L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:02 Page 2 Aeronautics for Europe A Partnership for Research and Technology and European Growth A Position Paper produced by the External Advisory Group for Aeronautics Recommendations to the European Commission - April 2000 EUR 19318
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:02 Page 1 Aeronautics For Europe Summary European aeronautics has succeeded in establishing European Aeronautics faces three challenges: itself as the main competitor to the United States • Meeting European social needs. and needs to maintain this position. To this end the • Creating competitive products for the global market. Advisory Group believes that a long-term research • Creating and applying new technology-based strategy and key objectives shared by all parties of capabilities for future growth. the European air transport system are called for. The Advisory Group believes that shared long term The Advisory Group recognises the positive impact of goals for the global operational air transport system the "New Perspectives in Aeronautics" Key Action of in Europe would be useful to facilitate concerted the Fifth Framework Programme. It recommends actions among the parties involved to the benefit of both establishing mechanisms to focus and better Europe and its citizens. rationalise R&T throughout Europe, and preserving the continuity of successful activities towards the The Advisory Group has a vision for the future of next Framework programme. European Aeronautics that translates into research. It sets out ambitious aspirations for progress by 2020 The world is changing, quickly and extensively that respond to the demands of European citizens, towards a knowledge society. These changes in indus- the needs of the market and the importance of taking trial, economic and social areas will shape our due care of the environment. It is based on 2 main future; they will impact on all European citizens. strands: “leadership of the European Industry in the Aeronautics is a knowledge intensive industry. global market” and “European air mobility for sus- It is at the centre of change. The growth of aero- tainable growth and quality of life”. nautics is partly a cause of progress. It also allows us To realise this vision the Paper proposes 3 measures: to improve the ways we do business and live our lives. • A leadership initiative by the Commissioner for It is an essential contributor to the social, economic Research & Technology which will forge a new and industrial development that will transform the partnership of consultation with European aero- face of Europe over the next 20 years. nautics stakeholders. Europe is a special region. It has a large popula- • A process which will use this partnership to iden- tion, prosperous and educated, and some very tify, and quantify when necessary, the major goals densely populated conurbations. It is highly industri- for the next 20 years which will allow aeronautics alised, technically advanced and export-oriented. It in 2020 to benefit from European aircraft which has a rich diversity of cultures and languages that can meet the needs of both markets and citizens. call for increased mobility for its people. • A development of the European Research Area that will allow the technologies needed to deliver In looking at European aeronautics it is important to these benefits to be created in a European context assess its present condition and the challenges that with greater efficiency and better focus at every lie ahead. Even if European aeronautics is highly level; Community, national, regional and enter- successful today it faces intense global competition prise. and new demands from community interests which require a strategic approach to the future.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:02 Page 2 Aeronautics For Europe -Market - SocietyPolitical AimsPassen ge Airlines rs Manufacturing Industry Airports Aircraft Defence Research Establishments Air traffic & Universities Management 2 The scope of this paper is aircraft in the civil air transport system, for passenger and freight transport, and for public and civil services, but recognising that aircraft technologies have links of a dual, civil/defence nature. The paper takes a view of “Air Transport” as a system in which all the elements work interactively.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:02 Page 3 Aeronautics For Europe Contents 3 Summary 1 The Scope 2 1. Europe in a Changing World 4 2. Aeronautics at the Centre of Change 5 3. Europe – A Special Region 6 4. How is European Aeronautics Doing? 7 5. The Challenges for Research & Technology 9 6. European Aeronautics for the 2020s – The Advisory Group Vision 12 Glossary 17
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:03 Page 4 1. Europe in a Changing World Aeronautics For Europe A world of change We live in a rapidly and extensively changing world. In every direction we see the power of change in business, lifestyle, communications, and politics. The world is Markets that were until recently local have become changing global. Even small suppliers now serve the needs of cus- tomers around the world. No longer is it assumed that rapidly in many the nationality of the customer, the means of delivery, ways …. the supplier and the manufacturer will be the same. Many of the goods we buy are made, grown, designed or managed in a variety of regions. Population, especially in the less developed world, con- tinues to increase quickly. More people in more coun- European experience tries depend upon resources from outside their own Europe is being transformed. The unification of region. More pressure is being placed on the natural Germany and the return of the former Eastern Bloc environment. states to a European identity will create a greatly 500% enlarged Europe and further needs for mobility. 450% Industry and commerce in Europe is in rapid develop- 400% ment and restructuring, involving also the aeronautical 350% industry. The consolidation of large corporations and the 300% globalisation of their operations will have major effects 250% Passenger Route Kilometres European GDP on the patterns of European business. 