Electrical Hazards on Airport


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  • There delegate, I'm happy to be here with you today. Sorry for my French. First , I would like thank Frenchie And Dave to give me the opportunity to speak in front of you and second I would like to give a you a little bit of background of why I was interesting in developing such topics. Some of you are aware that in 2004 a second electrician got killed at a Canadian airport, also one in St-Louis airport was killed. I start my own investigation to respond to ’’ WHY’’ in these days with all the procedure and the equipment, we still have electrical incident and people get killed. Having said that, my goal is to get everyone of you involve in raising electrical safety awareness at your work no matter what profession you are in. This presentation is the tip of an iceberg that I discover when putting together all my notes gather over years. I know that there is a lot more to say about other topics. My wish is to have some individual that will want to pursue work toward more safety in electrical installation. I will be more than happy to participate at any panel, committee or future presentation to continue this work.
  • Terrible accident September 30 2004, Montreal airport Electrical contractor got electrocuted during a start-up to loop an ILS (Instrument Landing System) electrical circuit Accident causes: Padlocking procedure and safety ground was not implemented correctly Working methodology was dangerous Montreal community was shock! From CSST
  • OSHA (occupational safety and health Administration’s)
  • Consciousness What Where Why HOW
  • ‘ ’ One who has skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of the electrical equipment and installations and has received safety training on the hazards involved .’’ NFPA 70 E 2004 ‘’ Means, in respect of a specified duty , a person who, because of this knowledge , training and experience , is qualified to perform that duty safely and properly. ‘’ Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulation Part 1
  • SE CONCENTRER SUR LE TRIANGLE Bare with me for a couple of slide. It is not technical but will help you to understand what are the concept behind safety
  • An electrician and his apprentice were task to add a new load on a switchgear. DÉCRIRE RAPIDEMENT SCHÉMA. CLIC jusqu’après photo. WHAT HAPPEN? The electrical wiring diagram was not up to date . It then confuse the apprentice WHEN he was connecting the load
  • By this drawing, if general safety hazards was 1 fatal to 300 recordable Injuries, then we have a factor of 30. Here for electrical it is 1 for every 10. ERIC, LA FIGURE GENERAL ET PLUS MINCE CAR NOUS AVONS MIS LA MÊME BASE DE '' RECORDABLE INJURIES'' Orange triangle was then put at the same base of recordable injuries.
  • 3 ASPECTS THAT NEED TO BE UNDERSTOOD FOR THE SAFETY PROCESS Overlapping circles to show need for three factors
  • FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE AS WE SAW Unqualified and competence
  • SINCE LAST 40 years
  • LOOK FOR THE WET AND DRY CONDITION AND YOUR SUCEPTIBILITY OF YOUR BODY TO ELECTRICITY. A MULTIPLIER OF 1 TO 10 EXIST BETWEEN DRY AND WET CONDITION. THEN YOU ARE BETTER TO WATCH OUT ! CHARLES DELZIEL EXPERIMENT Concluded: ‘’The maximum current at which a person is able to release a conductor by commanding those muscles directly stimulated by shock.’’ ‘’ LET-GO’’ currents : - Man 9.0 ma, - Woman 6.0 ma, - Children 4.5 ma.
  • At all time review your electrical diagram to look for other sources to be discharged - Caution : Automatic reclosing of device
  • Pay attention that 2 time more for non-electrical personnel voir cercle en rouge See Note, important not in the count are Arc-Flash injury but in burn INJURIES
  • Last 20 for light The rest (9) for : airport, neon, street
  • Last 20 for light The rest (9) for : airport, neon, street
  • Process to ionized the air. 100 psi death of person 1 MW also a stick of Dynamite but rate of expansion 1000 time faster than arc-blast (1 x 10 -3 ) Ralph H. Lee developed a theoretical model for calculation of Arc-Flash energy in 1982. He assess relation between energy produce by arcing faults, the working distance , and the potential hazard to expose workers
  • 2 types Electro thermal burns is a direct contact with the body Electric arc generate so much energy that, by radiation we get burned. 1400 F (760 C) Burning Clothing Temperature 700-1400 F (371-760 C) Clothing Ignition Temperature 1800 F (982 C) Metal droplet
  • Flash Hazard Analysis - IEEE 1584 Guide 9 key steps Collect system and installation data Determine system modes of operation Determine bolted fault current Determine arc fault current Find protective device characteristic and arc duration Document system voltages and equipment class Select working distances Calculate incident energy Calculate flash protection boundary NFPA 70E provide also a method for flash calculation Establish flash protection boundary and personal protection equipment
  • TOUCH SAFE MEAN NOT ACCESSIBLE TO HUMAN HAND, NEED AN ACTION OR A TOOL TO GET ACCESS. Moteur est souvent connected via the nut and bolt instead of using terminal block
  • Will cover first 2 in this section. Safe work practice will be cover briefly in the next chapter
  • 1910.132 general requirements, 133 eye and face, 134 respiratory, 135 head, 136 foot, 137 electrical protective device, 138 hand,
  • Refer back to body insulation, this increase it. Air inside, squeeze it to air in each fingers also immerge in water. ASTM D120-02a Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves Developed by Subcommittee: F18.15 1. Scope 1.1 This specification covers manufacturing and testing of rubber insulating gloves for protection of workers from electrical shock
  • Selection of PPE for outdoor condition is critical since material is susceptible to temperature Specification must be used for cleaning of PPE and also need one for repair.
