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Opportunities in 3D Printing of Metals 2015-2025


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Opportunities in 3D Printing of Metals 2015-2025

  1. 1. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Opportunities in 3D Printing of Metals 2016-2026 Rachel Gordon, Technology Analyst, IDTechEx
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Rachel Gordon Technology Analyst At IDTechEx, Rachel Gordon leads the research into 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, including writing research reports, interviewing key players, consulting, curating conferences, and speaking at events around the world. She has a BA in Natural Sciences and first-class MSci in Materials Science and Metallurgy from Cambridge University. She has worked Cambridge University Engineering Department, University of Goettingen, and the University of Technology in Hamburg. @rachel_s_gordon Tel: +44 (0) 1223 812300
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx |  Technology landscape  Company profiles  Market forecasts  Custom research  Analyst access  Advisory service  Conferences  Exhibition  Masterclasses
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Helping you profit from Emerging Technologies
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | 3D Printing Report Series Master report
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Product Landscape
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Total Installed Base of 3D Metal Printers SLM 88% EBM 8% Blown Powder 3% Metal + Binder 1% Welding 0%
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Selective Laser Melting (SLM) A powder-bed fusion technique
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats • Blown powder offers bigger build volumes and faster build speeds • Industries like aerospace adopting 3D printing in metal for the manufacture of production parts • Market for much cheaper and simpler SLM 3D printers • Small build volumes (0.0002m3 up to only 0.13m3) • Large machines • Slow build speeds • Limited to one material • Expensive machines from $100k • Fine powders are explosive • Good accuracy down to 50 microns (width of a wool fibre) • Free market metal powder consumables • Printed objects can be fully dense Selective Laser Melting (SLM) A powder-bed fusion technique
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | 3D Printable Metals Steels Engineering Metals Precious Metals Smart Materials Stainless Steels Tool Steels Maraging Steel Low alloy Steels Titanium Aluminium Nickel Cobalt Iron Niobium Cobalt Chrome Nickel Chrome Inconel Tungsten Gold Platinum Paladium Silver Copper Bronze Nitinol
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Fine powders allow good resolution, good surface finish and ease of melting. Very narrow size distribution for good consistency. Highly spherical powders for optimum spreading. Low surface area means only a small oxygen content is needed to passivate the surface, so the powder can be recycled more times and still be within the specification. High well-controlled purity. Powder Requirements 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 EBM Blown Powder SLM Particle Size (microns)
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Metal Powders – Key Players
  14. 14. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | GE Aviation GE have said they will invest $3.5bn between 2013 and 2017 to reduce fuel consumption by 10%. The fuel nozzles for LEAP jet engines are 3D printed in a Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum alloy. They are using Direct Metal Laser Melting (DMLM) to melt 20-100 micron layers of a powdered alloy. Previously nozzles were manufactured by welding together 18 smaller pieces which was labour-intensive and wasteful. Design flexibility has allowed the nozzle to be 25% lighter. They use EOS M-280 printers, but also tested 3D printers from SLM Solutions, Concept Laser and 3D Systems. They hope the engines will be in service by 2016. They are opening a new facility in Alabama, which will print over 114,000 fuel nozzles for use in 6000 jet engines by 2020.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Airbus subsidiary, Premium AEROTEC, has just opened its first manufacturing facility for 3D printing titanium aircraft components, where it has begun serial production of metal 3D printed parts. The company will be 3D printing complex parts for the A400M military transport aircraft. Upon qualification for aviation standards, the firm will be able to supply to Airbus Defence and Space. The newly modernized facility houses three metal 3D printers from Concept Laser with a fourth on standby and a fifth to be added to the operation in May. Premium Aerotec
  16. 16. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Siemens have been using direct-write metal printing technologies to prototype turbine blades for gas turbines, with a view to eventually using the technology for production. Oil and Gas Industry
  17. 17. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | EOS have sold around 100 machines for manufacturing of dental crowns and bridges. On an average, they are used to produce about 250 copings a day, but could do up to 450. This equates to about 6.5 million copings a year in total on all systems in the field. EOS believe 10 million copings are 3D printed each year, giving EOS a 2/3 market share compared to other players in the industry. Dental bridges and copings
  18. 18. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Just earlier this year, Stryker announced the development of a state-of-the-art 3D printing facility in late 2016. The FDA has just given clearance to a 3D printed Posterior Lumbar Cage made from a highly porous titanium material. The material has been specifically designed for accommodating bone in-growth and biologic fixation in the spine. 3D printing means the cages can be widely adapted in terms of widths, lengths, heights, and angles, depending on a patient’s specific anatomy. The cages feature as much open architecture as possible, enabling doctors to clearly see progress through CT and X-ray scanning. The 3D printed spinal cage is expected to be commercially released in the second quarter of 2016. Medical Implants
  19. 19. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Electron Beam Melting (EBM) A powder-bed fusion technique