200% 150% Internal European travel is already extensive but 100% forecast to grow rapidly. New investment in both land 5 7 9 3 5 7 9 3 5 7 1 1 (1974=100%) 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 and air transport systems is an imperative. These Source: SNECMA Market Forecast 1999-2018, May 1999, ICAO. infrastructure changes will be made in the European The Information Revolution is transforming business context of different cultures and languages, different everywhere. New business models are being created, political systems and within a diverse set of priorities new routes to market, new ways of delivering value to and mechanisms. customers which are independent of location. European strate- Facing up to change Rather than decreasing demand these changes sustain a gies for change These extensive and rapid changes demand that for a strong growth in air travel. Fares have been reduced and are needed that sector like aeronautics there should be a strategy which more people travel. Market demands have caused a third meet new needs responds to new needs and drives the changes. New of all freight by value to be carried by air – reaching new technology will be needed, as will the means to apply it and exploit new markets faster. successfully and competitively to market and social opportunities. Around the world awareness of the natural environment needs. The priorities for change must be shared and and the need to protect it grows steadily. Although avia- used to influence the pattern of European development. tion makes only a small impact on the environment, con- certed action will be necessary to offset the effects of a This paper addresses these issues for European growing market. aeronautics and especially for aircraft technology. 4
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:03 Page 5 2. Aeronautics Aeronautics For Europe at the Centre of Change Aeronautics has caused many of the changes that we remain at the focus but when we look to the future we have experienced. The availability of safe, reliable and shall continue to look beyond aircraft, even aircraft of rapid air transport has stimulated new business possibil- new configurations, to the system of air transport – opti- ities. It has provoked important developments in our mised air fleets, the airports, traffic control, regulatory Aeronautics is infrastructure, work patterns and lifestyle. It has con- regimes etc – within which aircraft operate. The capac- essential to tributed massively to the economies of Europe and the ity of our present air transport system is clearly under wealth of a number of its regions; it employs a huge stress. As traffic increases we must make this system economic growth workforce and, through exports, contributes strongly to respond to world change and drive new changes to the and industrial Europe’s ability to fund other changes and to develop benefit of the European citizen which respect the social change. the quality of life of its citizens. and environmental needs of our communities. Aeronautics has also enabled changes to happen. Flights per year Businesses can reach out to new customers world-wide. Canada 2 USA New Zealand UK Just-in-time stock management is made possible by reli- Australia able air freight operations. The globalisation of business 1 France Malaysia Saudi Arabia Germany Netherlands depends on the existence of flexible, inexpensive air 0,5 Greece Korea Japan transport to connect operations. Portugal Italy Tunisia Mexico Taiwan Cze South Africa As the new century unfolds we expect the continued Brazil 0,1 Turkey growth and industrialisation of Asia to continue. Those Philippines Czechoslovakia 0,05 Indonesia developments will depend extensively on aeronautics. Pakistan In the past progress in aeronautics has meant aircraft PR China development: the advent of the jet age, of supersonic 0,01 India 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 GNP per capita $ US flight, of large twin-aisle airliners. Aircraft will still These are major challenges certainly. But they are also major opportunities. Aeronautics has been able to make i a strong contribution to the growth of Europe – it should continue to do so. It can be a continuing engine for eco- & nomic development. It can continue to fund, through its 5 Aeronautics export successes, the creation of an air transport system in Europe which is world leading. It will contribute to A Changing Europe business efficiency but also bring a range of benefits to • More than 1,000,000 jobs depend, people of all our nations – whether they are travellers or directly or indirectly, on aeronautics. not. Economic and employment benefits, improvements • Aviation in Europe employs 2 million people, in the quality of life, enhancements to their businesses, Europe’s aviation in manufacturing, operations, & airports . the opportunity to travel more economically. system must be • Every new landing slot at Frankfurt airport generates 1,500 jobs. further developed • About 1,000 direct jobs are created to meet by every million passengers per year . economic, social, • About 4,000 jobs in all are induced for every million passengers per year. environmental • European passenger traffic in 2000 and public service will be close to 1 billion passengers. needs.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:05 Page 6 3. Europe _ A Special Region Aeronautics For Europe Europe – Facing world-wide In this changing scene Europe has a unique mix of The enlargement of the EU will increase both the competition opportunities and challenges in the field of aeronautics. opportunities and the challenges. Our cultural her- with huge We have demonstrated unmatched skills in creating itage gives us the benefits of diversity but also the advantages in world class teams within the diversity of our cultures, challenges of language, of differing standards, and of talent, experi- We have established benchmarks for international col- fragmented institutions laboration in complex projects. We have a huge base of ence and In this competitive world of aeronautics two eco- talent and of cultural variety. But Europe also faces a products. world of fierce competition, where the stakes are enor- nomic regions are dominant – Europe and the USA. Our greatest competitor, and