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1
Basic First Aid
2
Securing the scene
• 1. Electrical hazards
• 2. Chemical hazards
• 3. Noxious & Toxic gases
• 4. Ground hazards
• 5. Fire
• 6. Unstable equipment
Before performing any First Aid,
Check for:
3
DURING TREATMENT
avoid coughing, breathing, or speaking over the
wound
avoid contact with body fluids
use a face shield or mask with one-way-valve
when doing active resuscitation
use only clean bandages and dressings
avoid treating more than one casualty without
washing hands and changing gloves
AFTER TREATMENT
clean up both casualty and yourself
clean up the immediate vicinity
dispose of dressings, bandages, gloves and
soiled clothing correctly
wash hands with soap and water
4
Heimlich Maneuver
for
ConsciousAirway Obstruction
5
Types of Bleeding
•Veins
•Capillary
Spurting
Steady flow
Oozing
Artery
Internal Injuries
6
Control of Bleeding
Direct Pressure
Elevation
Cold Applications
Pressure bandage
There are three types of heat
emergencies you may be
required to treat.
1.Heat Exhaustion
2.Heat Stroke
3.Heat Cramps
Heat exhaustion is less
dangerous than heat stroke.
It is caused by fluid loss which
in turn causes blood flow to
decrease in vital organs,
resulting in a form of shock.
Signs and Symptoms
Cool, Pale, and Moist Skin
Heavy Sweating
Dilated Pupils
Headache
Nausea
Vomiting
Body temperature will be near normal.
Get the victim out of the heat and into a
cool place.
Place in the shock position, lying on the
back with feet raised.
Remove or loosen clothing.
Cool by fanning or applying cold packs or
wet towels or sheets. If conscious, give
water to drink every 15 minutes.
WHILE HEAT EXHAUSTION IS
NOT A LIFE- THREATENING
EMERGENCY LIKE HEAT
STROKE, IT CAN PROGRESS
TO HEAT STROKE IF LEFT
UNTREATED!
Heat cramps are muscular pain and
spasms due to heavy exertion. They
usually involve the abdominal
muscles or legs. It is generally
thought this condition is caused by
loss of water and salt through
sweating.
Get victim to a cool place.
If they can tolerate it, give one-half
glass of water every 15 minutes.
Heat cramps can usually be avoided
by increasing fluid intake when active
in hot weather.
Heat Stroke is the most serious type
of heat emergency.
It is LIFE-THREATENING and
requires
IMMEDIATE and
AGGRESSIVE treatment!
Heat stroke occurs when the body's heat
regulating mechanism fails. The body
temperature rises so high that brain damage --
and death-- may result unless the body is
cooled quickly.
Signs and Symptoms
The victim's skin is HOT, RED
and usually DRY.
Pupils are very small.
The body temperature is VERY
HIGH,
sometimes as high as 105
degrees.
Remember, Heat Stroke is a life-
threatening emergency and
requires prompt action!
Summon professional help.
Get the victim into a cool place.
Do not give victim anything by mouth. Treat for
shock.
COOL THE VICTIM AS QUICKLY AS
POSSIBLE IN ANY MANNER POSSIBLE!
Place the victiminto a bathtub of cool water, wrap in
wet sheets, place in an air conditioned room.
19
Snake & Spider bites
Rattlesnake Copperhead Black Widow Brown Recluse
Limit activity
Constricting bandage above
Cold application
Advanced medical attention
20
Burns
Cool applicationDon’t break
blisters
Dry sterile dressing, treat for
shock
RAPID TRANSPORT!!!
21
Severe Burns and Scalds
Treatment:
Cool the burn area with water for 10 to 20 minutes.
Lay the casualty down and make him as comfortable as possible,
protecting burn area from ground contact.
Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing
from the injured area before it begins to swell.
Cover the injured area loosely with sterile unmedicated dressing or
similar non fluffy material and bandage.
