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THIS SEMINAR IS PREPARED BY ME GUYS.....RABI KUMAR ,9938080267,CVRCE,BHUBANESWAR,MECHANICAL ENGG

Thermal power plant

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A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON
“THERMAL POWER PLANT”
In partial fulfilment of requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Mechanical Engineering
SUBMITTED BY:
RABINDRA KUMAR GUIN
Regn No: 1521227074
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
C.V.RAMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
BHUBANESWAR
YEAR 2017-18
[VII SEMESTER]
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that seminar talk on “THERMAL POWER PLANT” has been
Presented by Rabindra kumar Guin {1521227074} in partial fulfilment of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering of C.V.RAMAN OF
ENGINEERING during the academic year 2017-2018.
Date: 5-9-2017
Place – Bhubaneswar
Seminar coordinater:-Sunita routray
THERMAL POWER PLANT
(SYNOPSIS)
A complex structure of machinery equipment for generating electric energy from
another source of energy is called as power plant. Thermal power plant is a power
station where steam is the working fluid and the cycle by which the thermal power
plant works is known as rankine cycle.
NAME - RABINDRA KUMAR GUIN
REG.NO-1521227074
1
CONTENTS: - Page No.
• ABSTRACTS 2
• INTRODUCTION 2
• MAJOR EQUIPMENTS USED 3
• RANKINE CYCLE 9
• WORKING PRINCIPLE 10
• ADV AND DISADVANTAGES 11
• CONCLUSION 12
• REFERENCES 12
2
1.ABSTRACTS:-
The major machinery equipments required for therml power plant are
pump,boiler,turbine and condenser.According to data source CEA
2011,almost 94000mw of electricity is generated by the coal based
thermal power plant .A coal based thermal power plant converts the
chemical energy of the coal into electrical energy.this is achieved by
producing steam inside the boiler and expanding it through the
turbine.By coupling the turbine with the generator it converts
mechanical energy into electrical energy. VINDHYACHALis the
biggest thermal power plant in india which is situated at Madhya
Pradesh, produces 4800mw of electricity.
2.INTRODUCTION:-
In a coal based power plant coalis transported from coal minesto the
power plant by railway in wagons or in a merry-go-round system. Coal
is unloaded from the wagons to amoving underground conveyor belt.
This coal from the mines is of no uniform size. So it is taken the Crush-
er house and crushed to a size of 20mm. From the crusher house the
coal is either stored in dead storage( generally 40 days coalsupply)
which serves as coal supply in case of coal supply bottleneck or to the
live storage(8 hours coal supply) in the raw coal bunker in the boiler
house. Raw coal from the raw coal bunker is supplied to the Coal
Mills by a Raw Coal Feeder. The Coal Mills or pulverizer pulverizes
the coal to 200 mesh size. The powdered coalfrom the coal mills is
pulverized coal air mixture is burnt in the boiler in the combustion
zone.
3
3.MAJOR EQUIPMENTS USED:-
1.1 BOILER
A Boiler or steam generator essentially is a container into which
water can be fed and steam can be taken out at desired pressure,
temperature and flow. This calls for application of heat on the
container. Forthat the boiler should have a facility to burn a fuel
and release the heat.The functions of a boiler thus can be stated as:-
-To convert chemical energy of the fuel into heat energy
-To transfer this heat energy to water for evaporation as well to
steam for superheating.
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Thermal power plant

