PREWRITING• Prewriting is writer-focused. It simply means coming up with an idea.
FASTWRITING• This literally means writing as fast as you can in order to set down your ideas in full, connected sentences.
POSTWRITING• Reader focused. Two Phases• This stage can be summed • Evaluating up with the A.R.R.R. (Adding, Rearranging, • Editing Removing, Replacing) approach.
THE FOUR C’s OF WRITINGClarityConcisenessCompletenessCorrectness
Clarity• Clarity is achieved when the receiver understands a message as the sender intended.• Word choice, unity, and coherence affect clarity
Clarity – Word Choice• It depends on the writer’s audience.• Concrete words are more understandable than abstract words.• Many is less specific than most.• Vehicle is less specific than car or truck.
Clarity - Unity• Sentences and paragraphs have unity when they have one main idea and the other information in the sentence supports that main idea.
Clarity – UnityThe basic attack of the creationists falls apart on two general counts before we even reached the supposed factual details of their complaints against evolution. First, they play upon a vernacular misunderstanding of the word “theory” to convey the false impression that we evolutionists are covering up the rotten core of our edifice. Second, they misuse a popular philosophy of science to argue that they are behaving scientifically in attacking evolution, Yet the same philosophy demonstrates that their own belief is not science, and that “scientific creationism” is therefore meaningless and self-contradictory, a superb example of what Orwell called “newspeak.” Stephen Jay Gould, “Evolution as Fact and Theory”
Clarity - Coherence• Unified messages are also coherent.• They flow naturally and the ideas in them relate to each other.• Transitional words and phrases and repetition help make messages coherent.• Writers use transitional words and phrases as bridges to join ideas.
Clarity - CoherenceTwo rangy shepherd dogs trotted up pleasantly, until they caught the scent of strangers, and then they backed cautiously away, watchful, their tails moving slowly and tentatively in the air, but their eyes and noses quick for animosity or danger. One of them, scratching his neck, edged forward, ready to run, and little by little he approached Tom’s legs and sniffed loudly at them. Then he backed away and watched Pa for some kind of signal. The other pup was not so brave. He looked about for something that could honorably divert his attention, saw a red chicken go mincing by, and ran at it. There was the squawk of an outraged hen, a burst of red feathers, and then he ran off, flapping stubby wings for speed. The pup looked proudly back at the men, and then flopped down in the dust and beat its tail contentedly on the ground. John Steinback, The Grapes of Wrath
Conciseness• Everyone prefers messages that express thoughts in the fewest words possible.• Concise messages are only long enough to present all of the necessary information.• Limit repetition, eliminate excess words, emphasize and use active verbs.
Conciseness – Limit repetition• You can reduce repetition by:1. Using a shortened form of a noun.2. Using a pronoun in place of a noun.
Conciseness – Limit repetitionORIGINAL: REVISION: Johan Erickson was office Johan Erickson was manager for Ador and office manager for Ador Smith from June 11, 1995, and Smith from June 11, until February 27, 1998. 1995, until February 27, Johan Erickson was 1998. Johan was efficient and effective. efficient and effective. Johan Erickson worked He worked well with the well with the employees he supervised and employees he scheduled the work of the supervised and employees he supervised scheduled their work to to assure prompt, correct assure prompt, correct completion of the tasks completion of the tasks assigned to the employees. assigned to them.
Conciseness – Eliminate excess words• A word is excess if it is not needed for correct grammar or clear meaning.A. He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution. He shook them. The shake was quick. His fingers were like fingers of a pianist. The fingers of the pianist were above the keys.B. He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them, a quick shake– fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys.
Conciseness – Eliminate excess wordsWORDY: CONCISE:• There are three people who can • Three people can• at the time we were meeting • while we met• move up to Canada • move to Canada• combine together • combine• in the vicinity of • near• send back • return• at the present time • now• due to the fact that • because• the meeting on May 10 • the May 10 meeting
Conciseness–Emphasize and Use active verbs • Verbs are the most powerful words in the English language. • By using active verbs, writers create messages that are concise, direct, and forceful. EXAMPLE Active verb: The members elected Carlos Esteban. Passive verb: Carlos Esteban was elected the members.
Completeness• A message is complete when all information necessary for a receiver to understand is included.
Correctness• Writing is correct when content and mechanics are accurate.• Check grammar, spelling, and punctuation.• Seek someone’s help to make sure your writing is correct.
Correctness• You must follow three steps after you complete a draft of your writing:1. Revise the draft by checking the content for completeness.2. Edit the draft to correct grammar, punctuation, or spelling problems.3. Proofread the draft aloud to yourself to catch errors such as missing words or unclear sentences.
What you write says A LOT! • What you write and how you write are very important. • Take the necessary time to revise, edit, and proofread your writing.
Steps to Good Writing 1. Memorize and master the fundamentals 2. Learn to organize your thoughts 3. Read widely with an eye towards the author’s tactics and style. 4. Practice, Practice, Practice.
Elements of Correctness and Style1. Audience2. Rationale3. Intentions4. Methods5. Mechanics6. Try to acquire your own reference books and then make good use of them.