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Chapters 2 and 4

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  1. 1. Who are you? Who? Who? A student “I am” PoemI am Daffy Duck, Mr. Magoo, Hong Kong Phooey, Foghorn Leghorn,and othercartoons.I am Tae Kwon Do, basketball, the batting cages, a soccer family,and the gym.I am a wonderful family, close and loving and incredibly supportive.I am films based on true stories and documentariesI am the History Channel, CNN, ESPN, BRAVO, and Home TeamSports.I am a passion for educating and facilitating, personal developmentand making change.
  2. 2. Your concept of self = roles • Self concept determines roles in life and in groups • What are your expectations for your role. Do you want to lead? Follow? Not join? • The perceptions others have of their/you position in the group • Your behavior can determine the roles you play and/or assigned, elected, or given based on power, status, etc.
  3. 3. Our self concept is determined by:• Gender• Sexual Orientation• Culture• Roles• Status• Power
  4. 4. What are Cultural Differences? “We are all created equal, but we are individuals” To be effective leaders and members in multicultural groups, it is necessary to understand and be sensitive to cultural differences.• Individualistic cultures• Collectivistic cultures• Gender• Race• Ethnic background• Concept of time• Religious orientation• Age• Group membership• Sub-cultures• DEEP CULTURE• Different historical experiences• Different customs• Ways of dressing• Nonverbal communication• Ways of communicating• Different viewpoints of the universe• Difference between Eastern and Western religions
  5. 5. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity - LAVCPrimary Language:59.5 % English18.4% Spanish8.9% Armenian3.3% Russian5.0% Other2.0% Tagalog (Filipino)1.5% Farsi0.3% Chinese Languages0.8% Korean0.3% JapaneseData: LAVC Office of Research and Planning
  6. 6. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity in Teams – LAVCLAVC is a diverse campus:Gender:49% Male51% FemaleEthnicity:51% Hispanic20% White13% Asian7% African-American5% American Indian/Other Non-WhiteData: LAVC Office of Research and Planning
  7. 7. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity- LAVCAge:32% - 20 to 2424% - 25 to 3421% - Under 2019% - 35 to 544% - 55 and overData: LAVC Office of Researchand Planning
  8. 8. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity The United States has become the most diverse society on the face ofthe earth.There are 215 nations in the world, and every one of them hassomeone living in the United StatesNew York City has over 170 distinct ethnic communitiesMore than 32 million people in the U.S. speak a language other thanEnglish at homeBy the 2050, people of European descent will become the minority inthe United States
  9. 9. Definition of Culture ~ Samovar and Porter A deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in thecourse of generations through individual and group striving.
  10. 10. Cultural Differences - GenderBeing a male or female has shaped your self concept and how youcommunicate.Q: How are some ways being male or female has shaped your selfimage or how you communicate?The way we dressHow we actHow society as a whole treats males/femalesYour self conceptThe roles we play (traditional or nontraditional)Note: Working in diverse groups, you need to recognize that there maybe some Americans and those from other cultures who may have adifferent viewpoint of what the roles of men and women should be.They may have a more traditional viewpoint, then that above.
  11. 11. Examples of Sterotypes - GenderCommon Gender Sterotypes used byindividuals, media, and otherorganizationsMen:AggressiveNo emotionsLoudMessyAthleticMath and Science OrientedCEOsBad communicatorsQ: How many of you can relate to this?Q: Any truth to these terms?