  20. 20. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats • Blown powder offers bigger build volumes and faster build speeds • Industries like aerospace adopting 3D printing in metal for the manufacture of production parts • Market for much cheaper and simpler metal 3D printers • Small build volumes • Slow build speeds • Limited to one material • Expensive machines • Fine powders are explosive • Good accuracy • Printed objects are fully dense • Higher build temperature than SLM • Requires fewer support parts than SLM Electron Beam Melting (EBM) A powder-bed fusion technique
  21. 21. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Adler Ortho is an Italian maker of hip and knee implants. In 2006 they launched their first product made with Arcam’s EBM technology. It’s possible to build more than 100 medical implants in an Arcam machine in a single build cycle, which lasts about two days. In April 2015, Arcam claimed their 3D printers had manufactured over 50,000 orthopaedic implants. Orthopaedics
  22. 22. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Metal powder is blown coaxially to the laser beam which melts the particles on a base metal to form a metallurgical bond when cooled. This is a directed energy deposition technique. Multi-axis robot allows material to be deposited from any direction so the technology can be used to repair high-value metal parts. It can produce fully-dense objects from titanium, aluminium, nickel, cobalt, stainless steels, tool steels, copper, precious metals and alloys. It is used in Aerospace, Military, and Oil and Gas sectors. Blown Powder
  23. 23. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats • SLM offers higher precision and fully dense objects for lower machine prices • Welding offers higher build speed and larger volume • Different powders could be blended to print objects with graded materials • Potential for much cheaper and simpler blown-powder 3D printers • Agricultural industry, power generation, cutting implements, anti-corrosion coatings. • Expensive machines from $560,000 • Slow build speeds up to 31mm3/s • Powders are explosive and dangerous if inhaled • Large build volumes up to 4.7m3 • Can be used to repair objects • Use free market, coarser metal powders • Multi-material • High powder deposition rates • Mechanical properties equivalent or even superior to wrought materials Blown Powder SWOT Analysis
  24. 24. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | M-series printers from ExOne Two-step process Binder inkjetted into metal powder. Resulting object buried in other powder and then fired in a furnace. The original metal is not fully dense but can be infiltrated with bronze. Metal + Binder
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats • SLM is cheaper, faster, more precise and produces stronger metal objects directly. • Jewelry might benefit from this process. • Indirect process with extensive post- processing • Infused metal objects are weak • Small build volumes up to 0.16m3. • Expensive machines • Fast build speeds Metal + Binder SWOT Analysis
  26. 26. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | ExOne have qualified an extensive number of materials including: 420 Stainless Steel infiltrated with Bronze; 316 Stainless Steel infiltrated with Bronze; Iron infiltrated with Bronze; Inconel Alloy 625; Bronze; Bonded Tungsten; and Glass. ExOne, announced the addition of 6 new materials to their metals portfolio: Cobalt-Chrome, Inconel Alloy 718, Iron-Chrome-Aluminum, 17-4 Stainless Steel, 316 Stainless Steel, and Tungsten Carbide. Iron-Chrome-Aluminum (FeCrAl): Iron-Chrome-Aluminum alloys are used to build electrical furnaces, electrical ovens, home appliances, electrical heaters, and infrared settings. They have even higher heat and corrosion resistance. 174 Stainless Steel and 316 Stainless Steel: In the automotive, medical, and general industry markets, these alloys are used to produce surgical tools, metallic filters, pumps, impellers, and structural automotive parts. These grades are known for being cost-effective, as well as having excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. Tungsten Carbide (WC): With a melting point of 2770°C, Tungsten Carbide is used mainly in the manufacturing of high wear-resistant abrasives, carbide cutting tools (knives, drills and circular saws), and milling and turning tools used by metalworkers, woodworkers, miners, as well as the petroleum and construction industries. Powders for Metal + Binder
  27. 27. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | A cartesian robot holding a welding torch welds together welding wire into large metal objects This is another directed energy deposition technique. Large build volume, low precision parts from any metal which is available as weld wire, including titanium, stainless steels, tantalum, cobalt alloys, and nickel alloys. Welding
  28. 28. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats • Blown powder offers better precision and comparable build volumes for a similar price • Different wire feedstocks could be blended to print objects with graded materials • Market for much cheaper and simpler welding-based 3D printers • Oil & gas, automotive, shipping, construction and mining industries could also benefit from welding 3D printers • Poor ~5mm accuracy • Expensive machines from $1.5M • Complexity, e.g. vacuum build environment • Poor precision makes post-processing necessary • Large 3.5m3 build volume • Fast build speeds up to 1,140mm3/s • Cheap welding wire consumables • Printed objects are fully dense Welding SWOT Analysis
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Welding Wire For Example Titanium, stainless steels, cobalt alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, tantalum Many materials are available in standard sizes with well- understood microstructures and properties. Who produces it? Manufacturer and sale of welding wire is an established business and sales into additive manufacturing represent a very small proportion of the revenue. Which industries use them? What are they used to produce? Automotive and aerospace industries to build very large prototypes and final production parts Safety concerns None Properties Large build volumes but poor precision, so require post- processing. High strength, due to low porosity. Concerns about fatigue strength.
