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Eunki Chung: Designing Service Entanglements: Towards Stakeholder-Centered Perspective in Design

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Eunki Chung: Designing Service Entanglements: Towards Stakeholder-Centered Perspective in Design

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Eunki Chung: Designing Service Entanglements: Towards Stakeholder-Centered Perspective in Design

  1. 1. Relating Systems Thinking and Design 16’ (RSD5)Eunki Chung Jodi Forlizzi + John Zimmerman advised byprepared by presented at Designing Service Entanglements towards stakeholders-centered perspective in design image credit: Eli Blevis, 
 Indiana University HCI/dSCAD Design Carnegie Mellon HCII & Design Toronto, Canada
  2. 2. motivation
 service entanglements approach interviews workshops discussion
  3. 3. mobile computing
  4. 4. KPCB Internet Report, 2012, 2013 mobile computing + social computing
  5. 5. drivers promoting density Normann, 2001 increased dematerialization liquidity unbundleability rebundleablity density Liquification of product and service offerings by technologies enables information to be more versatile, which leads to increased specializations in the delivery of product and service businesses increased liquidity of service offering
  6. 6. Programmable Web, 2010
  7. 7. motivation service entanglements approach interviews workshops discussion
  8. 8. Service Entanglements - interrelationships between multiple service systems - entangled services co-produce an experience and a value flow - not all values and experiences from Service Entanglement are positive : because entangled services are not designed to be a single system www.ite.org/css/online/DWUT10.html
  9. 9. Entangled Services: dependent relationship Flipboard content service A content service B content service C
  10. 10. Entangled Services: featuring relationship Uber Spotify Listening my Spotify music
 within Uber system
  11. 11. Entangled Services: liaising relationship Flight Hotel Rental car Service users
 liaising actions
 through entanglements
  12. 12. Information ecology - a system of people, practices, values, and technologies in a particular local environment - in Information ecologies, the spotlight is not on technology, but on human activities that are served by technology A systems approach for the service entanglements – ecology framings Ecologies of Artifacts - a study of how interactive devices interconnect within a personal life (Nardi and O’Day, 2001) (Jung, Stolterman, Ryan, Thompson and Siegel, 2008) Soft Systems Methodology - analysis of complex situations where there are divergent views about the definition of the problem - attempts to resolve “soft problems” where the boundary and structure of problematic situations are fuzzy and not clear (Checkland, 1989)
  13. 13. Product Service Ecologies Product Service Ecology Dubberly (2013) Forlizzi (2007, 2013) - the system of products and services is the central unit of analysis - dimensions of the products and services within the system help describe how social behavior evolves within the system (Forlizzi, 2007, 2013) A systems approach for the service entanglements – ecology framings
  14. 14. Forlizzi (2007, 2013) A systems approach for the service entanglements – ecology framings
  15. 15. Forlizzi (2007, 2013) A systems approach for the service entanglements – ecology framings
  16. 16. Service Entanglements Product Service Ecologies Dubberly (2013) Forlizzi (2013) A systems approach for the service entanglements – ecology framings
  17. 17. motivation
 service entanglements approach interviews workshops discussion
  18. 18. interviews co-design workshops with exploratory tools 7 senior design consultants 11 senior in-house designers 5 co-design workshops with 9 design + HCI students understanding service entanglements liquefying service entanglements
  19. 19. motivation 
 service entanglements approach interviews workshops discussion
  20. 20. a. growing needs for understanding influences of external systems “ It is challenging because it (designing healthcare solutions for general hospitals) involves larger stakeholders. We need to know regulations, policies, and stakeholders’ strategic positions to the current changes in healthcare. It requires design team quick design decision-making because there are so many uncertainties. It causes extra iterations in design execution because we don’t know what will exactly happen in the complex landscape.” 
 – P8 (service design, healthcare solutions)
  21. 21. “ What third party application information to be displayed in the Timeline was defined in meetings with product managers in charge of partnerships with the application categories. We had a lot of discussions on how much and what kind information from music or game apps we want to show in relation to portions of personal postings. ” 
 – P4 (interaction design, social media) b. systems orientation to tame interdependencies with internal/external systems
  22. 22. b. systems orientation to tame interdependencies with internal/external systems “ API level design features should be more consciously designed, rather than engineered day to day. At first it didn’t seem to be important. But I realized when you really want to design the whole experience well, you need to envision high-level future of how our systems should interface with our third party applications right.” 
 
