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geology field trip


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it is a field trip to Gali &bekhma in kurdistan\ iraq

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geology field trip

  1. 1. Soran University Faculty of Engineering Petroleum Department “geology Field Trip” By: Supervisor: Kardo Muhammed Dr. Sherzad Balen Muhammed Jegr Abbas Ramyar Babakrd
  2. 2. Introduction: What is faulting in geology? A fault is a crack in the Earth's crust. Typically, faults are associated with, or form, the boundaries between Earth's tectonic plates. In an active fault, the pieces of the Earth's crust along a fault move over time. The moving rocks can cause earthquakes. There are three different types of faults: 1. Normal faults form when the hanging wall drops down. The forces that create normal faults are pulling the sides apart, or extensional. 2. Reverse faults form when the hanging wall moves up. The forces creating reverse faults are compressional, pushing the sides together. 3. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down.
  3. 3. What is folding in geology? Folding: Is a type of earth movement resulting from the horizontal compression of rock layers by internal forces of the earth along plate boundaries. Anticlines and synclines are the up and down folds that usually occur together and are caused by compressional stress. Anticlines are folds in which each half of the fold dips away from the crest. Synclines are folds in which each half of the fold dips toward the trough of the fold. Monocline Fold is a somewhat exceptional type, which can hardly be regarded as a modified form of the anticline. A monoclonal flexure is a single, sharp bend connecting strata, which lie at different levels and are often horizontal except along the line of flexure. Weathering balance is a naturally occurring geological formation featuring a large rock or boulder, sometimes of substantial size, resting on other rocks, bedrock, or on glacial till. Some formations known by this name only appear to be balancing, but are in fact firmly connected to a base rock by a pedestal or stem.
  4. 4. Stops We had a trip to Gali and Bexma and we have some stops that we saw some amazing faults, folds, fracture and bitumen Stop 1: In stop1 we saw the “Weathering balance” that shownin Picture(1) it happens becauseof the riveraround it and make it the amazing shape. Picture (1) Stop 2: In stop 2 we saw some anticlineand syncline That shows in Pictures below: Picture (2 & 3) Syncline
  5. 5. Picture (3) Anticline And we also saw the normal fault & open fracture: Picture (5) Normal Fault Picture (6) Open fracture
  6. 6. Stop3: In stop3 we have a lot of fractures, folds and faults Picture(7) Reserve fault Picture(8) Normal Fault
  7. 7. Picture (9) normal fault picture (10) normal fault Picture( 11) Normal &reversefault
  8. 8. Stop 4: In this stop we saw some faults, synclineand anticline that shows at the picture below: Picture(12) normal fault Picture(13) anticline &syncline
  9. 9. Picture (14) normal fault
  10. 10. Picture (15) normal fault Stop 5 : In this stop we saw bitumen at the surface because there was not any trap so the light oil were flow that shown at the pictures below: Picture (16)bitumen
  11. 11. Picture (17) bitumen Picture (18) bitumen