Media Intertextuality


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Media Intertextuality

  1. 1. Intertextuality
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>The shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Notion introduced by Julia Kristeva . </li></ul><ul><li>Kristeva argued against the concept of a text as a isolated entity which operates in a self-contained manner and states that: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;any text is the absorption and transformation of another&quot; </li></ul>Bit Heavy
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Every text (and we can insert any cultural object here: image, film, web content, music etc.) is a mosaic of references to other texts, genres, and discourses. </li></ul>More Like It! Where a text alludes to, or references, another text
  4. 4. Intertexuality <ul><li>Some texts refer directly to each other – such as in 'remakes' of films, extra-diegetic references to the media / society in the animated cartoon The Simpsons , and many amusing contemporary TV ads. </li></ul><ul><li>The interpretation of these references is influenced by the audiences’ prior knowledge of other texts. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Task <ul><li>The following Simpsons clips make reference to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which important Amercian / International event? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which other popular TV show? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which other British literary genius? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Audience Pleasures <ul><li>This particularly self-conscious form of intertextuality credits its audience with the necessary experience to make sense of such references and offers the pleasure of recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>By referring to other texts and other media reminds us that we are in a mediated reality. This runs counter to the dominant 'realist' tradition which focuses on persuading the audience to believe in the on-going reality of the narrative. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intertextuality and Genre <ul><li>There are intertextual frameworks (references) at work that are less obvious or direct. </li></ul><ul><li>The assignment of a text to a genre provides the audience of the text with a key intertextual framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Each example of a genre utilises conventions which link it to other members of that genre. </li></ul><ul><li>Such conventions are at their most obvious in 'spoof' versions of the genre. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intertextuality and Genre <ul><li>Intertextuality is also reflected in the fluidity of genre boundaries and in the blurring of genres. </li></ul><ul><li>In a nutshell, texts provide contexts within which other texts may be created and interpreted. </li></ul><ul><li>What genre boundaries does The Bill blur? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Task <ul><li>List all the intertextual references made in the opening sequence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austin Powers: Goldmember (Roach 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watch the following clip that summarises what we have just discussed... </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Intertextuality in Music Videos
  11. 11. Intertextuality – Music Videos <ul><li>John Stuarts description of the music video as “incorporating, raiding and reconstructing” is essentially the essence of intertextuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Using something familiar to the audience may generate both potentially nostalgic associations and new meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>It is perhaps more explicitly evident in the music video than in any other media form, with the possible exception of advertising (and the Simpsons!) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Intertextuality – Music Videos Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953) Madonna Material Girl (1985)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Robert Palmer’s ‘ Addicted to Love ’ (Donovan 1986), alludes to fashion photography and has been parodied many times for its use of mannequin style females in the band fronted by a besuited Palmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Shania Twain copied it for her ‘Man I feel like a woman’ (Paul Boyd 1999) </li></ul>Intertextuality – Music Videos
  14. 14. Intertextuality – Music Videos Robert Palmer Addicted To Love (1986) Shania Twain Man I Feel Like A Woman ( 1999)
  15. 15. Intertextuality - Simpsons <ul><li>Almost every episode of The Simpsons contains at least one film reference to a famous film scene. </li></ul><ul><li>The Simpsons also contains intertextual references to politics, religion – nearly every aspect of social, political and cultural life. </li></ul><ul><li>The grabs on the following slides are from an episode where the Simpsons referenced Psycho </li></ul>
  16. 16. Intertextuality - Simpsons
  17. 17. Intertextuality - Simpsons
  18. 18. Intertextuality - Simpsons
  19. 19. Intertextuality - Simpsons
  20. 20. More Heavy Theory <ul><li>In 1968 Barthes announced 'the death of the author' and 'the birth of the reader', declaring that 'a text's unity lies not in its origin but in its destination' - in other words there is no longer such a thing as an original text – very postmodern . </li></ul><ul><li>This highlights how interpretation lies with the audience – that it is subjective - it is the audience that creates meaning. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Something Else to Consider <ul><li>The notion of intertextuality problematizes the idea of a text having boundaries and questions the dichotomy of 'inside' and 'outside': </li></ul><ul><li>Where does a text 'begin' and 'end'? </li></ul><ul><li>This again is postmodern </li></ul>