Assyria. Thus saith the king, "Let not Hezekiah deceive you, for he shall not be able to deliver you out of my hand. Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the Lord, saying, `The Lord will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria. . . .' Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered at all his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? . . . Who are they among all the gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of mine hand, that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of mine hand?"'"
    God had finished with His tool from Assyria. All the punishment which God had planned for His people had been accomplished. In response to an insulting letter from Sennacherib, God sent an insulting message (2Kgs.19:20-28; Isa.37:14-29), and one night which followed, 185,000 Assyrian soldiers fell dead in the Assyrian camp, for "the Lord sent an angel, which cut off all the mighty men of valor, and the leaders and captains in the camp of the king of Assyria" (2Kgs.19:35; 2Chron.32:21; Isa.37:36). The eventual collapse of the Assyrian empire was inevitable.
    though in its time of glory on earth it "caused terror in the land of the living" (Ezek.32:21-23).
  • Assyrian winged bull
    Hooks in lips,
    Skulls mounted
    Filleted people
  • Ishtar Gate reign of King Nebuchadnezzar
    The Ishtar Gate, one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon, was built during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (604- 562 BC). Only the foundations of the gate were found, going down some 45 feet, with molded, unglazed figures. The gateway has been reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, from the glazed bricks found, so its original height is different in size. Reconstructed height is 47 feet.
    Its reliefs of dragons and bulls symbolized the gods Marduk and Adad.
  • Winged Nike
  • Venus de milo
  • Women working wool on a Loom, 540 BC
  • Diskobolos Discus thrower Roman marble copy – of the GREEK ORIGINAL which was in bronze and can not be found
  • Head of Alexander the Great
  • Laocoon (Leyahcowan)   a Trojan priest killed with his sons by two sea serpents after warning the Trojans against the wooden horse
  • Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens to goddess Athena DORIC COLUMNS
    The Parthenon (Greek: Παρθενών) is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the maiden goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron deity. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power.
  • Athena battling Alkyoneos from the Altar if Zeus n Greek mythology, Gigantomachy (from Greek: gigantomakhia, from gigas Giant and makhē battle) was the symbolic struggle between the cosmic order of the Olympians led by Zeus and the nether forces of Chaos led by the giant Alcyoneus.[1]
  • Augustus (Latin: Imperator Caesar Divi F. Augustus,[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.[note 2]
    Public works during the Pax Romana: The peace and prosperity that Augusta brought 27 BC-70 AD allowed for public commissions including himself and Julius Caeser
  • Gave us Equestrian statues
  • Amphitheatre of Pompeii, Oldest surviving roman ruin
    he Amphitheatre of Pompeii is the oldest surviving Roman amphitheatre. It is located in the ancient Roman city of Pompeii, and was buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE, that also buried Pompeii itself and the neighboring town of Herculaneum.