  12. 12. Examples of Sterotypes - GenderCommon Gender Sterotypes usedby individuals, media, and otherorganizationsWomen:SubmissiveEmotionalQuietNeat/CleanClumsy (Movies)ArtsyHousewifeChild rearingGood communicators
  13. 13. Examples of Stereotypes - GenderPopular Stereotypes in the business world concerning women managers.Women are not as committed to their careers as menReality: 1/3 of women take a leave of absence; almost 2/3 took leave of absence for lessthan 6 months: 82% for maternity; More men took leave of absence than womenWomen will not work longer hoursReality: Women average 56 hours per week; as do menWomen cannot or will not relocateReality: Only 14.2 % of women refused to relocate. 20% of their male counterpartsreported refusing relocation.Women lack quantitative skillsReality: 23% of women are in finance, as 27% of men are in financeWomen are warmer and more nurturing than menReality: “Concern for people” was cited important by 33 percent of men and only18% of the womenResults: Kon/Ferry and Catalyst findings concerning senior management positions inthe Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 services companies refute many of the popularstereotypes about women
  14. 14. Self Disclosure Why am I afraid to tell you who I am? You may not like who I am.John Powell - Five predictable levels thatindividuals and groups go through: Lowest tohighest form of communication. Level 5: Cliché Communication: People dothings that initiate conversation, or desire toinitiate a relationship: Smiling; making eyecontact; saying “Hi” “Nice to see you.”Dog walks: Looks like Christmas morning; isyour dog taking you for a walk, etc.Level 4: Facts and biographical information:Relationship or conversation moves beyond thecliché. Nonthreatening information, such asyour name, hometown, or occupation.
  15. 15. Communicating in Small Groups- Self-Disclosure Level 3: Personal attitudes and ideas:After introducing yourself and gettingdown to business, you then respond tovarious ideas and issues, noting whereyou agree and disagree with others.Level 2: Personal feelings. Talkingabout your personal feelings; andsharing how you feel about others;Politics, religion, relationship status,etc. This level really makes onevulnerable.
  16. 16. Communicating in Small Groups- Self-DisclosureLevel 1: Peak Communication. People seldomreach this level. This is a level of self-disclosurewhere people do not have a fear of rejection andare not afraid to reveal ideas, opinions, feelings,and not afraid to have to agree or disagree. Arenot afraid to say “no.” “ If you risk nothing, then you risk everything.” Geena Davis - Actor
  17. 17. Communicating in Small Groups- Self-Disclosure • The more open you are about yourself: the more you solicited feedback from others • The more you explore yourself through interaction with others; the healthier and happier we are the groups we belong to will be • The more trusting and open the group, the more likely it is the open up the individual group members
  18. 18. Our Groups: Our RolesRoles: sets of shared expectations about who should do what undera given set of circumstances.•Roles can be elected, assigned and can be formal or informal.People will change roles based on groups they are in. Sometimesthey get ‘stuck’ in a role.Role Differentiation: A variety of roles can develop as groupmembers interact with one another, however, most fall under one ofthree categories: 1. Task roles: Help group accomplish its task 2. Maintenance/nontask roles: Help create group structure/Influence how a group will accomplish their given task 3. Individual roles: Benefit the individual, but don’t help the group
  19. 19. Group Task RolesInitiator – contributor – New ideas or approaches to solvingproblemsInformation seeker – Asks for clarification, facts to help groupInformation giver – Brings data, examples, research etc. to groupOpinion giver – Offers beliefs or opinions about ideasElaborator – Uses experiences guide the group on particulardirectionCoordinator – Tries to clarify ideas, direction, etc.Orienteer – Attempts to summarize what has happened, where togo.Evaluator-critic – Judges information and conclusions made bygroupEnergizer – Tries to motivate the groupProcedural – Helps group to achieve its goals by doing errandsRecorder – Writes down suggestions, ideas, and records
  20. 20. Group Building and Maintenance Roles• Encourager: Offers encouragement, understanding and encourages• Harmonizer: Mediates disagreements among others.. Will pull people aside and ask them to get along.• Compromiser: Often asks for compromise. Will often set their opinion aside.• Gatekeeper and expediter: Encourages everyone to participate. Will make sure people get turns to talk.• Standard setter: Helps to set standards for the group. Pushes group members to be more responsible.• Group observer: Keeps records of the groups progress. Often the note talker and creator of a calendar for the group.• Follower: Goes along with the group decisions. Listens.