 - P7 (product and interaction design, wearable solutions)
  23. 23. c. designing for multiple systems has not been a conventional design practice “ Working tightly with the Customer Support team was very helpful for identifying important interdependencies that would rise in the future. It helped me think of impacts when changes made by customers or hosts. Voice of Customers glued many independent designs of customer-side and host-side into a seamless one – we found having CS team in our daily scrum very useful in this sense. ” 
 – P1 (interaction design, online lodging marketplace)
  24. 24. c. designing for multiple systems has not been a conventional design practice “As we shift our focus from developing medical solutions to health solutions, we found the hardest part we face everyday is capturing and resolving issues from interdependency of systems. The interdependency lies in many different legacy (health information) systems, care practices, facilities and associated policies.” 
 – P9 (service design, healthcare provider) - maybe we need a new design approach to address the design issues from entanglements
  25. 25. motivation 
 service entanglements approach interviews workshops: liquefying service entanglements discussion
  26. 26. Giga Mapping
 Sevalsdon, B. (2011) key ideas in the co-design workshop design
  27. 27. Normann, 2001 increased dematerialization liquidity unbundleability rebundleablity key ideas in the co-design workshop design
  28. 28. b. enable unbundling and rebundling service systems through exploratory tools c. use everyday material than digital tools d. use sample experience: travel to other country key ideas in the co-design workshop design a. meta-design: sensitizing designers to the boundaries of multiple systems
  29. 29. Unbundlingexploratory tools:
 a) Unbundling
  30. 30. Unbundlingexploratory tools:
 a) Unbundling
  31. 31. Unbundlingexploratory tools:
 a) Unbundling
  32. 32. Unbundling intent startend intent startend exploratory tools:
 b) Rebundling
  33. 33. Unbundlingexploratory tools:
 b) Rebundling
  34. 34. Unbundlingexploratory tools:
 b) Rebundling
  35. 35. co-design workshop - 9 design + HCI students to a recall their recent travel experience - deconstruct / reconstruct a travel experience with services and other artifacts they interacted during the journey - 90 minutes + take home // 5 sessions
  36. 36. co-design workshop: participants
  37. 37. co-design workshop: activities
  38. 38. co-design workshop: deconstructing with unbundler
  39. 39. co-design workshop: deconstructing with unbundler
  40. 40. co-design workshop: deconstructing with unbundler
  41. 41. co-design workshop: reconstructing with rebundler
  42. 42. co-design workshop: reconstructing with rebundler
  43. 43. co-design workshop: reconstructing with rebundler
  44. 44. motivation
 service entanglements approach interviews workshop findings discussion
  45. 45. a) Unbundling
  46. 46. a) Unbundling
  47. 47. a) Unbundling - successfully sensitized
 entangled services
  48. 48. b) Rebundling
  49. 49. b) Rebundling
  50. 50. b) Rebundling - attached to the 
 user-centered perspective
  51. 51. motivation
 service entanglements approach interviews workshops discussion
  52. 52. Promises of taking systemic perspectives for designers : interrelationship as a new design material
  53. 53. - identifying values-in-use (O) Challenges of taking systemic perspectives for designers - identifying values-in-exchange (x) - current interaction designers might have been too much fixated to 
 a user’s perspective in design of an experience by the training - For design of entangled services, taking stakeholders-centered perspective could be beneficial: identifying and designing value flows intersecting multiple service systems and customer’s experience of systems
  54. 54. Hugh Dubberly evolving models we may need a better service model from a systemic designer’s perspective (1984)
 service blueprint
 operation manager optimization
 control
 monolithic systems (2016)
 ???
 designer
 grow
 multiple / 
 distributed systems
  55. 55. $ :) :( perfecting a single artifact/systemfrom
  56. 56. $ :) :( flourishing ecologiesto
  57. 57. single user - system interactionfrom
  58. 58. multiple people - systems interrelationshipto
  59. 59. Relating Systems Thinking and Design 16’ (RSD5) Eunki Chung // echung@scad.edu Jodi Forlizzi + John Zimmerman // CMU HCII & Design advised by prepared by presented at Designing Service Entanglements towards stakeholders-centered perspective in design thanks to, Jodi Forlizzi John Zimmerman Erik Stolterman Suguru Ishizaki Jamin Hegemen, Adaptive Path Kyle Vice, Philips Healthcare 18 interviewee designersHugh Dubberly

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