Faculty of Engineering
“geology Field Trip”
Kardo Muhammed Dr. Sherzad
What is faulting in geology?
A fault is a crack in the Earth's crust. Typically, faults are
associated with, or form, the boundaries between Earth's
tectonic plates. In an active fault, the pieces of the Earth's
crust along a fault move over time. The moving rocks can
There are three different types of faults:
1. Normal faults form when the hanging wall drops
down. The forces that create normal faults are pulling
the sides apart, or extensional.
2. Reverse faults form when the hanging wall moves up.
The forces creating reverse faults are compressional,
pushing the sides together.
3. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not
up or down.
What is folding in geology?
Folding: Is a type of earth movement resulting from the
horizontal compression of rock layers by internal forces of
the earth along plate boundaries.
Anticlines and synclines are the up and down folds that
usually occur together and are caused by compressional
Anticlines are folds in which each half of the fold dips away
from the crest.
Synclines are folds in which each half of the fold dips
toward the trough of the fold.
Monocline Fold is a somewhat exceptional type, which can
hardly be regarded as a modified form of the anticline. A
monoclonal flexure is a single, sharp bend connecting strata,
which lie at different levels and are often horizontal except
along the line of flexure.
Weathering balance is a naturally occurring geological
formation featuring a large rock or boulder, sometimes of
substantial size, resting on other rocks, bedrock, or on
glacial till. Some formations known by this name only appear
to be balancing, but are in fact firmly connected to a base
rock by a pedestal or stem.
We had a trip to Gali and Bexma and we have some
stops that we saw some amazing faults, folds, fracture
In stop1 we saw the
that shownin Picture(1)
it happens becauseof
the riveraround it and
make it the amazing shape.
In stop 2 we saw some anticlineand syncline
That shows in Pictures below:
Picture (2 & 3) Syncline
Picture (3) Anticline
And we also saw the normal fault & open
Picture (5) Normal Fault
Picture (6) Open fracture
In stop3 we have a lot of fractures, folds and
Picture(7) Reserve fault
Picture(8) Normal Fault
Picture (9) normal fault
picture (10) normal fault
Picture( 11) Normal &reversefault
In this stop we saw some faults, synclineand
anticline that shows at the picture below:
Picture(12) normal fault
Picture(13) anticline &syncline