Wer ist dauerhaft von der Blutspende ausgeschlossen?
Trotz gut entwickelter Testverfahren kann die Übertragung durch infiziertes Blut
nicht komplett nur durch nachträgliche Untersuchungen ausgeschlossen werden.
Deswegen gibt es verschiedene Personen und Personengruppen, die nicht nur
vorübergehend, sondern dauerhaft von der Blutspende ausgeschlossen werden. Zum
• Personen mit bestimmten chronischen Erkrankungen und ständigen
• Personengruppen mit einem Verhalten, das statistisch eine erhöhte
Ansteckungsgefahr mit relevante Infektionskrankheiten wie HIV oder
o Männer und Frauen mit häufig wechselnden Partnern oder
o Männer die Sex mit Männern haben (MSM)
o Männer und Frauen, die der Prostitution nachgehen
o Personen, die aus Regionen kommen, in denen relevante Erkrankungen
häufig in der Bevölkerung bestehen
Who is permanently excluded from donating blood?
Despite well-developed test methods, the transmission can not be completely ruled
out only by subsequent investigations by infected blood. That's why there are different
people and groups that are not just temporarily but permanently excluded from blood
donation. For example:
• People with certain chronic diseases and constant drug treatments
• Persons with a behavior that statistically have an increased risk of infection-related
infectious diseases such as HIV or hepatitis:
o Men and women with multiple partners or partners
o Men who have sex with men (MSM)
o Drug users
o Men and women who work as prostitutes
o People who come from regions that are often made where relevant diseases in the
West Nile Virus
The virus is present in the blood of an infected person. If this blood is transfused the
patient may go on to develop West Nile Virus infection. We therefore ask that if you
have been to an area that has WNV, not to donate for 28 days.
From May 2004 people who had received blood transfusions in the Republic of
Ireland (other than autologous transfusions) since 1 January 1980 were excluded from
From May 2004 people who had spent 1 year or more in the UK between 1 January
1980 and 31 December 1996 were excluded from donating blood.
From November 2004 people who had certain operations in the UK since 1 January
1980 were excluding from donating. These include neurosurgery, eye surgery, laser
eye treatment, appendectomy, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, splenectomy and lymph
From October 2006 people who had root canal treatment in the UK since 1 January
1980 were excluded from donating unless their dentist had used only single use
disposable files and reamers.
In order to assure the continued safety of the blood supply, we currently ask those
people who may have a particularly high risk of carrying blood-borne viruses not to
give blood. This includes men who have ever had sex with another man / men.
Du må ikke donere blod, hvis du:
• Tror du kan være smittet med HIV eller Hepatitis (leverbetændelse)
Eller hvis du inden for de seneste 6 måneder:
• Har haft sex med en person, der på en af nedenstående har været udsat for smitte
• Har haft samleje med en person, der er HIV-smittet eller smittebærer af Hepatitis
• Har haft samleje med en person fra et geografisk område, hvor HIV eller Hepatitis
B er udbredt blandt befolkningen. Dette gælder hele Asien, hele Afrika samt Syd-
Du må ikke donere blod, hvis du i løbet af dit liv:
• Som mand har haft seksuel kontakt med en anden mand
• Har været prostitueret
• Har været stiknarkoman
• Deler eller har delt injektionsnål med andre
• Har været behandlet for blødersygdom før 1988
You should not donate blood if you:
• Think you can be infected with HIV or hepatitis (liver inflammation)
Or if you within the past 6 months
• Have had sex with a person in one of the following has been exposed to infection
• Have had sexual intercourse with someone who is HIV-infected or carrier of
• Have had sexual intercourse with a person from a geographical area where HIV or
Hepatitis B is widespread among the population. This applies throughout Asia,
throughout Africa and South and Central America.