Don't remove anything that is sticking to the burn.
Don't apply lotions, ointments, butter or fat to the injury.
Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere with the injured area.
Don't over-cool the patient and cause shivering.
If breathing and heartbeat stop, begin resuscitation immediately,
If casualty is unconscious but breathing normally, place in the
recovery position.
Treat for shock.
Send for medical attention and prep for transport.
22
Minor Burns and Scalds
Treatment:
Place the injured part under slowly running water,
or soak in cold water for 10 minutes or as long as
pain persists.
Gently remove any rings, watches, belts, and
shoes from the injured area before it starts to
swell.
Dress with clean, sterile, non fluffy material.
Don't use adhesive dressings.
Don't apply lotions, ointments or fat to burn/
scald.
Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere.
If in doubt, seek medical aid.
23
Fractures & Dislocations
Must treat for bleeding first
Do not push
bones back
into place
Don’t straighten break
Treat the way you found it
24
IF A DISLOCATION IS SUSPECTED...
1. Apply a splint to the joint to keep it from moving.
2. Try to keep joint elevated to slow bloodflow to the area
3. A doctor should be contacted to have the bone set back
into its socket.
The most common dislocations occur in the shoulder, elbow,
finger, or thumb.
Dislocations
LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS:
1. swelling
2. deformed look
3. pain and tenderness
4. possible discoloration of the affected area
25
Splints
Must be a straight line break Can be formed to shape of
deformity
Be careful of temperature
change
26
Head Injuries
A sharp blow to the head could result in a concussion, a
jostling of the brain inside its protective, bony covering. A
more serious head injury may result in contusions, or
bruises to the brain.
OTHER SYMPTOMS TO LOOK FOR IF YOU SUSPECT A
VICTIM MAY HAVE A BRAIN INJURY:
1. clear or reddish fluid draining from the ears, nose, or
mouth
2. difficulty in speaking
3. headache
4. unequal size of pupils
5. pale skin
6. paralysis of an arm or leg (opposite side of the injury) or
face (same side of the injury)

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Basic_First_Aid_0808.ppt

  • 2. 2 Securing the scene • 1. Electrical hazards • 2. Chemical hazards • 3. Noxious & Toxic gases • 4. Ground hazards • 5. Fire • 6. Unstable equipment Before performing any First Aid, Check for:
  • 3. 3 DURING TREATMENT avoid coughing, breathing, or speaking over the wound avoid contact with body fluids use a face shield or mask with one-way-valve when doing active resuscitation use only clean bandages and dressings avoid treating more than one casualty without washing hands and changing gloves AFTER TREATMENT clean up both casualty and yourself clean up the immediate vicinity dispose of dressings, bandages, gloves and soiled clothing correctly wash hands with soap and water
  • 5. 5 Types of Bleeding •Veins •Capillary Spurting Steady flow Oozing Artery Internal Injuries
  • 6. 6 Control of Bleeding Direct Pressure Elevation Cold Applications Pressure bandage
  • 7.
  • 8. There are three types of heat emergencies you may be required to treat. 1.Heat Exhaustion 2.Heat Stroke 3.Heat Cramps
  • 9. Heat exhaustion is less dangerous than heat stroke. It is caused by fluid loss which in turn causes blood flow to decrease in vital organs, resulting in a form of shock.
  • 10. Signs and Symptoms Cool, Pale, and Moist Skin Heavy Sweating Dilated Pupils Headache Nausea Vomiting Body temperature will be near normal.
  • 11. Get the victim out of the heat and into a cool place. Place in the shock position, lying on the back with feet raised. Remove or loosen clothing. Cool by fanning or applying cold packs or wet towels or sheets. If conscious, give water to drink every 15 minutes.
  • 12. WHILE HEAT EXHAUSTION IS NOT A LIFE- THREATENING EMERGENCY LIKE HEAT STROKE, IT CAN PROGRESS TO HEAT STROKE IF LEFT UNTREATED!