largest export market, mous, where to lose means to lose entire businesses and now addresses the market with a federated system, a to lose their European presence. unified domestic market, with a set of strategic i national objectives, and with the huge resources and capabilities of both its industry and its government The United States laboratories including NASA, the foremost aerospace • 87% of the world’s airliners are American built. R&D agency in the world. • Public funding for aerospace in the US (for 1997) In contrast Europe retains the legacy of its nation states, was three times that of the EU and all its member states combined. works with many national stakeholders and has yet to • Both in turnover and number of employees the size of the aerospace develop common objectives. As an example of its air industry of the USA is more than twice that of the EU combined. transport operations, Europe works under the burden of • The share of the aerospace sector in US exports is almost twice that in the EU. 49 national Air Traffic Control Centres using 22 differ- ent operating systems. Many Europeans enjoy a high standard of living and However, Europe can overcome these difficulties of want this to be further enhanced with improvements to fragmentation when it wishes to do so. Industrial 6 their quality of life including a better environment. restructuring is now proceeding rapidly in Europe, bringing the numerous players in the different fields to a Europe enjoys the services of rapidly growing air traf- new stage of concentration. However, the research sys- fic into and within its regions. However, its citizens tem across the Union is lagging behind this momentum. experience daily the challenge of managing that rate of increase – noise, congestion, and delay are com- Doing better in Europe is a necessity not an option. monplace. We have several large concentrations of … but population with already high densities of air traffic – fragmented nearly every proposal to increase airport capacity meets fierce environmental resistance. Europe pres- Doing better in terms of ents a number of specific political , industrial and in Europe means working culture, organisational features which have to be considered. together better. language and procedures.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:05 Page 7 4. How is European Aeronautics For Europe Aeronautics Doing? A Story of Success European Aeronautics is an outstanding success story (see box). Europe has developed products that i have influenced global aeronautics operations. It has produced many world firsts. Some European Firsts European airspace copes with an unprecedented • Supersonic Airliner – Concorde. number of passengers. In the defence field European • Vertical Take-Off and Landing combat fighter – Harrier. aerospace products are used around the world for the protection and security of nations. The nations of • All-weather automatic landing systems. Europe have an unrivalled ability to mount success- • Fly-by-wire airliner – Airbus. ful international collaborative projects on the most • Digital auto-flight system – Airbus. advanced technology-based products, civil as well as • Helicopters with turbine engines - Eurocopter. in defence. • 3-Shaft engine – Rolls Royce. It has created, in Airbus Industrie, a world leading • Two man, “Glass cockpit”, wide-body airliner - Airbus. supplier, this year outselling the USA in large airlin- ers, and European world-class capabilities in its engine and equipment sectors. In research the European Union Framework Aeronautics has been able to support European eco- Programmes for aeronautics have grown in impor- nomic growth while implementing dramatic reductions tance and improved in focus and delivery leading to in noise and fuel consumption. Noise outside the airport the inclusion of aeronautics as a "Key Action" in the confines is now similar to that of motorway traffic. Over 5th Framework Programme. An important new the past 20 years aircraft fuel consumption per flight has approach was the introduction of large-scale integra- been reduced by 30-40%. 7 tion projects. This Programme has had significant practical influence on the positioning of the national civil aeronautics programmes. i Technologies developed in aeronautics and now in general use • Aerodynamic and aero-acoustic shaping of cars. • Disc brakes for cars and trains and Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). • Software systems for displays. Computer techniques for assessing structural efficiency of buildings, cars, and equipment. • Composite materials including carbon fibre. • Materials for artificial limbs and for replacement joints. • Thermal imaging cameras for police and rescue work. • Advanced business processes for project management.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:05 Page 8 Aeronautics For Europe Facing Strong Competition American unified public funding for aeronautics far The market for aeronautical products is global – surpasses Europe’s combined investment, which is every customer in the world can find competitive itself fragmented around the nations of the EU. products vying for orders. The biggest players by a Europe has no clear, coherent strategy for continued long way are Europe and the USA. Competition is success. More rational funding for research and fierce between them. technology must be seen as a key element of a European aeronautics policy. Both have a large and talented workforce. Both had many successes in the first century of aeronautics. Despite these factors Europe now competes head to But the USA has a strategy – a determination to head in large aircraft, in aero engines and in equipment. dominate in aerospace – and it signals this on every world stage. NASA has no parallel in Europe. Delivering a string of wider benefits Boeing, America’s major aerospace company, has a In addition to these economic successes European civil turnover nearly 3 times that of Airbus Industrie. aeronautics delivers a steady flow of technologies 8 The US Administration has a record of sustained – developed in aerospace for high performance at high support to its aerospace industry. cost – but passed on to the wider economy for low cost applications (see box).