You should not donate blood if you during your life:
• As man has had sexual contact with another man
• Have been a prostitute
• Has been IDU
• Shares or shared hypodermic needle with others
• Have been treated for haemophilia before 1988
I dag kan følgende ikke gi blod i Norge:
1. Personer som ikke er friske. Avhengig av sykdom vurderes permanent
2. Personer under 18 år. Øvre aldersgrense for nye givere varierer, noen
blodbanker praktiserer 60 år, de fleste 65 år.
3. Personer som veier under 50 kg.
4. Personer som bruker medikamenter fast. Viktige unntak er p-piller,
allergimedisin og midler mot lavt stoffskifte. Utover dette er det behov for
individuell vurdering av fagpersonell.
5. Personer som har hjerte-, lever- eller lungesykdom, eller har hatt
blødningstendens, alvorlige allergiske reaksjoner eller kreft (med unntak noen
steder: Basalcellecarcinom og celleforandringer på livmorhalsen, kontakt
blodbanken og spør).
6. Menn som har eller har hatt sex med menn. Kvinner som har eller har
hatt seksuell kontakt med menn som har hatt sex med menn, får minimum 6
måneders karantene etter siste seksuelle kontakt.
7. Personer som bruker eller har brukt dopingmidler eller narkotiske midler som
sprøyter. Personer som har eller har hatt seksuell kontakt med person som bruker
eller har brukt dopingmidler eller narkotiske midler som sprøyter, får minimum 6
måneders karantene etter siste seksuelle kontakt.
8. Prostituerte og tidligere prostituerte. Personer som har eller har hatt seksuell
kontakt med prostituerte og tidligere prostituerte får minimum 6 måneders
karantene etter siste seksuelle kontakt.
9. Personer som har oppholdt seg sammenhengende i minst 6 måneder. i land
der malaria er endemisk, dvs. har stor utbredelse (egen landliste finnes). Unntak
kan gjøres dersom godkjent malariatest er negativ, men bruken av testen er
10. Personer som har oppholdt seg i Storbritannia i over 1 år til sammen i perioden
1980 – 1996 eller har fått blodoverføring der etter 1980.
11. Personer født i, bodd mer enn 1 år i eller har fått blodoverføring i Amerika syd
for USA, pga T. cruzi-virus. Noen steder godkjennes blodgivere herfra ved
negativ test og etter 6 måneder i Norge.
12. Personer som har oppholdt seg i over 5 år til sammen i Afrika syd for Sahara
(dvs. gjelder ikke Egypt, Libya, Tunis, Algerie eller Marokko).
13. Hvis man har partner fra et land med høyere forekomst av Hepatitt C, får man
karantene i 5 år etter at samlivet startet, eller må vente til 6 måneder etter at
samlivet eventuelt er opphørt.
Årsaken til at personer ikke skal gi blod er at blodgivingen kan være til skade for
giveren eller at det er risiko for mottageren. Diskriminering er ikke bakgrunn for
reglene, kun graden av mulighet giver har til å smitte pasient er vurdert. På grunn av
de strenge reglene er Norge et av de land i verden det er aller tryggest å få
blodoverføring, men derfor har vi også store problemer med å verve nok givere.
Today, these do not give blood in Norway:
1. Persons who are not healthy. Depending on the disease considered permanent
2. Persons under 18 years. Upper age limit for new donors vary, some blood banks
practicing 60 years, most of 65 years.
3. People who weigh less than 50 kg.
4. People who use drugs firm. Notable exceptions are the pill, allergy medicine and
treatments for low metabolism. Beyond this there is a need for individual assessment
5. People who have heart, liver or lung disease, or have had bleeding, severe allergic
reactions or cancer (except for some places: basal cell carcinoma and cell changes on
the cervix, contact the blood bank and ask).
6. Men who have or have had sex with men. Women who have or have had sexual
contact with men who have had sex with men receive a minimum of 6 months'
quarantine after the last sexual contact.
7. People who use or have used doping agents or narcotics such as syringes. People
who have or have had sexual contact with person who uses or has used
performance-enhancing drugs or narcotics such as syringes, receive a minimum of 6
months' quarantine after the last sexual contact.