  30. 30. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Sand + Binder For Example Foundry Sand with furan, phenol, silicate or alkyd binder Which printers use them? Ink-jetting Which industries use them? What are they used to produce? Automotive and aerospace industries build moulds and cores for sand casting, small market of artists. Safety concerns Binders can be toxic Properties Moulds and cores are incredibly fragile so cannot be transported long distances. Precision is poor.
  31. 31. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Proto-pasta Stainless Steel PLA is a dense material that can be 3D printed using thermoplastic extrusion like standard PLA. It results in heavy prints that can be post-processed. In an unfinished form, prints look like cast metal. They can be left that way, or finished through a variety of methods to achieve different results. Proto-pasta Magnetic Iron PLA responds to magnets and behaves similarly to pure iron, even to the point of rusting. Magnetism allows many practical applications. It is marketed at home and education markets for jewelry, costumes, props, figurines, crafting and robots. Stainless Steel PLA is more abrasive than standard PLA, and can result in accelerated nozzle wear. Proto-pasta Metallic PLA Filament
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Japan’s Tanaka Precious Metals Group has succeeded in the development and formation of platinum-based metallic glass powder for use in Selective Laser Sintering machines. Metallic glass is a type of amorphous metal that does not have a crystalline structure like ordinary metals. It is widely known for: • high strength • hardness • low flexibility • ultra-high corrosion resistance • smooth surface finish The most common method of manufacturing metallic glass at present is casting, which requires an expensive metal cast with high thermal conductivity due to the required rapid cooling. This could allow small scale production of products requiring corrosion resistance such as medical materials, and specialised components requiring heat resistance in the automotive and aerospace industries. Platinum-based Metallic Glass
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | North Carolina State University is researching 3D printing with a gallium-indium alloy. This is a mixture which remains liquid at room temperature. But when it comes into contact with air, it develops a thin skin that is strong enough to hold the liquid’s shape. When printed, the shapes can be stretched and deformed. This technology could be used for micro- circuits and wearable electronics. Liquid metals have advantages in terms of applications, but they are extremely challenging to work with. Recent research addressed another important problem with liquid metals. The gallium and indium alloy mix is non-toxic. However, this mixture will be about a hundred times as expensive as thermoplastic filament. Gallium-Indium Alloy
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Market Share by Installed Base 3D Systems Arcam BeAM Bright Laser Technology Concept Laser DMG Mori EFESTO EOS ExOne Huake 3D Matsuura Machinery Optomec Realizer Renishaw Sciaky Sisma/Trumpf SLM Solutions Wuhan Binhu
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Forecast of Total Installed Base of 3D Metal Printers 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Numberofinstalledunits SLM EBM Blown Powder Metal + Binder Welding
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Future of 3D Printing Metals Technology Trigger Peak of Inflated Expectations Trough of Disillusionment Slope of Enlightenment Plateau of Productivity Expectations Time Jewelry Construction Prototyping Orthopaedics Non-critical aerospace Critical aerospace Electronics
  37. 37. Copyright © 2015 IDTechEx | Challenges Machines Materials • Larger build volumes • Increased build speed • Greater precision • Movement away from layered structures • Parameter monitoring and control loop • Reduced cost • Energy efficiency • Wider variety of materials properties • Developing processing parameters for each powder Design Standards • Simpler CAD software to make it accessible • Declarative CAD to use design freedom to the full • New design criteria • Integration of design and manufacture • Develop and implement international standards • Specified test programme • Cooperation between suppliers and users • Many parameters are not yet understood or controlled
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