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:06 Page 9 5. The Challenges for Aeronautics For Europe Research & Technology The European aeronautics industry is knowledge-based. It faces three key high-level challenges: Meeting the needs of an advanced society Creating competitive products for a global market Sustaining the flow of key technology 9 5.1 Meeting the Needs But as traffic continues to increase strongly and even bet- ter noise performance is demanded, including reductions of an Advanced Society in airframe noise, it will be a major challenge to meet the aspirations of these communities. Passengers If Europe is to service the needs of business for air pas- Air Fares (relative to 1970) senger travel, it must be able to look forward to a future 110% in which rapid growth – doubling in 15 years, almost tre- bling by 2020 – is accompanied by even higher safety, 100% lower costs and greater convenience. Our long term 90% aims must be to cope with vastly increased traffic whilst Air Fares achieving the goals of: 80% • Sustained safety standards and lower accident rates. 70% • Comfortable, convenient and on-time passenger mobility. • Progressive reductions in real cost to passengers. 60% The challenge is to improve passenger and business 50% 5 0 5 0 5 0 0 197 197 198 198 199 199 200 appeal for air transport in Europe whilst absorbing a sus- tained and rapid growth in traffic. Source ICAO The Wider Community Most people are not frequent air travellers. All of us share the aspiration that air transport growth should be Heathrow - Population affected by noise safe and not create environmental damage and nui- 200% sance. Percentage relative to 1974 150% Any strategy must embrace the goals of safer, quieter air- craft that produce fewer emissions. 100% • Noise 50% The impact of noise on communities around airports has 0% 0 0 0 0 been much reduced as a result of new technology applica- 197 198 199 200 tions. The example of Heathrow is typical – despite an Aircraft flights 80% increase in the number of flights since 1974 the Population affected by noise number of people disturbed by noise has dropped by 80%. Source DETR
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 10 5.2 Creating Competitive Aeronautics For Europe Products for Global Markets • Emissions Whilst noise affects a relatively small number of people To create aircraft systems that will deliver a new genera- aircraft emissions can affect us all. Early jet airliners were tion of benefits to society and to their operators around both noisy and dirty, leaving trails of smoky fuel in their the world will mean a sustained evolution of design. wake. Their successors today are much improved, both New aircraft, engines and equipment using new innova- quieter and cleaner. Today the impact of aircraft emis- tive construction technologies must be ready for world sions is small: less than 3.5% of all man-made global CO2 markets. emission is accountable to aeronautics. However, the Winning will mean staying in the forefront of design – demand for air transport is growing strongly and threatens able to use old and new technologies in new ways. to outpace the rate at which the application of new tech- Responding to the leadership of others cannot achieve it. nology can deliver improvements. It represents a major technical challenge over the long term. Creating competitive products that will win in the fiercely competitive markets of tomorrow is not just about design Hull losses per million flights concepts. It will require that these products are designed and built to the performance standards required and 1st generation: 2nd generation: 3nd generation: B707 B727 MD80 competitive both in purchase price and in operating costs. DC8 B737-100-200 MD11 B747 MD90 This manufacturing system, exploiting the capabilities of DC9 B737-300/400/500 DC10 B757/767 all the regions of Europe, must be optimised – not to 10 A300B4 A310/A300-600 restrict the activities of any region or company, but to 9 A319/A320/A321 8 A330/A340 ensure that overall air transport needs are met in the 7 B777 most efficient and cost effective way. 6 5 1st generation Europe needs to be able to manufacture these products. 10 4 If we cannot do so, or do so inefficiently, we shall spend 2nd generation 3 All aircraft 2 large amounts of money buying them from abroad, par- 1 3nd generation ticularly from the USA. 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 Years of operation • Safety Block Fuel per seat-mile New generations of aircraft are demonstrably and signifi- Datum A300 cantly safer than older generations. However, with the -10% current growth of air transportation, the number of acci- -20% A310-300 -37% dents risks to increase substantially. This represents a A300-600 major challenge for research and aviation operations in -30% order to achieve a quantum leap forward in safety. A330 -40% 0 0 0 0 197 198 199 200 i Certification Date • The European Aeronautics Industry directly employs more than 420,000 people (1998). • 80,000 firms supply the aeronautics industry in Europe. • Europe had a trade balance surplus of more than 9 billion euro from aerospace products.