8. Prostitute and former prostitute. People who have or have had sexual contact with
prostitute and former prostitute gets a minimum of 6 months' quarantine after the last
9. People who have resided continuously for at least 6 months. in countries where
malaria is endemic, ie widespread (own country list exists). Exceptions can be made if
approved malaria test is negative, but the use of the test is unclear.
10. People who have stayed in the UK for over 1 year in total for the period 1980 to
1996 or have received blood transfusions there after 1980.
11. People born in, lived more than one year or have had a blood transfusion in the
Americas south of the United States, because T. cruzi virus. Some places approved
donors here at negative test and after 6 months in Norway.
12. People who have stayed in over 5 years total in sub-Saharan Africa (ie does not
apply to Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria or Morocco).
13. If you have a partner from a country with a higher incidence of Hepatitis C, one
gets quarantined for 5 years after the partnership started, or have to wait until 6
months after cohabitation is optionally ceased.
Who Should Not Donate Blood
People with an increased risk of developing HIV infection must not give blood. They
People who have had a positive HIV test
People with HIV/AIDS
People who have had sex with multiple partners
People who engage/have engaged in casual sex
Men who have/have had sex with other men
People who are/were injecting drug users
People who have paid for sex
Commercial sex workers
People with signs and symptoms of AIDS i.e. weight loss, swollen glands in the neck,
armpits or groin, persistent diarrhoea or rare cancers
Anyone who has had sex with anyone from the above groups
You must not give blood or platelets for at least 12 months after sex (even if you used
a condom or other protective) with...
If you are a man who, in the last 12 months has had oral or anal sex with another
man (even if you used a condom or other protective).
(If you are a woman) a man who has ever had oral or anal sex with another man,
even if they used a condom or other protective. There are exceptions, so please
A partner who is, or you think may be:
A hepatitis B carrier
A hepatitis C carrier
A partner who has ever received money or drugs for sex.
A partner who has ever injected, or been injected with, drugs ‐ even a long time ago
or only once. This includes body‐building drugs and injectable tanning agents. You
may be able to give if a doctor prescribed the drugs. Please check with us to make
A partner who has, or you think may have been, sexually active in parts of the world
where HIV/ AIDS is very common. This includes most countries in Africa. There are
exceptions, so please check with us to make sure.
BLOOD SERVICE DEFERRALS
Male to male sex and blood donation
Here at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service we wish everyone could donate blood.
But, for the safety and wellbeing of blood donors and the patients who receive
donations, around a third of all Australians aren’t eligible.
One thing we’re often asked about is why men who have sex with men must wait 12
months before donating.
We realise that this restriction can be frustrating – it is for us too. I assure you that the
Blood Service doesn’t discriminate based on sexual orientation, and that this rule is
strictly for the medical reasons explained below.
In the future, advances in medicine may let us change this. For now, I hope this
information gives you some insight into why this restriction is necessary and what
we’re doing about it.
Thank you for your understanding,
What is the Blood Service policy regarding blood donation for men who have sex
Men who have sex with men are not eligible to donate blood for 12 months since their
last sexual contact with a man.
Is the Blood Service being discriminatory in not allowing gay men to donate?
Our policy considers an assessment of risk, and does not discriminate against anyone
based on their sexuality. Deferrals are in place for any number of potential donors
who may be more likely to be exposed to infection or present other risks to patients.
The Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission has visited this
issue, and agrees that the Blood Service is not being discriminatory with our deferral
policy for men who have sex with men.
I’m in an exclusive relationship, why can’t I donate blood?
We recognise that there are different levels of risk among men who have sex with
men. The latest information from the Kirby Institute (University of NSW) states that
HIV continues to be transmitted primarily through sexual contact between men. Even
within declared monogamous relationships the risk is on average 50 times higher than
in heterosexual couples.