  • 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON “THERMAL POWER PLANT” In partial fulfilment of requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology In Mechanical Engineering SUBMITTED BY: RABINDRA KUMAR GUIN Regn No: 1521227074 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING C.V.RAMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BHUBANESWAR YEAR 2017-18 [VII SEMESTER]
  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that seminar talk on “THERMAL POWER PLANT” has been Presented by Rabindra kumar Guin {1521227074} in partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering of C.V.RAMAN OF ENGINEERING during the academic year 2017-2018. Date: 5-9-2017 Place – Bhubaneswar Seminar coordinater:-Sunita routray
  • 3. THERMAL POWER PLANT (SYNOPSIS) A complex structure of machinery equipment for generating electric energy from another source of energy is called as power plant. Thermal power plant is a power station where steam is the working fluid and the cycle by which the thermal power plant works is known as rankine cycle. NAME - RABINDRA KUMAR GUIN REG.NO-1521227074
  • 4. 1 CONTENTS: - Page No. • ABSTRACTS 2 • INTRODUCTION 2 • MAJOR EQUIPMENTS USED 3 • RANKINE CYCLE 9 • WORKING PRINCIPLE 10 • ADV AND DISADVANTAGES 11 • CONCLUSION 12 • REFERENCES 12
  • 5. 2 1.ABSTRACTS:- The major machinery equipments required for therml power plant are pump,boiler,turbine and condenser.According to data source CEA 2011,almost 94000mw of electricity is generated by the coal based thermal power plant .A coal based thermal power plant converts the chemical energy of the coal into electrical energy.this is achieved by producing steam inside the boiler and expanding it through the turbine.By coupling the turbine with the generator it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. VINDHYACHALis the biggest thermal power plant in india which is situated at Madhya Pradesh, produces 4800mw of electricity. 2.INTRODUCTION:- In a coal based power plant coalis transported from coal minesto the power plant by railway in wagons or in a merry-go-round system. Coal is unloaded from the wagons to amoving underground conveyor belt. This coal from the mines is of no uniform size. So it is taken the Crush- er house and crushed to a size of 20mm. From the crusher house the coal is either stored in dead storage( generally 40 days coalsupply) which serves as coal supply in case of coal supply bottleneck or to the live storage(8 hours coal supply) in the raw coal bunker in the boiler house. Raw coal from the raw coal bunker is supplied to the Coal Mills by a Raw Coal Feeder. The Coal Mills or pulverizer pulverizes the coal to 200 mesh size. The powdered coalfrom the coal mills is pulverized coal air mixture is burnt in the boiler in the combustion zone.
  • 6. 3 3.MAJOR EQUIPMENTS USED:- 1.1 BOILER A Boiler or steam generator essentially is a container into which water can be fed and steam can be taken out at desired pressure, temperature and flow. This calls for application of heat on the container. Forthat the boiler should have a facility to burn a fuel and release the heat.The functions of a boiler thus can be stated as:- -To convert chemical energy of the fuel into heat energy -To transfer this heat energy to water for evaporation as well to steam for superheating.
  • 7. 4 1.2 ECONOMISER It is located below the LPSH in the boiler and above pre heater. It is there to improve the efficiency of boiler by extracting heat from flue gases to heat water and send it to boiler drum. Advantages of Economiser include ----Fuel economy: – used to save fuel and increase overall efficiency of boiler plant. ---- Reducing size of boiler: – as the feed water is preheated In the economiser and enter boiler tube at elevated temperature. ----The heat transfer area required for evaporation reduced considerably.
  • 8. 5 1.3 AIR PREHEATER The heat carried out with the flue gases coming out of economiser are further utilized for preheating the air before supplying to the combus- tion chamber. It is a necessary equipment for supply of hot air for drying the coal in pulverized fuel systems to facilitate grinding and satisfactory combustion of fuel in the furnace . 1.4 REHEATER Power plant furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. Exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine is rerouted to go inside the reheater tubes to pickup more energy to go drive intermediate or lower pressure turbines.
  • 9. 6 1.5 STEAM TURBINE Steam turbines have been used predominantly as prime mover in all thermal power stations. The steam turbines are mainly divided into two groups: - ---Impulse turbine ---Impulse-reaction turbine The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected each other and a generator on a common shaft.There is a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, and the generator. The steam at high temperature (536 ‘c to 540 ‘c)and pressure (140 to 170 kg/cm2) is expanded in the turbine. 1.6 CONDENSER The condenser condenses the steam from the exhaust of the turbine into liquid to allow it to be pumped. If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases. The functions of a condenser are:- 1) To provide lowest economic heat rejection temperature for steam. 2) To convert exhaust steam to water for reserve thus saving on feed water requirement. 3) To introduce make up water.
  • 10. 7 1.7 BOILER FEED PUMP Boiler feed pump is a multi stage pump provided for pumping feed water to economiser. BFP is the biggest auxiliary equipment after Boiler and Turbine. It consumes about 4 to 5% of total electricity generation.
  • 11. 8 1.8 COOLING TOWER The cooling tower is a semi-enclosed device for evaporative cooling of water by contact with air. The hot water coming out from the condenseris fed to the tower on the top and allowed to tickle in form of thin sheets or drops. The air flows from bottomof the tower or perpendicular to the direction of water flow and then exhausts to the atmosphere after effective cooling. 1.9 GENERATOR Generator or Alternator is the electrical end of a turbo-generator set. It is generally known as the piece of equipment that converts the mechanical energy of turbine into electricity. The generation ofelectricity is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
  • 12. 9 4.RANKINE CYCLE :- The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work while undergoing phase change. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid.
  • 13. 10 5.WORKING PRINCIPLE :- The Rankine cycle operates in the following steps: 1- Isobaric Heat Transfer. High pressure liquid enters the boiler from the feed pump (1) and is heated to the saturation temperature (2). Further addition of energy causes evaporation of the liquid until it is fully converted to saturated steam (3). 2-- Isentropic Expansion. The vapor is expanded in the turbine, thus producing work which may be converted to electricity. In practice, the expansion is limited by the temperature of the cooling medium and by the erosion of the turbine blades by liquid entrainment in the vapor stream as the process moves further into the two-phase region. Exit vapor qualities should be greater than 90%. 3-- Isobaric Heat Rejection. The vapor-liquid mixture leaving the Turbine (4) is condensed at low pressure, usually in a surface condenser using cooling water. In well designed and maintained condensers, the pressure of the vapor is well below atmospheric pressure, approaching the saturation pressure of the operating fluid at the cooling water temperature. 4-- Isentropic Compression. The pressureof the condensate is raised in the feed pump. Because of the low specific volume of liquids, the pump work is relatively small and often neglected in thermod- ynamic calculations.
  • 14. 11 6.ADVANTAGES:-  They can respond to rapidly changing loads without difficulty  A portion of the steam generated can be used as a process steam in different industries.  Steam engines and turbines can work under 25 % of overload continuously  Fuel used is cheaper  Cheaper in production cost in comparison with that of diesel power stations 7.DISADVANTAGES:-  Maintenance and operating costs are high  Long time required for erection and putting into action  A large quantity of water is required  Great difficulty experienced in coal handling  Presence of troubles due to smoke and heat in the plant  Unavailability of good quality coal  Maximum of heat energy lost  Problem of ash removing
  • 15. 12 8.CONCLUSION:- To improve the efficiency of thermal power plant it is of vital importance that the temperature of the stream or gas used to rotate the turbine is raised.Tosiba group is working on the development of the ultra high temperature materials and cooling technologies in order to commercialize an AUSC system(Advanced ultra super critical steam turbine system) more efficient than previous model which is designed to increase steam temperature. At present, thermal power plant generation accounts for approximately 70% of the total amount of electricity produced around the world. However thermal power generation ,which usesfossil fuels, causes more carbon dioxide emissions than other power generation methods. In order to reduced the carbon dioxide emissions per unit power produced, Toshiba group is developing next generation thermal power technologies aimed at improving plant efficiency and commercializing the carbon dioxide capture and storage system. 9.REFERENCE:-  WWW.GOOGLE.COM  WWW.SLIDESHARE.COM
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