  • Pont du Gard (Guard Bridge) 3 story aqueduct built in 1 Century in France by Romans
  • Coliseum built in 70 AD Concrete barrel Vaults
  • The Pantheon, rome - invented DOME an adjective understood as "[temple consecrated] to all gods") is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome, and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD.[2]
  • Interior of pantheon
  • The use of the done amd arch led the way for the great early catherdrals of the late Roman Christian Empire
  • The House of Paquius Proculus
    Excavated in 1911,
  • Entry way of their home with tiled mosaics
  • Tile Mosaic of Chained Dog, on floor of entryway of their home
  • Portrait of Paquius Proculus and his wife or possibly Terentius Neo and his wife
  • Still life with peaches
  • Giotto di Bondone (c. 1267 – January 8, 1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance.The 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari says of him "...He made a decisive break with the ...Byzantine style, and brought to life the great art of painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years."[1
  • Masaccio
  • Mantegna
  • Fra Angelico
  • Michelangelo Buonarrotti
  • Leonardo de Vinci
  • Botticelli
  • Jan Van Eyck
  • Vermeer
  • Bellini
  • Albrecht durer
  • Titian
    The Rape of Eurpopa
  • Brueghel
    People left to themselves in revelry
  • Velasquez
  • Palace of Versailles France
  • Rembrandt
  • Caravaggio – Paul at Damascus
  • Caravaggio
  • El Greco from Spain (The Greek)
  • Judith by Artemisia Gentileschi's
  • Rubens
    The Rape of the Daughters of Luecippus 1618
  • Vanitas paintings – Pieter Clausz 15oo’s
    Ecclesiastes Meaningless everything vanity
  • Sir Joshua Reynolds
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres 1845
  • Francesco Goya
  • Eugene Delacroix
  • Watson
  • Casper David Freiderich
  • John Constable
  • William Turner
  • Jean Baptist Corot
  • Jean Francois Millet
  • Gustave Courbet
  • William homer
  • Edouard Manet
  • Camille Pissarp
  • Berthe Morisot
  • Pierre Auguste Renoir
  • Claude Monet
  • Mary Cassatt- American
  • Georges Seurat
  • Paul Cezanne
  • Henri Toulousse Lautrec
  • Vincent Van Gogh brother Theo
  • Paul Gauguin
  • Amedeo Modigliani
  • Pablo Picasso Guernica
  • Georges Braque
  • Marcel Duchamp Nude descending stairs
  • Edvard Munch
  • Henri Rousseau
  • Diego Rivera
  • Frida Kahlo
  • Kathe Kollowitz
  • Henri Matisse
  • Franz Marc
  • Wassilly Kandinsky
  • Marc Chagall
  • Salvador Dali
  • Paul Klee
  • Joan Miro
  • Renee Magritte
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Thomas Hart Benton
  • James Whistler-American
  • Grant Wood
  • Edward hopper
  • Andrew Wyeth
  • Georgia O’keefe
  • Richard Diebenkorn
  • Ben ShahnBEN SHAHN 
American, born Lithuania, 1898-1969)
ouache on composition board
1 x 42”
llocation from the United States Government (Farm Security Administration) L1943.2.139Ben Shahn, American photographer, painter, and lithographer, immigrated to New York in 1906. He began his artistic training at the age of fifteen, when he began an apprenticeship at Hassenberg’s Lithography Shop in Manhattan; he attended high school in the evenings. In 1916 Shahn took drawing classes at the Art Students League, and after studying Biology at New York University and the City College of New York, he enrolled at the National Academy of Design to pursue a career as an artist. Shahn traveled extensively during the 1920s, visiting Europe—where he studied the works of Henri Matisse, Paul Klee, and others—and more adventurous locations such as North Africa. Upon his return to New York, he met photographer Walker Evans, with whom he shared a studio, and he explored a number of media, including watercolor. By 1932 he was considered a social realist, and during the 1930s and 1940s he was employed by both the Works Progress Administration’s Federal Art Project and the Farm Security Administration. 

ike the W.P.A. (see Odd Fellows Hall by O. Louis Guglielmi), the Historical Section of the Farm Security Administration (F.S.A.) was a government-sponsored program. Charged with the purpose of recording and publicizing the government’s farm programs, the F.S.A., which commenced in 1935 under the direction of Roy Stryker, aimed “to introduce Americans to America.” Staff photographers, who included Arthur Rothstein, Marion Post-Wolcott, and Shahn, were sent to rural and small-town America to capture vernacular and commonplace images. Farmers, undoubtedly inspired by the F.S.A. photographs, embodies the plight of the American farmer during the Depression-ridden America. Shahn’s use of somber color and shadow intensify this grave scene, in which three farmers contemplate the severity of their situation. The expression of the man in the foreground, who closes his eyes as if in prayer, is especially foreboding.