Don’t you test blood for HIV?
Yes, the Blood Service tests every donation. However, even this sophisticated testing
is unable to detect the early presence of infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B,
and hepatitis C. You might hear this referred to as a ‘window period’ – it’s a time
when the infection is just starting and is not yet detectable. This is why we don’t rely
on testing alone.
I disagree with you. Can’t I skip the question about men who have sex with men?
The donor questionnaire is a legal document that people must answer honestly. The
rules around who can and can’t donate blood help to ensure that the blood supply in
Australia is as safe as possible for patients.
Why can’t you ask more questions about behaviour to identify suitable donors?
Unfortunately more detailed questions about sexual practices are not practicable and
will not change the scientific knowledge around the risk associated with men who
have sex with men.
It’s been years since anyone was infected with HIV because of a blood donation.
Surely it’s time to relax the rules?
Evidence shows that it is the deferral system, alongside improved testing for HIV and
other blood-borne diseases, that has kept transfusion-transmitted infection rates as low
as they are.
In the general population, men who have sex with men accounted for 90% of newly
acquired HIV cases in Australia in 2014.
The rate of blood-borne infections amongst our donors is lower than the general
population and this is because of our deferral systems.
How do you come to these decisions?
The deferral is based on research and international policy decisions. The Blood
Service reviewed our policy on this recently and recommended to our regulator, the
TGA, that men who have sex with men should be able to donate blood after a six
month wait. Unfortunately the TGA, did not approve a reduction in the deferral period
to six months.
What do they do in the rest of the world?
Australia is usually given as an example of one of the more liberal deferral policies
although many countries are intending to, or have already moved from indefinite to
time-limited deferrals. The US reduced their indefinite deferral policy to 12 months,
in-line with ours, in 2015. Canada has a five year deferral period but also intends to
implement a 12 month deferral. New Zealand recently reduced its five year deferral
period to 12 months, and France has announced it will trial a phased approach which
will see their whole blood deferral policy brought in-line with ours, followed by a 4
month deferral for plasma donation for those who engage in male to male sex with
only one partner in the last 4 months. We will continue to monitor these developments
Countries with no specific male to male sex deferral period include Chile, Italy,
Mexico, Poland, Spain and Uruguay.
Shouldn’t I have the right to donate?
This is a common belief, however no one has the right to donate. Everyone has a right
to receive (safe) blood, and our greatest concern is ensuring the safety of the blood
supply. We defer people for many reasons, including ensuring the preservation of
their own health.
Tell us what you think
Please share your thoughts on this policy here.
We recommend that you defer as follows:
1. Defer indefinitely an individual who has ever had a positive test for HIV.
2. Defer indefinitely an individual who has ever exchanged sex for money or drugs.
3. Defer indefinitely an individual who has ever engaged in non-prescription
injection drug use.
4. Defer for 12 months from the most recent sexual contact any individual who has a
history of sex with a person who: has ever had a positive test for HIV, ever
exchanged sex for money or drugs, or ever engaged in non-prescription injection
5. Defer for 12 months from the most recent allogeneic transfusion any individual
who has a history of receiving an allogeneic transfusion of Whole Blood or blood
6. Defer for 12 months from the most recent exposure, any individual who has a
history of contact with blood of another individual through percutaneous
inoculation such as a needle stick or through contact with a donor’s open wound
or mucous membranes.
7. Defer for 12 months from the most recent tattoo, ear or body piercing, an
individual who has a history of tattoo, ear or body piercing. However, individuals
who have undergone tattooing within 12 months of donation are eligible to donate
if the tattoo was applied by a state regulated entity with sterile needles and
non-reused ink. Individuals who have undergone ear or body piercing within 12
months of donation are eligible to donate if the piercing was done using single-use
8. Defer for 12 months after completion of treatment, an individual with a history of
syphilis or gonorrhea, or an individual with a history of diagnosis or treatment for
syphilis or gonorrhea in the past 12 months.