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 11 5.3 Sustaining the Flow Aeronautics For Europe This premium on content means that not all research of Technology work can be widely shared. Firms need to generate com- petitive advantage. Nations want to sustain national Creating Value abilities. in the European Research Area There can be no success in aeronautics without an But content considerations do not mean that no co- intensive research and development effort. The industry operation is possible. Europe has outstanding abilities to spends an average of 16% of its turnover on R&D which create collaborative programmes in research. These includes the substantial public contribution through work well when the programme meets the collective EU, national and Research Establishment programmes. aims of the group or combines excellence in a powerful co-operation. The strategy for aeronautics must emphasise its output – better services, meeting social and business needs, Management 11 creating competing products. This output will rely The European Research Area is a pluralist community – fundamentally on the creation and exploitation of firms, nations, academia and research institutes have new technology. private, shared, and collaborative research programmes. The existence of knowledgeable and well trained scien- There is competition and co-operation. There is no con- tists, engineers and managers is the unquestionable pre- sistent management structure. requisite for meeting these challenges. A joint effort by The aspiration for Europe, therefore, lies in creating a the states, the industry, research institutions and, of flexible set of mechanisms that respect the diversity of course, educational institutions is necessary to attract Europe but enable European strengths to be fully realised. talented people to work in aeronautics. We must use the centres of European excellence, Creating new technology-based capabilities has three whether in industry, academia or in institutions, to fur- main elements: ther European goals. Excellence will have many faces. •Focus Effective, market leading products and services will •Content require the best technical capabilities that Europe can •Management deliver. However, in order fully to unfold our strength Each of these has important implications for the the European Research Area needs shared visibility, har- European Research Area, providing an important contri- monisation and efficiency. bution to the European research potential i Focus European Aeronautics Research This paper is very much about focus – identifying the imperatives for the future, the key goals that must be Area Background achieved. • EU Research Programmes leading up to a separate Key Action for aeronautics in the 5th Framework Programme. Focus can be shared. These proposals assert that by sharing a discussion with the stakeholders in the • National aeronautics Research & Technology collaboration in GARTEUR. European air transport system we can achieve a better • National Research Establishment co-operation in aeronautics in EREA. focus and derive better, clearer directions for future • Newly emerging national strategies for aeronautics research involving research programmes. small enterprises and centres of excellence. • Combination of national capabilities and facilities such as European Content Transonic Wind Tunnel (ETW) and the German-Netherlands Subsonic History shows that solutions to challenging problems are Wind Tunnel (DNW). not always predictable or similar. There are great prizes • Eurocontrol research programme. for those who can generate exceptionally clever solu- • Airbus 3Es programme. tions – creating solutions that are effective and low cost. • Industry collaborating on long term research planning within IMG3.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 12 6. European Aeronautics For Europe Aeronautics for the 2020s – The Advisory Group Vision Demand for air travel increases rapidly – world-wide by about 5% annually. Between 2000 and 2020 more than 14,000 large new airliners, worth over €1,000 billion, will have been delivered to create a world fleet of 20,000 airliners after old types are withdrawn. Two Great Prizes About 40% of worldwide air travel has a European to win: arrival or departure point. A great air trans- For Europe these expectations are both a huge port system and opportunity and a tremendous challenge. huge economic All of Europe has huge opportunities to benefit from gains. air transport and the aeronautics industry. These benefits are not only for those involved in it directly but for all of its citizens, in every nation or region, creating business prosperity, social exchange and Europe and the rest of the world. This will increase air cohesion, jobs, and technology. traffic which will only be acceptable to society if… • Air traffic growth delivers what communities and trav- ellers need – safety, low noise nuisance, care for the 6.1 Two Great Prizes to Win environment, public service, low congestion, conven- ience. The advances that will deliver these will only be The prizes are enormous: affordable if … • An air transport system that will support European • We create competitive aircraft and equipment that growth, attract and foster new business whilst meeting sells around the world. the social needs of Europe for travel and the needs of But in a changing world these benefits will not flow auto- our environment and quality of life. matically to Europe, they will have to be fought for, seized, • An aeronautical industry that will provide the products and exploited, and retained using skill, commitment and to go on winning