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Urban Upgrading Policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran

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Urban Upgrading Policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Dr. Farzin Fardanesh, Urban Development and Regeneration Corporation (UDRC), I.R. Iran - World Urban Forum 9, Informal Settlements in Asia Good practices and Way forward, UN-Habitat in Action Room, Saturday 10 February 2018, 14:30 - 16:00, UN-Habitat in action room

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Urban Upgrading Policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran

  1. 1. URBAN UPGRADING POLICIES IN ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN FARZIN FARDANESH, PHD 1 10/2/2018
  2. 2. I CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS HOUSING AND SHELTER POLICIES 2 10/2/2018
  3. 3. Background 3 Financing Main Players Approach Social Physical Conservation 1990~1993 Upgrading city centres/cultur al axes General Government budget mayoral administrati ons Central Government and mayoral administrati ons Reconstructi on of war- damaged areas; renovation of old city centres Encouraging owners and residents/de veloping housing cooperative s for medium- and low- income households Uncontrolled, horizontal expansion of cities declining city centres 10/2/2018
  4. 4. Background 4 Financing Main Players Approach Social Physical Conservation 1994~1996 Problematic urban fabric/ Integration of small lots Central Government with the participatio n of mayoral administrati ons and other stakeholder institutions through the formation of companies owned by the public sector Public private partnership banks Problematic urban fabric/ Integration of small lots Pushing natives out; lack of attention to the role of residents and owners as well as planning for new residents Widespread destruction of target zones; exacerbation of spatial problems Formation of the Cultural Heritage Organisation; grounds for increased attention to cultural values Taking old urban fabric to be problematic; destruction and reconstruction 10/2/2018
  5. 5. Background 5 Financing Main Players Approach Social Physical Conservation 1997~2004 Urban Renewal endogenous developmen t; preventing uncontrolled expansion of cities; improving previous large-scale intervention s; institution- building; formulating redevelopm ent regulations Central Government with the participatio n of mayoral administrati ons, cultural and heritage organisatio n, banks, and other public and private stakeholders General Government budget/limit ed sources of other partners Increased attention given to the quality of life of residents and encouraging them to participate; strengthenin g the role of housing cooperative s in the deteriorated fabric Addressing spatial disorganisati on and attempting to benefit from all available capacity for development Increased attention given to existing structures; striving to reequip old structures; promoting “new life in old structure” 10/2/2018
  6. 6. Background 6 Financing Main Players Approach Social Physical Conservation After 2005 Renovation and reconstruction of deteriorated fabric with an emphasis on sustained participation return of attention to old parts of cities as well as areas generally thought as deteriorated and inefficient; retrofitting and improving safety Central Government through local agents, mayoral administrati ons, private sector, banks, local cooperative s, and charity organisatio ns Private sector, banks, participatio n bonds, general Government budget Stressing the role of social groups; strengthenin g the position of owners and residents and giving attention to their needs Addressing spatial disorganisati on and attempting to benefit from all available capacity for development Withholding intervention in historical zones and striving to interact with relevant organisations, especially Cultural Heritage Organisation 10/2/2018
  7. 7. Background 7 Financing Main Players Approach Social Physical Conservation Since 2009 Moving towards regeneration Sustainable and widespread participatio n of citizens though the creation of appropriate grounds and activities to jump start local developmen t process Central Government as policy maker and monitoring authority, mayoral administrati ons for managemen t of implementat ion, and the private sector as the main actor Private sector, participatio n bonds, general Government budget Emphasis on the participatio n of all social groups Addressing spatial disorganisati on of major structural axes of urban centres Withholding intervention in historical zones and striving to interact with relevant organisations, especially Cultural Heritage Organisation 10/2/2018
  8. 8. Main Physical Planning Challenges 10/2/2018 8  cumbersome procedures  Outdated data & assumptions  no connection with the budgeting systems,  technical criteria without consideration for socioeconomic aspects  constant land use conversions  the lack of coordination between implementing agencies  an infeasible document
  9. 9. Increase Rate for Land, Rent And Dwelling Prices in Urban Areas Housing Supply Housing Market 10/2/2018 9 -40% -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Land increase rate Dwelling increase rate Rent increase rate
  10. 10. Main Housing Planning Challenges 10/2/2018 10  Unrealistic architectural standards  Turn-key approach rather than incremental  Unrealistic Technical specifications  Technical and Administrative overheads  Unaffordable
  11. 11. Average Land Use Area Percentage in Comparison with the Main City 10/2/2018 11 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
  12. 12. OUTSIDE THE CITY INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS VILLAGES ABSORBED BY THE URBAN SPRAWL INSIDE THE CITY DETERIORATED HISTORIC FABRICS DELAPIDATED UNDERSERVICED AEAS CHALLENGES POPULATION GROWTH URBAN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENTPLANNING EXCLUSION OF THE POOR INADEQUATE URBAN PLANNINGPOLICIES INADEQUATE HOUSINGPOLICIES The Formation of Slums 10/2/2018 12 LACK OF INVESTMENT DELAPIDATION PROCESS No maintenance Increased populationdensity Sub-standardhousing Under-servicedareas Low Cost Informal Housing NEW SETTLERS Migrant workers Illegal migrants Informal workers Social difficulties
  13. 13. II CURRENT STRATEGY AND PRACTICE 13 10/2/2018
  14. 14. National Policy Document for Regularizing Informal Settlements 10/2/2018 14  Adopted by the Cabinet in 2004  National Enabling Task Force  Provincial Enabling Task Force
  15. 15. National Strategy Document for Revitalizing, Rehabilitation, Renovation and Enabling Deteriorated and Underserviced Urban Fabrics 10/2/2018 15  Adopted in 2014  Key Strategies:  Strategy 1: a coordinated urban development policy framework—giving priority to ‘Endogenous Development’  Strategy 2: Real estate and capital market to correspond to demand by low- income urban strata
  16. 16. National Strategy Document for Revitalizing, Rehabilitation, Renovation and Enabling Deteriorated and Underserviced Urban Fabrics 10/2/2018 16  Key Strategies:  Strategy 3: Improve quality of life and strengthen and nurture the identity of target urban areas and neighbourhoods  Strategy 4: participation of residents  Strategy 5: Facilitating investment and creating appropriate incentive structures aimed at the private sector
  17. 17. National Strategy Document for Revitalizing, Rehabilitation, Renovation and Enabling Deteriorated and Underserviced Urban Fabrics 10/2/2018 17  Key Strategies  Strategy 6: Improving economic, social, and environmental conditions for residents  Strategy 7: leveraging the physical, social, economic and environmental capacities  Strategy 8: An appropriate financial system
  18. 18. Youth and Social media 18
  19. 19. Move from physical upgrading to social empowerment 19
  20. 20. Current Challenges 10/2/2018 20  Missing Links:  National Planning Institutions  Provincial Planning Task Forces  Local Authorities and Grassroots  Effective Monitoring  Applicable indicators and indices  Monitoring procedures  Shared responsibilites
  21. 21. National Regeneration Task Force 8 February 2018 10/2/2018 21
  22. 22. For further information… 10/2/2018 22
  23. 23. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Asia Pacific Ministerial Conference on Housing and Urban Development Regional Urban Upgrading Working Group 23

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