  • 13. Heat cramps are muscular pain and spasms due to heavy exertion. They usually involve the abdominal muscles or legs. It is generally thought this condition is caused by loss of water and salt through sweating.
  • 14. Get victim to a cool place. If they can tolerate it, give one-half glass of water every 15 minutes. Heat cramps can usually be avoided by increasing fluid intake when active in hot weather.
  • 15. Heat Stroke is the most serious type of heat emergency. It is LIFE-THREATENING and requires IMMEDIATE and AGGRESSIVE treatment! Heat stroke occurs when the body's heat regulating mechanism fails. The body temperature rises so high that brain damage -- and death-- may result unless the body is cooled quickly.
  • 16. Signs and Symptoms The victim's skin is HOT, RED and usually DRY. Pupils are very small. The body temperature is VERY HIGH, sometimes as high as 105 degrees.
  • 17. Remember, Heat Stroke is a life- threatening emergency and requires prompt action! Summon professional help. Get the victim into a cool place. Do not give victim anything by mouth. Treat for shock.
  • 18. COOL THE VICTIM AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE IN ANY MANNER POSSIBLE! Place the victiminto a bathtub of cool water, wrap in wet sheets, place in an air conditioned room.
  • 19. 19 Snake & Spider bites Rattlesnake Copperhead Black Widow Brown Recluse Limit activity Constricting bandage above Cold application Advanced medical attention
  • 20. 20 Burns Cool applicationDon’t break blisters Dry sterile dressing, treat for shock RAPID TRANSPORT!!!
  • 21. 21 Severe Burns and Scalds Treatment: Cool the burn area with water for 10 to 20 minutes. Lay the casualty down and make him as comfortable as possible, protecting burn area from ground contact. Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing from the injured area before it begins to swell. Cover the injured area loosely with sterile unmedicated dressing or similar non fluffy material and bandage. Don't remove anything that is sticking to the burn. Don't apply lotions, ointments, butter or fat to the injury. Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere with the injured area. Don't over-cool the patient and cause shivering. If breathing and heartbeat stop, begin resuscitation immediately, If casualty is unconscious but breathing normally, place in the recovery position. Treat for shock. Send for medical attention and prep for transport.
  • 22. 22 Minor Burns and Scalds Treatment: Place the injured part under slowly running water, or soak in cold water for 10 minutes or as long as pain persists. Gently remove any rings, watches, belts, and shoes from the injured area before it starts to swell. Dress with clean, sterile, non fluffy material. Don't use adhesive dressings. Don't apply lotions, ointments or fat to burn/ scald. Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere. If in doubt, seek medical aid.
  • 23. 23 Fractures & Dislocations Must treat for bleeding first Do not push bones back into place Don’t straighten break Treat the way you found it
  • 24. 24 IF A DISLOCATION IS SUSPECTED... 1. Apply a splint to the joint to keep it from moving. 2. Try to keep joint elevated to slow bloodflow to the area 3. A doctor should be contacted to have the bone set back into its socket. The most common dislocations occur in the shoulder, elbow, finger, or thumb. Dislocations LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS: 1. swelling 2. deformed look 3. pain and tenderness 4. possible discoloration of the affected area
  • 25. 25 Splints Must be a straight line break Can be formed to shape of deformity Be careful of temperature change
  • 26. 26 Head Injuries A sharp blow to the head could result in a concussion, a jostling of the brain inside its protective, bony covering. A more serious head injury may result in contusions, or bruises to the brain. OTHER SYMPTOMS TO LOOK FOR IF YOU SUSPECT A VICTIM MAY HAVE A BRAIN INJURY: 1. clear or reddish fluid draining from the ears, nose, or mouth 2. difficulty in speaking 3. headache 4. unequal size of pupils 5. pale skin 6. paralysis of an arm or leg (opposite side of the injury) or face (same side of the injury)