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Pizza club - October 2016 - Eugen

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Comparison of microbial communities and multicellular eukaryotes, implications of modeling

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Pizza club - October 2016 - Eugen

  1. 1. Can Microbial Communities be understood as Multicellular Organisms and vice versa? Pizza Club – Eugen Bauer
  2. 2. Chondromyces crocatus Anabaena Escherichia coli Bacteria as Multicellular Organisms, James Shapiro, Scientific American, 1988
  3. 3. Motivation • Multicellular eukaryotes have been compared with each other, but not with bacteria • Is it worthwhile to do this comparison, if not then why? • What is the basic mechanism of differentiation? • Use same methods to study microbial communities as well as multicellular systems • In particular computational methods
  4. 4. Evo-Devo of Multicellularity Eukaryote Differentiation Tissue/Organ Prokaryote
  5. 5. Evo-Devo of Multicellularity Eukaryote Differentiation Tissue/Organ Population Differentiation Biofilm Prokaryote
  6. 6. Evo-Devo of Multicellularity Eukaryote Differentiation Tissue/Organ Population Differentiation Biofilm Prokaryote
  7. 7. Evo-Devo of Multicellularity Eukaryote Differentiation Tissue/Organ Population Differentiation Biofilm Prokaryote
  8. 8. Cell Differentiation (in C.elegans) Developmental Biology 6th edition, Gilbert, 2000 Two modes of differentiation: 1. Asymmetric cell division • Cell polarity • Internal concentration • Structural differences 2. Induction by other cells • Diffusion via gradients • Cell to cell contact • Gap-junctions  Spatial and temporal transcription in development Hoescht dye P-granules
  9. 9. Evo-Devo of Multicellularity Eukaryote Differentiation Tissue/Organ Population Differentiation Biofilm Prokaryote
  10. 10. Cell Differentiation (in B.subtilis) Liu et al, Nature, 2015 • Glutamine is needed to grow (biomass) • Glutamate + Ammonium  Glutamine • Ammonium can be produced under limiting conditions  Trade off between competition and cooperation  Spatial and temporal nutrient gradients lead to differentiation
  11. 11. Multicellularity Comparison Prokaryotes / Biofilms • Extrinsic signals • Spatio-temporal nutrient gradients • Reversible differentiation (all cells are the same) • Differentiation through metabolism • Quorum sensing / metabolic exchange • Darwinistic processes • Egoistic cell interest Eukaryotes / Tissues • In- and extrinsic signals • Spatio-temporal transcription factors • Re- and Irreversible differentiation • Differentiation through epigenetics • Cell to cell interactions / diffusion • Cellular Darwinism • Cellular determination
  12. 12. Modeling Tissues & Communities Dependent Autonomous Mixed bag “Superorganism” model Free exchange of compounds Common objective Egoistic objective, free exchange No transparency / interactions Biofilms Tissues
  13. 13. Discussion • Development of microbial communities and eukaryotic multicellularity has some common patterns (e.g. spatial-temporal gradients) • Differentiated microbes are more autonomous than differentiated (determined) cells • Darwinistic processes govern microbial communities • Different modeling approaches to represent cellular dependencies • Further reading: Cellular Darwinism
  14. 14. Thank you for the attention

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