  21. 21. Individual Roles (Self-oriented roles) Negative roles you bring to the groupAggressor: Deflates other’s status, andtakes credit for other’s ideasBlocker: Generally negative and stubbornfor no apparent reasonRecognition seeker: Seeks spotlight byboastingSelf-confessor: Uses group to repot his orher personal feelings.Joker: Tells stories, lack of involvementand interest Roles create stableDominator: attempts to assert his or her patterns of behavior in groups, so disruptionsauthority by manipulation in role relations can beHelp-seeker: attempts to evoke sympathy, stressful. (Individualinsecure roles create disruptions, and canSpecial interest: speaks for special group often break a group athat may benefit them. part.)
  22. 22. Review QuestionsTrue or FalseGroup members often get ‘stuck’ in a role.True or FalseThe blocker, aggressor, recognition seeker and theconfessor are examples of maintenance roles.True or FalseThe three types of group roles discussed are task roles,maintenance roles and gender roles.
  23. 23. Communicating in Small Groups - TrustQ: How many of you have a basic trust towardother humans? Why? Why not?Often we make assumptions about thetrustworthiness of others based on bias, pastexperiences, culture, religion, race, sex“Assumptions are the termites of a relationships” ~ Henry Winkler…Actor
  24. 24. Communicating in Small Groups- TrustAccording toPsychologist Julian B.Rotter; trust is:“a generalizedexpectancy; that theword, the promise, theverbal or writtenstatement of anotherindividual or group canbe relied upon?”
  25. 25. Communicating in Small Groups - TrustAccording to communication theorist John G.Babarro:•The degree of trust you place in another is to alarge extent based on your perception of theindividual’s character•These character-based sources of trust includetrust in the integrity of the person, trust in his orher motives, trust in his or her consistency ofbehavior, and trust in his or her openness anddiscretion.
  26. 26. Communicating in Small Groups- TrustTo be able to trust others, to be willing to take a risk, you need to have degree of confidence in yourself.Shy people are less trusting, as they have a problem with self- esteemAbraham Maslow, feels that this is not positive, and stresses the importance of a trusting attitude. Maslow feels there are two motivating factors for choices in our life.1. Growth choices: People who trust themselves make “growth” choices (self-actualized; living life to its full potential)2. Fear choices: Non-trusting people, make choices out of fear and misunderstanding, and therefore learn little about themselves.
  27. 27. Chapter 4 Review QuestionsTrue or FalseAccording the author John Powell, the highest level ofself-disclosure is clique communicationTrue or FalseThe more you reveal about yourself the less effective thegroup that you work with will beTrue of FalseAccording to Julian Rotter, people who are moretrusting are more susceptible to con artists
  28. 28. How do Norms Develop?•People develop norms in newgroups based on those they werecomfortable with in other groups•They look to these norms toguide their behavior in newgroups•Norms in new groups developbecause of what happens in thegroup process and the normspeople bring with them
  29. 29. NORMS CAN TAKE DIFFERENT FORMS• Team norms that are unique to that group:• Team norms may involve certain rituals Example: A crew team (river rowers) Saturday morning breakfast before workout is a unique norm. They tease each other, trade suggestions, set informal goals for the coming week, and generally reinforce their solidarity as a team. If member a member skips the breakfast, his or her commitment to the team is questioned. Example: Animal Rights Group Monthly meetings where we would discuss upcoming activities: protests, educational fairs, ads campaigns. If members missed we questioned their commitment. Also no members wore or ate animal products.
  30. 30. NORMS CAN TAKE DIFFERENT FORMSWays of speakingExample:Groups of friends; have certain slang words theythat share, special symbols or codes that only theyunderstand: gang graffiti, pig Latin, etc.Example: Animal Rights groupRefereed to the rest of the non-vegetarian world as“meat-eaters” “animal slayers” also used termssuch as vegan, humane, non-humane, use quotesfrom Gandhi and other pacifistic to increase theirstatus
  31. 31. Why are Norms Established? Norms increase the predictability of members’ behaviors: •Having certain roles and expectations for each group member •Predictability means greater efficiency •Greater efficiency leads to greater chances of success Examples: Military, Fire Dept. and Police Dept. etc.
