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Sonata form


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Sonata form

  1. 1. Sonata Form<br />and Beethoven’s 5th Symphony<br />RSNO Maestro Music 2011<br />
  2. 2. Intended Learning<br />In this presentation, we will learn about sonata form<br />Beethoven used sonata form to write the first movement of his 5th Symphony, which will be the first piece performed in Maestro Music 2011<br />We will learn about the different parts of sonata form and how Beethoven applied them in this piece<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />You will almost definitely recognise the first line of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, even if you didn’t know that was what it was!<br />But there is more to that infamous four note motive – da dadadum – than meets the eye<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  4. 4. Introduction<br />Beethoven apparently referred to it as ‘fate knocking at the door’, which many people believe was a reference to his impending deafness<br />Wherever he drew the inspiration, he could not let go of those powerful few notes: They crop up again and again, forming the basis for the entire first movement<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  5. 5. Introduction<br />Beethoven could be said to fall in to both the Classical and Romantic periods in music, and certainly exhibits traits from both<br />He constantly pushed boundaries, siding him more with the Romantic composers, but he still used Classicalforms<br />One of the most important of these is Sonata Form<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  6. 6. Sonata Form Outline<br />You might think it strange that sonata form is used in a symphony, not, as you might expect, in a sonata<br />But composers such as Mozart and Haydn had been doing so before Beethoven in the first movement of their symphonies and he simply carried on the tradition<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  7. 7. Sonata Form Outline<br />Sonata form can be summed up by splitting it in to three sections:<br /><ul><li> Exposition (A1)
  8. 8. Development (B)
  9. 9. Recapitulation (A2)</li></ul>Sometimes a Coda follow the recapitulation, as in the case of Beethoven’s Fifth<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  10. 10. Exposition<br />This is the first section of the piece<br />It introduces the main themes and motives that will be heard throughout the movement<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  11. 11. Exposition<br />It usually consists of:<br /><ul><li>First Subject: an opening theme in the tonic key
  12. 12. Transition (or bridge passage) to another key
  13. 13. Second subject: a second, usually contrasting, theme in the new key</li></ul>Often, the whole exposition will be repeated<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  14. 14. Exposition<br />These are the themes to be listening out for in the first movement of Beethoven 5:<br /><ul><li>The famous four-note motive is the First Subject:</li></ul>Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  15. 15. Exposition<br /><ul><li>Beethoven immediately captures our attention with this abrupt motive
  16. 16. It is also memorable, so we will recognise it as it reoccurs throughout the symphony
  17. 17. The transition also contains the four-note motive, where it is slightly elongated to become a solo horn call</li></ul>Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  18. 18. Exposition<br />The Second Subject is a longer, legato phrase in the relative major (E flat):<br />Listen carefully, though, and you will hear the first subject motive in the cellos and double basses, accompanying the strings’ and winds’ second subject<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  19. 19. Development Section<br />As the name suggest, this is the section of the piece where the themes from the recapitulation are developed<br />The composer is therefore creating new music from existing ideas, be they melodic or rhythmic<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  20. 20. Development Section<br />The music will travel through a number of keys (composers such as Beethoven and his successors pushed the boundaries and used keys that were further and further from the ‘home’ key, or Tonic)<br />Towards the end of the Development Section, the composer has to find a way back to the Tonic and to the Recapitulation, where the themes of the exposition are replayed<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  21. 21. Development Section<br />Snatches to listen out for:<br /><ul><li>The development section starts ominously: The four-note motive is passed around different groups of instruments, sounding unsettled for a while
  22. 22. This passing around continues to build to a loud climax
  23. 23. Straight after that, listen to the notes at the end of this motive: Beethoven slightly extends the theme by adding two longer notes after it</li></ul>Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  24. 24. Development Section<br /><ul><li>These longer notes then take on their own structural role, again being passed between the strings and woodwind sections
  25. 25. Beethoven strips the music down further by taking away one of these notes so that just a single minim is passed back and forth
  26. 26. This gives the music the feel of completely winding down, especially as it also gets quieter
  27. 27. Just when you think the music has calmed down, the four-note motive makes a dramatic reappearance, leading the music back in to the recapitulation</li></ul>Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  28. 28. Recapitulation<br />Traditionally, the recapitulation re-establishes the tonic key after all the explorations of the development section <br />It will sound pretty similar to the exposition: The first and second subject are played again, but this time the second subject should also be in the tonic<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  29. 29. Recapitulation<br />Sometimes a coda is added on to the end of the movement, further re-establishing the home key<br />Beethoven typically breaks the mould early on in the recapitulation, giving a solo oboe a short cadenza before continuing on with business!<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  30. 30. Recapitulation<br />Again, he pushes the boundaries of what would have been expected at the time by making the listener think that the whole movement could finish in C major, not C minor, the original key!<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  31. 31. Recapitulation<br />The coda would traditionally have tied up any loose ends for a neat finish, but Beethoven continues the tension, building more contrasts between short notes and longer, legato phrases<br />Eventually though, the four-note motive reappears and we are transported back to C minor for a suitably dramatic ending<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />
  32. 32. Experiences and Outcomes<br />Having reflected on my personal experiences, including participation and engagement with professionals, I can listen to a wide range of music and identify and analyse technical aspects, make informed judgments and express personal opinions on my own and others’ work[EXA 4-19a]<br />Copyright Sophie Lang 2011<br />