at least half of a world market which endurance. Unless we build on strength we cannot win 12 will more than double by 2020. This will bring in the prizes that exist. Unless we understand our vulnerabil- money, create jobs and sustain growth. ities today our tomorrow will belong to others. Achieving these goals needs a partnership of intent to be A Circle of Linked Goals forged between those who rely upon aeronautics and Linking these different perspectives demands that we those who provide aeronautics services. agree about European goals together because they depend on each other. A circle of goals: 6.2 A New Partnership Future aircraft • Creating competitive abilities for world-wide sales of This new partnership envisages a wider consultation must shape and aircraft and equipment which will … at the much earlier research stage. This will create a respond to future • Deliver employment and economic growth and fit into … shared view of the future and ensure that Research & needs. • A first class Air Transport System that will enable all Technology Development programmes are focused on kinds of business growth within Europe and between stakeholder needs.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 13 Aeronautics For Europe It will create a shared view of the needs of the whole air would not be encouraged but hampered thereby. transport system. This will allow complementary, and Nevertheless we recognise that many technologies in conflicting, needs to be considered together. For exam- aeronautics are of a dual nature and it is beneficial that ple, consider the way in which new aircraft will fit to this should continue to be encouraged and facilitated by new airports; how new aircraft capabilities can be the policies and mechanisms that are put in place in matched to new operating procedures to deliver environ- both areas. 13 mental improvements; how congestion will be relieved by new aircraft capabilities that work in a new air traffic control regime. 6.3 The Players • The Aeronautics Industry including the supply chain More than 30% of European public investment in civil and SMEs aeronautics research & technology is funded by the EU. • National Aeronautics Research Establishments Participation by national governments in the strategic • Civil Security and Public Services approach is also essential. National governments also • Airports have programmes, firms have their own programmes of • Airlines investment. All have an interest in making sure that what • The Air Traffic Control community we are doing today will deliver the air transport system • Universities that we need – and do so cost-effectively. In the final • Community interest groups analysis each stakeholder group must remain responsible • Public authorities (national and regional) for their own contributions to our future. None will • Regulators accept that this responsibility can be diluted, none will wish to be subservient to the control of others. But all All want to see an air transport system in Europe that may gain from being able to share a view of the future meets their various needs. These needs should influence which will allow them to play their role more effectively. the design of the future aircraft that will continue to This new shared and open understanding will present form the core element of the system. many opportunities for those nations with more modest aeronautics capabilities and for SMEs by giving visibility to the directions of future development and providing signposts for the areas of interest and relevance. Boundaries This paper proposes that the air transport system can be looked at in a unified way. We do not recommend that this be combined with a consideration for land trans- port, or of space applications except insofar as these have a direct effect on the air transport system and the effectiveness of passenger and freight movement by air. The Advisory Group has considered the defence dimen- i The Air Transport System sion. It is an area of unique sensitivity. The Advisory • operates from entering the airport to leaving the Group does not recommend a complete fusion of civil destination airport and includes all types of aircraft, and defence considerations on the grounds that progress both fixed and rotary wing, and the facilities that are necessary between the two.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 14 6.4 The Advisory Aeronautics For Europe Group Vision The Value of a Vision We need a vision of the future to stimulate the whole range of activities which will together create a more effective air transport system for 2020. It has been described as “a dream with a deadline” – a time-based aspiration that stretches our imagination and challenges our abilities to achieve exceptional results. A vision is not a plan. There is as yet no coherent set of actions that will create this future. But the Vision is a 6.5 Creating a process clear direction; like a lighthouse it leads us forward even Three steps to achievement though we have to cope with many conflicting tides and • Share the Vision among the stakeholders. currents on the way. • Create a process within which the priority goals for the The value of a single vision is that it gives coherence to future can be mapped out. the actions of many groups. It does not dictate how each • Establish mechanisms within the European Research must act, but for those who accept the