Literature review


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Literature review

  1. 1. Literature Review Prepared by Samer Zakri Presented by Sharif Hala
  2. 2. Introduction  What is it to do literature review?  Definition of Literature Review  Literature review as a part of research  Literature review as a tool to introduce your idea  How to search and references
  3. 3. What is it to do a literature review?  To search for information in a specific research topic  To find out the overall trends in what has been published about the topic  Refers to a collection of references/evidence on a topic  Sometimes information in a particular area within a certain time period, disease, location  You will be the judge of which information to choose
  4. 4. Definition of Literature Review  Getting yourself acquainted with the idea  An introduction that concludes a summary/recap of the main and key information  A critical summary that helps formalize the hypothesis or the research question  Past and novel information can be combined and/or compared with a critical interpretation
  5. 5. Literature Review as a Part of Research  Literature review helps you base your information as a critical review  Provides background, helps determine strength/weakness and give recommendations  In research accurate literature review can be used as a foundation to support the argument
  6. 6. Research PracticeEducation Theory Review of Literature
  7. 7. Literature Review as a Tool  Scientific Experiments  Lab/Clinic Reports  Research Project  Thesis
  8. 8. Points to Remember  “If Possible” Information must be compared between historical and current especially in the sciences (for example treatments/procedures are changing based on the latest published studies)  It directly influence the abstract  Literature review is built on a hypothesis
  9. 9. Before The Search  The null hypothesis  Seek clarification from your instructor/mentor to have the appropriate resources  Any type of resources weather a scientific articles, website and or published paper or other background information such as history or definitions  Narrow the references in an upside-down pyramid shape and funnel it toward your hypothesis
  10. 10. Skills  Use evidence base references : Research papers, Books .. Etc  Be selective  Use quotes carefully  Summarize toward supporting and explaining your hypothesis
  11. 11. How to search for references?  Simply you can put the word review in the search bar database engine  Choosing the correct Keywords  Which source and/or databases ??  Could I google it ?
  12. 12. Steps of Searching the Literature Conduct preliminary reading and remove irrelevant information Determine concept or the problem Conduct computer search (Pubmed) Clear out any unrelated sources before choosing Organize sources for repossession in Endnote Retrieve relevant sources Critically read each source and summarize the information Produce a critical abstract
  13. 13. Types of Sources  Primary Sources  Secondary Sources  Tertiary Sources
  14. 14. Primary Sources  Journals or Periodicals  Theses  Conferences  Reports  Patents
  15. 15. Secondary Sources  Review Journals  Article Review  Textbooks  Data Compilations  Article indexes/databases
  16. 16. Tertiary Sources  Encyclopedia  Almanacs  Fact Books  User guides
  17. 17. Research Databases  NCBI/Pubmed  Google Scholar  Springer  ScienceDirect  Ovid  Highwire  ProQuest  Elsevier
  18. 18. Google Scholar
  19. 19. ELSEVIER
  20. 20. NCBI / Pubmed  The Best and optimal search engine for medical/biomedical literature  PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books  If you can't find information try MeSH (Medical Subject Heading)  Practice session
  21. 21. Why Pubmed is Chosen First  PubMed contains all citations from the medical literature back to 1953  PubMed is updated daily directly from publishers  PubMed links directly to the home pages of many journals  Medline is hosted on PubMed.  90% of all Medline searches are done in PubMed  PubMed directly connects your references
  22. 22. Summary  Literature review is an essential part of research  There are many sources for searching  Helps in understanding, reviewing and criticizing  There are many search sources  Pubmed is the source of choice
  23. 23. Thank you
  24. 24. Endnote  By Sharif Hala
  25. 25. What is Endnote?  Software “Saves Time”  Stand-alone  Add references: manually or online connection  Word add-on (references for paper or grant)  Insert references into Word document, format according to pre-defined style  Store and consolidate your own bibliography  Papers, abstracts, conference presentations  Store any file with reference  Typically PDF’s, also editorials, images, PowerPoints (for presentations)  Add and format citations in papers and grants, and create formatted reference list
  26. 26. Create your Library  “File”, “New”, give it a name 8  Primary and Secondary Libraries (not essential)  Create a second “fake” library to download all the online search results before filtering through  “Edit”, “Preferences”, “Libraries”, “Add open libraries”
  27. 27. Collections of Libraries  Publications, one for each of  Original research document (Each has its own)  Abstracts and presentations  Invited talks  Commentary  Reviews and chapters
  28. 28. Add an Individual PDF  Got it from Google Scholar !!? No Problem  From Endnote version X2:  Select reference(s), “References”, “Find Full Text” Manually  Right-click, “File Attachments”, “Attach File”  To view  Right-click, “File Attachments”, “Open File”  Can add any file(s)
  29. 29. Insert your Reference  MS Word add-on  Check that Endnote add-on is loaded into Word After installation  Endnote toolbar?  MS-Word Add-ons  Go to Word, move the cursor to where you want the reference  “Insert Citation” – toolbar, Alt^2, menu  Note: If not present, reinstall Endnote
  30. 30. Bibliography  Select style desired by the institute  In Endnote, click on the “Bibliographic Output Style” drop-down box, and “Select Style”  Similarly under “Edit”, “Preferences”, “Output Styles”  Format Bibliography from toolbar, menu  First time, places at the end of the document, then you can move the bibliography  You can re-format any time, and change style
  31. 31. BACKUP !  Two Ways:  Copy library file + “Data” folder  Option 2: Endnote: File, Save a Copy  “Style” files that are customized (e.g., NIH) should be saved  To see where they are stored, “Edit”, “Preferences”, “Style Folder”  Connection and filter files also, but these are usually created by someone else (e.g., Endnote for PubMed with NIH PMCID)
  32. 32. Handy Tips  Find articles in PubMed, then download into Endnote  Just simplify the search (reduce number of words) within Endnote  Many journals have Endnote citation downloads on article sites  (In this case not available via PubMed/Web of Science)  Sometimes connections other than PubMed are good for some references (e.g., Science Direct)  Note different default search terms  Manually is plausible, but online gives you links, abstract, MESH terms,… etc.  Try to Manually add presentations, books, and in press articles  For books and book sections, be sure to change the reference type  Drag from another Endnote library 
  33. 33. Summary  There are many reference programs (Refworks, Papers “OSX” .. Etc)  Endnote is widely used and contains MS-Word add-on  Create a library for each project  Able to search local and online for references  Instant one click Bibliography  Backup
  34. 34. Thank you