  • Jacob Lawrence
    Born in Atlantic City, New Jersey in 1917, Jacob Lawrence emerged as one of America's leading figurative artists and the first to document the history of African Americans through widely-viewed and influential artworks. Lawrence and his family moved to Harlem in 1924, where he experienced the vibrancy of black intellectual, cultural, and artistic life in what was seen as the Harlem Renaissance. He became well known at the young age of 21 for his "Toussant L'Ouverture Series" (1937), a 41-painting collection that depicts the successful Haitian slave rebellion. At the age of 24, he became the first African American whose work was included in the permanent collection of the New York Museum of Modern Art.
  • William De Kooning
  • Jackson Pollock
  • Robert Motherwell
  • Mark Rothko
  • Cy Twombly
    Cy Twombly (born April 25, 1928) is an American abstract artist.[edit]BiographyTwombly was born in Lexington, Virginia. From 1947 to 1949 he studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, and at the Art Students League in New York from 1950 to 1951. There, he met Robert Rauschenberg who encouraged him to attend Black Mountain College, near Asheville, North Carolina, where he met John Cage. In 1951 and 1952, he studied there under Franz Kline, Robert Motherwell, and Ben Shahn.The Kootz Gallery, New York, organized his first solo exhibition in 1951. At this time, his work was influenced by Kline's black-and-white gestural expressionism, as well as Paul Klee's imagery. In 1952, Twombly received a grant from the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts that enabled him to travel to North Africa, Spain, Italy, and France.Upon his return in 1953, Twombly served in the army as a cryptologist, and this left a distinct mark on his style. From 1955 to 1959, he worked in New York, where he became a prominent figure among a group of artists including Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. In 1959, Twombly went to Italy and settled permanently in Rome. It was during this period that he began to create his first abstract sculptures, which, although varied in shape and material, were always coated with white paint. In Italy, he began to work on a larger scale and distanced himself from his former expressionist imagery.Twombly is best known for blurring the line between drawing and painting. Many of his paintings are reminiscent of a school blackboard someone has practiced cursive "e's" on, or hundreds of years of bathroom graffiti on a wall. Twombly had at this point done away with painting a representational subject matter, citing the line or smudge, each mark with its own history, as its own subject. Later, many of his paintings and works on paper move into "romantic symbolism", as titles can be visually interpreted through shapes and forms and words. Twombly often quoted the poet Stephane Mallarme, as well as countless myths and allegories in his works. Examples of this are his famous work Apollo And The Artist, or a series of eight drawings consisting solely of the word "VIRGIL".Twombly was invited to exhibit his work at the Venice Biennale in 1964. In 1968, the Milwaukee Art Center mounted the first retrospective of his art. The artist has also been honored by retrospectives at the Kunsthaus Zürich in 1987, the Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, in 1988, and the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1994, with additional venues in Houston, Texas, Los Angeles, and Berlin. The Cy Twombly Gallery of the Menil Collection in Houston, which was designed by Renzo Piano and opened in 1995, houses more than thirty of Twombly's paintings, sculptures, and works on paper, dating from 1953 to 1994. A large collection of Twombly's work is also kept by the Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich. In 2007, an exhibition of Twombly's last paintings "Blooming, a scattering of Blossoms and other Things", and other works on paper from gallerist Yvon Lambert's collection is visible (june to september) in Avignon (France) at the Lambert Foundation [[1]] (Hôtel de Caumont) .A recent (1998-1999) Twombly work, Three Studies from the Temeraire, a triptych, was purchased by the Art Gallery of New South Wales for $4.5 million AUD in 2004.On July 19, 2007, police arrested an artist after she kissed one of Twombly's works, an immaculate canvas, and smudged it with her lipstick. She is to be tried in a court in Avignon on August 16 for "damage to a work of art." The artwork, which is worth an estimated $2 million, was on display at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Avignon.[1]Twombly lives in Lexington and Italy.Twombly's father, also named Cy, pitched for the Chicago White Sox.