final objective it Area which will allow programmes to be constructed maintains a sense of direction. which secure the objectives in the most effective man- ner. The Vision does not lead to a master plan that is rigidly controlled and inflexible. It allows the key goals that are This Paper recommends that, under the leadership of steps towards the vision to be identified – the impera- the Commissioner for Research & Technology, a High tives that will need to be achieved and the compromises Level Group should be established. This would consist required to reach holistic optimal solutions. of CEO level people nominated on an ad personam basis, drawn from the stakeholder community. The High This Group recommends that the stakeholders in Level Group would have a clear and limited objective – European aeronautics should explore these goals it should be disbanded when this work is complete. together, sharing views on what the crucial intermediate 14 steps need to be, agreeing the key performance needs of The High Level Group would oversee the process in the future systems. This does not mean that every aspect order to explore and develop the major goals that should needs to be agreed – there will be areas of difference. be the stepping stones to the Vision. These would be But it urges that we establish a new partnership to seek described at the level of defined goals – not the detail of out those areas where we can agree and allow this to how they might be achieved. The High Level Group condition how we each travel toward the Vision. would be assisted by working groups examining separate areas of expertise. Working bodies already existing Examples of possible areas for exploration are should be utilised as far as possible. • The impact of new ATM systems to increase system capacity. This work – to the timetable indicated on the next page • The scope for increasing airport capacity by innova- – will be a precursor to the design of appropriate plans tive, and perhaps radical, new approaches. of research. These plans can then be designed with spe- • The competitive advantages of new aircraft concepts cific long-term goals in mind and the most appropriate and their implication for the airlines. mechanism used or created to achieve these by the most • The implications for aircraft design and airline effective means. operations of new approaches to passenger and For the aeronautics stakeholders the value of this work baggage systems at airports. will rest in having a set of shared and agreed goals which • The possibilities and implications for very quiet will allow research into new aircraft, engines, equipment operation of aircraft with respect to communities and Air Traffic Management to be guided by a unified living outside airports. sense of direction.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 15 The Advisory Group Vision Aeronautics For Europe THE AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN EUROPE IN 2020 European Air Mobility for Sustainable Growth and Quality of Life • Airports have increased their passen- ger capacity to 3 times that of 2000. Europe – A Leader in a • Passengers experience delay free Global Market travel – in all weather. • Passengers spend less time waiting • European suppliers provide more in airports than in 2000. than 50% of the world demand for aeronautics products – more than 4 15 • No excessive aircraft noise or external times the output of 2000. risk affecting citizens in residential areas. • European companies succeed in all major sectors: aircraft, engines, • Air travel generates less emissions equipment, services. impact than other forms of travel. • The number of aircraft related fatali- ties has fallen despite the growth in travel. • The same range of business and entertainment services and travelling comfort as passengers enjoy at home or office. A Coherent “European Research Area” • Long term strategies for technology creation are pursued through a variety of harmonised mechanisms – privately, in national programmes and in European programmes. • Research goals are shared across Europe. • Europe uses its centres of excellence in industry, academia and in research insti- tutes in a more efficient way. • The mixture of co-ordination and competition is optimised. • The mobility of researchers is increased. • There is consistency across educational curricula that encourages pan-European movement. • Research exploits e-networks fully. An Opportunity for Leadership: This needs not just mechanisms but leadership. It needs European Answers for European Needs leadership from politicians and industry, from regulators Europe has established itself through a century of aero- and environmentalists, from operators and local or nautics. It has maintained a world leading level of regional authorities. This innovative approach can be a expertise. This is challenged as never before. This paper showcase for Europe. It can demonstrate that we can recommends an original model which differs from the blend national and European activity, competition and American one, for Europe has distinct political struc- collaboration, private and public funding, large nations tures, cultures and inclinations. This paper recommends and small in generating and realising a shared vision for the innovative, flexible opportunity to demonstrate that the future that stems not from centralist control but a European answer, building on our evident strengths, from willing and effective co-operation. can be developed.