design design • Materials Design skill implementation – means writing or designing ones’ own materials. It involves the process of providing input to the learners in various forms and providing opportunities to exploit the materials for language acquisition and learning. – Project work approach fits comfortably within Teaching ESP since it responds to the learners’ specific purposes, the students operate in the target language, it is activity and research based, multi- skilled (develops linguistic & research skills), involves learners in both individual and group work, uses authentic material, is set up in collaboration with subject teachers.
adaptation•Materialsskill design implementation Adaptation –is the process of modifying the existing materials to suit ones purpose.
evaluation • Materials Evaluation design skill implementation – involves a look at existing materials and selecting what you need from them. – Evaluating materials for ESP is a vital skill which as Anthony (1997) states “is perhaps the role that ESP practitioners have neglected most to date.” – Anthony (1997) has a very negative view of teaching from ESP course books believing that teachers are often slaves to the book or worse teach from textbooks which are unsuitable. Wright (1992), arguing against textbook courses, asserts that “The scope of existing materials is often not appropriate to the needs of a particular group of trainees. Textbook courses are too broad or too narrow, too long or too short.”
Why evaluate materials?Evaluation is a matterof judging the fitness ofsomething for aparticular purpose. It isconcerned with relativemerit.
To identify how successful the materialsused in the classroom are.
To examine whether the materials fulfill the prescribed course
To examine the extent to which materials permitstudents to achieve learning objectives.
To identify whether the designs of the materialsare suitable for a task-based syllabus.
Evaluating existing materials provides one with a good theoretical base forwriting another material, which is an improvement on the former. Siemens Quote by George
Evaluating existing materials provides one with a good theoretical base for writing another material, which is an improvement on the former. Importance of materialGo o d ma t e r i a l evaluation i s as t i mu l u s t o l e a r n i n gsIt o makes for the t i avoidance of reduplication d material.b e s h o u l ofi de nt i f i e d f or
Evaluation is basically a matching process: matching needs to available solutions.
An ESP textbook has to suit a number of parties— teachers, students and sponsors.
What are the Priorities? types of materialevaluation?
Preliminary EvaluationThis takes placebefore thecommencementof an ESP course.
Performance/Summative EvaluationReferred to as ultimateevaluation, this kind ofevaluation takes placeat the end of a courseand it is aimed atfinding out whetherthe material waseffective.
Revision/Formative EvaluationIt is conductedwhile the course isongoing so as tomake modificationsto the materials.
COURSE-BOOK EVALUATIONAn already existing course-book can beevaluated using the following criteria:Name of Book : ________________________Author(s) : ____________________________Publisher : ____________________________Year of Publication : _____________________
I. LOGISTICAL FACTORS1. Is the cost of the book within the institutesbudget?2. What additional investment is required? Thinkabout cassettes, video, CALL, etc.3. How easily can the book be bought both nowand later?4. Does the book fit local schedulerequirements?
II. PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS5. How is the rationale of the book realized?6. Does the rationale of the book fit that of the localcurriculum?7. How do the different components tie together?8. What language is covered?9. Does the book recycle language frequently enough?10. What skills are covered?11. What tasks are covered?12. What topics are covered?13. How authentic is the material?14. What is the books approach to testing?15. What is missing from the book?
III. HUMAN FACTORS16. What teachers are expected to use the book?17. What is the teachers role?18. What guidance does the book give to teachers?19. How easily can the book be adapted?20. How frequently do teachers need to prepare tests?21. Will the book appeal to and motivate our students?22. How easily can students find their way around thebook?23. Will our teachers use the book in the way envisaged?