9. Defer for 12 months from the most recent sexual contact, a man who has had sex
with another man during the past 12 months.
10. Defer for 12 months from the most recent sexual contact, a female who has had
sex during the past 12 months with a man who has had sex with another man in
Contre-indications liées à des actes de soin, un état de santé ou des antécédents
• Traitement comprenant la prise d’antibiotiques en cours ou arrêté depuis moins de 2
• Prise de certains médicaments comme le Roaccutane®
• Infection ou fièvre de plus de 38 °C datant de moins de 2 semaines.
• Contact récent avec une personne atteinte d’une maladie contagieuse (le délai varie
alors selon la période d’incubation).
• Antécédent de paludisme (jusqu’à 3 ans après la dernière crise).
• Vaccin datant de moins de 4 semaines (BCG, fièvre jaune, rougeole, rubéole,
• Intervention chirurgicale ou examen endoscopique dans les 4 derniers mois.
• Soin dentaire en raison d’un risque de passage de bactéries dans le sang (délai variant
de 24 heures après le traitement d’une carie ou un détartrage à une semaine après une
extraction dentaire ou un traitement de racine).
• Infections actives transmissibles par le sang : hépatites virales, syphilis, infection par
le VIH ou par le HTLV, maladie de Chagas...
• Traitement par hormones de croissance avant 1989.
• Antécédent familial de maladie à prion, antécédent de greffe de cornée ou de
dure-mère, antécédent de chirurgie de l’encéphale ou de l’œil avant avril 2001 et
antécédent de transfusion ou de greffe.
Contre-indications liées à des pratiques personnelles
• Tatouages ou piercings (boucles d’oreilles comprises) datant de moins de 4 mois.
• Acupuncture ou mésothérapie lorsqu’elles ne sont pas réalisées avec des aiguilles
personnelles ou à usage unique dans les 4 derniers mois.
• Antécédent de consommation de drogues ou de substances dopantes par voie
intraveineuse ou intramusculaire.
Contre-indications liées à des pratiques sexuelles
• Relation sexuelle avec plusieurs partenaires différents au cours des 4 derniers mois.
Cette contre-indication ne s’applique pas aux femmes ayant des relations sexuelles
uniquement avec des femmes.
• Relation sexuelle entre hommes dans les 12 derniers mois. Le don de plasma reste
néanmoins possible sous certaines conditions.
• Relation sexuelle en échange d’argent ou de drogue dans les 12 derniers mois.
• Relation sexuelle avec un partenaire ayant lui-même eu plus d’un partenaire sexuel
dans les 4 derniers mois
• Relation sexuelle avec un partenaire ayant une sérologie positive pour le VIH,
l’hépatite virale B ou C, dans les 12 derniers mois.
• Relation sexuelle avec un partenaire ayant utilisé des drogues ou des substances
dopantes ou ayant eu une relation sexuelle en échange d’argent ou de drogue dans les
12 derniers mois.
Cons-indications related to acts of care, health status or medical history
• Treatment including the current antibiotics or stopped for less than 2 weeks.
• Taking certain drugs like Accutane.
• An infection or a fever over 38 ° C older than 2 weeks.
• Recent contact with a person with a contagious disease (the delay then varies the
• History of Malaria (up to 3 years after the last crisis).
• Vaccine older than 4 weeks (BCG, yellow fever, measles, rubella, mumps).
• Surgery or endoscopic examination in the last 4 months.
• Dental care because of a risk of passing the bacteria in the blood (takes between 24
hours after treatment of caries or scaling one week after tooth extraction or root canal
• Transmitted Infections active blood: viral hepatitis, syphilis, HIV or HTLV,
• Treatment with growth hormone before 1989.
• Family history of prion disease, previous transplant cornea or dura, antecedent of the
brain or eye surgery before April 2001 and a history of transfusion or transplant.
Cons-indications related to personal practices
• Tattoos or piercings (earrings included) dated less than 4 months.