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 16 6.6 A Timetable After the 5th Framework Aeronautics For Europe Programme: the Next Stage for Action The 5th Framework Programme was a land- The Advisory Group believes that the priority action is to mark in the development of the application of create the process that will lead to better identification E.U. Framework Programmes to aeronautics. of goals. This paper is not intended to imply that any particular grouping of interests or funding approach will be best. However, it is clear that there should be a strong • It introduced new concepts for structuring aeronautics research. and continuing investment by the EU that is focused on aeronautic, but the details should be considered in the • It established innovatory types of large proj- ect that allow technologies to be integrated light of the process recommended here. and validated. • It substantially increased the scale of aero- nautics activity. • It applied new approaches to the focus and Stakeholders The Vision definition of projects. Challenges to be overcome The measures recommended in this paper rep- resent a step forward in establishing additional mechanisms that will help to focus Research & New technology Technology better throughout Europe. The EU - NATIONAL - consultations envisaged will help to develop the NEEDS REGIONAL - PRIVATE next Framework Programme and will also influ- PROGRAMMES ence other activities. Year 2000 The industry expects that the 6th Framework Programme will also have a very important part The priorities for Year 2000 should be to: to play in conjunction with the other mecha- • Seize the leadership opportunity to make aeronautics nisms by which Research & Technology in Europe a successful partnership between the EU, Development is advanced in aeronautics. 16 the nations and the stakeholders. • Establish the Process of consultation and co-operation In parallel with the consultation recom- in identifying high-level market and policy needs and mended here the industry will further the main challenges to their realisation. develop its technology objectives and plan the projects that will be necessary to achieve • Create the mechanisms for this to be successful – the them. These plans will also be progressively creation of a High Level Group, and supporting teams. informed both by the measures outlined • Expand the support for this joint effort to those with a here and by the evolution of the market and part to play in the successful expansion of aeronautics by local and national discussions. in Europe for the benefit of all. The effective planning, execution and applica- First Results – The output from Year 2000 tion of Research & Technology Development should establish: will not, therefore, depend on a single sequen- • A shared vision of aeronautics for the year 2020 tial stream of activity but on our ability to fuse adopted and maintained by the principal stakeholders. together a coincident variety of information, activities, capabilities and mechanisms into an • A shared view of the main challenges, and the princi- effective whole. pal goals which will have to be met if this vision is to be enabled. These elements should then be presented to the relevant political authorities.
L.O. aéro 05 8/05/00 10:07 Page 17 Glossary A.T.C. Air Traffic Control – the systems by which aircraft are controlled for safety and operational purposes whilst in the air and in motion on the ground. A.T.M. Air Traffic Management Advisory Group The External Advisory Group for Aeronautics established under Key Action 4 of the Growth Programme within the 5th Framework Programme. Aeronautics Matters relating to the design, manufacturing, maintenance and operational functions of air- craft together with all subordinate systems, parts and materials. Air Transport System The world of aviation services from the arrival of the passenger or freight at the airport to the exit from the destination airport including any type of aircraft and the facilities that are necessary between the departure and destination airports. Airbus 3E Airbus Collaborative research plan of Airbus Industrie partners for Energy, Efficiency and Environment. Aviation The totality of the system in which aircraft of all types operate – includes the airlines, airports, and ground support services, as well as aeronautics. EREA European Research Establishment Association. Europe Unless otherwise indicated refers to the European Union. GARTEUR Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe. IMG3 Industrial Management Group of the industrial aeronautical sectors for airframe, engines and equipment. NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Research & Development All those technical activities which embrace Research and Technology Development as well as the Design, Development, Test and Certification activities related to specific products. R&D Research & Technology The processes of preparing new technical capabilities which will be useful in the future but Development which are not related to specifically identified products. R&TD SME Small or Medium-sized Enterprise. The Aeronautics Industry All those enterprises which play a part in the design, development and manufacture of any product used in aeronautics.
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