  • Robert Raushenberg
  • Jasper Johns
  • Roy Lichtenstein
  • Andy Warhol
  • Ellsworth Kelly
  • Frank Stella
  • Chuck Close
  • Richard Estes
  • orlan
  • Jeanne Claude and CHRISTO
  • Krysztof Wodiczko
  • Henry Darger 15,000 typed pages
  • Graffiti art -BANKSY
  • Matthew Ritchie
  • Art history

    1. 1. ART HISTORY Art in the Western World
    2. 2. Prehistoric Art 10,000 BC -3000 BC Art as Communication Natural Materials Art to Depict Rituals Art to Depict the Hunt Contour Line Use of Masking
    3. 3. Egyptian and Babylonian Art 3000 BC- 1085 BC Hierarchy Family Lineage The Great Pyramids Wall Reliefs
    4. 4. "And the Heiress, Great in the Palace, Fair of Face, Adorned with the Double Plumes, Mistress of Happiness, Endowed with Favors, at hearing whose voice the King rejoices, the Chief Wife of the King, his beloved, the Lady of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, May she live for Ever and Always"
    5. 5. The Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate reads: Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, the faithful prince appointed by the will of Marduk, the highest of princely princes, beloved of Nabu, of prudent counsel, who has learned to embrace wisdom, who fathomed their divine being and reveres their majesty, the untiring governor, who always takes to heart the care of the cult of Esagila and Ezida and is constantly concerned with the well-being of Babylon and Borsippa, the wise, the humble, the caretaker of Esagila and Ezida, the firstborn son of Nabopolassar, the King of Babylon. Both gate entrances of Imgur-Ellil and Nemetti-Ellil following the filling of the street from Babylon had become increasingly lower. Therefore, I pulled down these gates and laid their foundations at the water table with asphalt and bricks and had them made of bricks with blue stone on which wonderful bulls and dragons were depicted. I covered their roofs by laying majestic cedars length-wise over them. I hung doors of cedar adorned with bronze at all the gate openings. I placed wild bulls and ferocious dragons in the gateways and thus adorned them with luxurious splendor so that people might gaze on them in wonder I let the temple of Esiskursiskur (the highest festival house of Markduk, the Lord of the Gods a place of joy and celebration for the major and minor gods) be built firm like a mountain in the precinct of Babylon of asphalt and fired bricks.
    6. 6. Greek Art 800BC-50BC Glorified Body Emphasis on Human Achievement Sculpture of Perfect Greek gods Black-Figure Vases Mosaics Use of Columns -Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
    7. 7. Roman Art 700BC- 500AD Reinforced Concrete The Arch The Dome Portraits more “honest” Equestrian Statues
    8. 8. Byzantine to Gothic 50 AD-1400’s Rise of the Early Church Frescoes Diptychs and Triptychs Emphasis on Biblical Narrative Use of Hierarchy in Art Flying Buttresses in Architecture Rose-Colored Window
    9. 9. Renaissance 1400’s-1600’s
    10. 10. Baroque 1500’s-1700’s
    11. 11. NEOCLASSICISM 1700’s
    12. 12. Romanticism 1800’s
    13. 13. Realism 1800’s
    14. 14. Impressionism Late 1800’s
    15. 15. Early Modern Early 1900’s
    16. 16. Post-Impressionism
    17. 17. Cubism
    18. 18. Expressionism
    19. 19. Fauvism
    20. 20. Surrealism
    21. 21. 20th Century American Art Late 1800’s to early 1900’s
    22. 22. Abstract
    23. 23. Social Realism
    24. 24. Man on a Scaffold
    25. 25. Abstract Expressionism 1950’s -present
    26. 26. Pop Art 1950-60’s
    27. 27. Color Field Painting 1950-70’s
    28. 28. Photo Realism 1970-80’s
    29. 29. The Happenings 1970’s to Performance Art 1990’s to Flash Mob present
    30. 30. The way things go
    31. 31. Installation Art
    32. 32. Interactive Art
    33. 33. Intuitive or Outsider Art
    34. 34. Graffiti Art
    35. 35.