• Acupuncture and mesotherapy when not performed with needles or personal
disposable in the last 4 months.
• Previous history of consumption of drugs or doping substances intravenously or
Cons-indications related to sex
• Sex with multiple partners in the last 4 months. This against-indication does not
apply to women who have sex only with women.
• Sexual relations between men in the last 12 months. The plasma donation is still
possible under certain conditions.
• Sexual intercourse in exchange for money or drugs in the last 12 months.
• Sex with a partner who himself had more than one sexual partner in the last 4
• Sex with a partner with a positive serology for HIV, viral hepatitis B or C, in the last
• Sex with a partner who used drugs or doping substances or having had sex in
exchange for money or drugs in the last 12 months.
You should not give blood if you have AIDS or have ever had a positive HIV test, or
if you have done something that puts you at risk for becoming infected with HIV.
HIV Geographical Risks: If you have lived in Africa since 1977, specifically Togo or
Cameroon, you must wait one year from the date of departure from the affected
country, to donate blood. Anyone who has had sex with someone who lived there is
also not permitted to donate blood for one year after last sexual contact. This is based
on possible exposure to newly emerging strains of HIV.
HIV high-risk activities: a number of activities put people at high risk of acquiring
HIV/AIDS. These can indefinitely defer a person from giving blood—for example,
someone who has taken money or drugs for sex since 1977 cannot give blood; neither
can someone who has used intravenous street drugs. Men who have had sex with
another man more than one year ago, and who meet other screening criteria, now may
be eligible to give blood.
Sexually Transmitted Disease
You are acceptable if it has been more than 12 months since you completed treatment
for syphilis or gonorrhea.
Once Chlamydia is resolved and genital herpes lesions are healed you are eligible to
Venereal warts (human papilloma virus) are not a cause for deferral if you are feeling
healthy and well and meet all other eligibility requirements
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These changes will bring into line the approach used by NZBS to that currently in place in
Australia and the United Kingdom.
In addition to the revisions outlined above, changes to the criteria relating to overseas
travel will also come into effect. Most people who travel outside New Zealand will still be
able to donate blood when they return. However, travel to an area where there is a risk of
exposure to certain infections can result in potential risks to the recipients of blood
transfusion. The changes to the travel criteria will include the introduction of an ‘arbovirus’
risk reduction strategy that aims to reduce the likelihood that these insect borne viruses
(principally West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya viruses) might be transmitted by
transfusion in New Zealand.
A ‘Donating After Travelling’ tool can be found on the NZBS website, where donors simply
enter the country they have recently visited, or click on the world map, to determine if
there was an infection risk in the country visited. Those who have visited a country where
there is risk of infection will be advised to defer their donation for a specified period of
NZBS has a primary statutory responsibility to ensure that blood components available in
New Zealand are as safe as is reasonably practicable. Donor eligibility criteria play an
important role in assuring the overall safety of the blood supply.
NZBS uses a combination approach to assuring the overall safety of the blood supply.
International evidence clearly demonstrates that a combination approach whereby donors
at increased risk of certain infections are excluded from donating and careful testing of
donated blood is more effective than reliance on testing alone. There is a very small risk
that the tests might not detect a blood borne infection. This is particularly so in the very
early days and weeks following infection. The donor eligibility criteria overcome this risk by
excluding those people who are most likely to develop an infection. Donors are deferred
for many reasons. In addition to behavioural and travel criteria, this includes recent
piercings and tattoos, residency in the United Kingdom, Ireland or France during the
variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) epidemic and a range of medical conditions.
Behavioural Donor Deferral Criteria Review - February 2014 (pdf, 888 KB)
Final report produced by the external expert review group.
Changes to Blood Donor Deferral Criteria in New Zealand (pdf, 343 KB)
Gay Community Summary Guide 2014. Produced by the Gay Men's Sexual Health
research group, University of Auckland.