  32. 32. Why are Norms Established?Norms allow members to express the centralvalues of the group (to clarify and reinforcereasons for belonging):•One reason for joining a group is thedistinctiveness of that group.•People join groups they perceive to be special.•Group members wish to see those behaviorswhich express the distinctiveness of the groupencouraged.•Members that diminish, discount, or ignore thenorms will be punished.
  33. 33. Why do People Conform? 1. Norms cause us to feel, think, and act in ways that are consistent with our group’s standards. •These norms describe what behavior should not be performed in any socialAmerican Flag - Eventsof 9-11 motivated settingpeople to join othersby putting flags in front •When individuals makeyard, on cars, store judgments in groups, theirwindows. Still judgments tend to convergeprevalent today. over time as norms develop
  34. 34. Why do People Conform?2. Influence takes place whenever we look to others forinformation.•In a group, the majority is influential because we assume alarge amount of people can’t be wrong•On the other hand, a minority is influential because itprompts us to reevaluate our positionFamous Anthropologist, Margaret Mead - “Neverunderestimate the ability of small group to elicit change.”
  35. 35. Why do People Conform?3. Interpersonal influence includes persuasion, bargains,promise, and even rejection.Groups can be persuasive by promising rewards etc. to, orpunishment for members in group that follow/or do notfollow the group normsThe reason: cults, white supremacy groups, animal rightsgroups, extremist , such as terrorists groups are so effectiveRejecting group members:•Research analysis of group rejection of nonconformists,people who don’t follow group norms, or those that areweaker are generally less liked, in some cases will beshunned/cutting off communication•The person will eventually leave the group, or the memberwill be told to leave group, and some cases people have beenmurdered to get rid of them.
  36. 36. Conformity to Group Norms Depends on:• Culture• The individual characteristics of group members• The status of individual• The clarity of the norms and the certainty of punishment for breaking it• The number of people who already conform to the norm• The quality of interpersonal relationships in the group• The sense of group identification that members have developed
  37. 37. High Status VS. Low Status members• talk more • do not• communicate more complain about responsibilities often • serve as• have influence leaders• abide by norms – • address entire Until they find they group can get away with not abiding.• less likely ignored
  38. 38. REVIEW QUESTIONSTrue or FalseNorms decrease the predictability of members’ behaviorsTrue or FalseIn a group, the majority is influential because we assume a largeamount of people can’t be wrongMultiple – ChoiceAccording to Abraham Maslow, the trusting person makeschoices in life referred to as: A. self-actualized choices B. fear choices C. intelligent choices D. growth choices E. A and C
  39. 39. Low Status MembersDirect conversation to high-status than low-status members(body often face high status members)Communicate more positive messages to high-statusmembers (Don’t kill the messenger)Are more likely to have their comments ignored (Even if theyhave good ideas)Communicate more irrelevant information (gossip and socialinformation)Talk to high-status members as a substitute for climbing thesocial heirachy in the group (Feel more important byassociation, even if they don’t have “real” status.)
  40. 40. Five power bases – Your power base in a group is the sum of the resources that you can use to control or influence others.Type of Power: Reward-rewards behaviors -Legitimate - elected - Providing rewardsBeing elected, or for desiredselected to lead behaviorReferent-attractive - Coercive-Being well liked punishment - TheExpert- knowledge - A ability to punishmember’s knowledge anotherand information
  41. 41. True or False Review QuestionsHigh-status group members usually totally disregardgroup normsTrue or FalseLow –status members communicate less positivemessages to high-status membersTrue or FalseLegitimate power is derived from forcing others to giveup the power and give it to you.