  • DO not wear: Exposed zippers, button and other matal fastener also not wear rings, wristwatch, bracelet or similar object Brand name: Nomex, Indura, Kernel, Firewear
  • Selection of PPE for outdoor condition is critical since material is susceptible to temperature Specification must be used for cleaning of PPE and also need one for repair.
  • For your application refer to NFPA 70E, This is just to give you an overview. The table is much more completed in the standard. Look at last line of table. ILS live need flash suit! (category 4) CB pour Circuit breaker Hazard/Risk Category tel que previous slide
  • 4 1 Fire Resistant (FR) Shirt and Pants 1 8 2 Cotton Underwear plus Cat 1 2 40 4 Multi-layer Flash Suit over Cat 2 4 25 3 Fire Resistant (FR) Coverall over Cat 2 3 N/A 1 Untreated Natural Fiber 0 Min. Arc rating of PPE (cal/cm 2 ) Number of layers Description Clothing Cat
  • 1910.132 general requirements, 133 eye and face, 134 respiratory, 135 head, 136 foot, 137 electrical protective device, 138 hand, Lots and lots of development for various
  • IEC 1010 Overvoltage installation categories (600V or 1000V) CAT I to IV Test lead Impedance of instrument
  • Think about it when you it on circuitry
  • IMPORTANCE TO HAVE READING OF YOUR GROUNDING SYSTEM IN VARIOUS CONDITION MOISTURE TEMPERATURE SEE FACTOR Soil condition, resistivity with 15.2% moisture Soil resistivity affects directly the design of a grounding system Protective Jumpering (20E)
  • PROTECTIVE JUMPERING DEVICE NEED TO BE MAINTAIN AND CHECK FOR RESISTANCE VALUE Future Wire color, inspection Protective Jumpering Image??? MAT à voir Step potential and touch potential
  • Over complicate, too much forms, over years tendacy to accumulate to respond to management, you may have to review it, good example out there exist Safety program six basic element Management must have complete commitment to the program; Effective training for all degrees of hazards and a baseline for the training must be established; Effective and complete safe electrical work practices must be established; Documentation must be kept for all activities; Electrical safety engineering support must be made; Oversight for the electrical safety program must be establish.
  • LEGAL STUFF! Case history will help us to understand and react for procedure to be reviewed, manufacturer specification or construction be modified, worker protection improvement, … ALSO SERVED HAS EDUCATION MATERIAL
  • REVOIR ETS ASFAL et (ref 12)
  • Department of Labor - OSHA 29 CFR 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards. 29 CFR 1926, Safety and Health Regulations for Construction. Lots of info and very complicated since interrelation among them OSHA General industry PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 1910.137 .260 PROHIBIT CLOTHING THAT INCREASE THE EXTANT OF INJURY REVOIR ETS ASFAL et (ref 12)
  • ANSI pour american national safety institute ASTM american society for testing and materials
  • ANSI pour american national safety institute ASTM american society for testing and materials
  • for item 4 ALSO SEE RL REFERENCE 50A
  • Quality of incident data Influence educator and trainer Writers of codes, standards and regulation Decision make establishing safety related goals and objective Manufacturer influence there product Designer, engineer and electrician Revoir 50F
  • ANSI pour american national safety institute ASTM american society for testing and materials
  • ANSI pour american national safety institute ASTM american society for testing and materials
  • OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration NEC National Electrical Code NESC National Electrical Safety Code will cover that in standards section
  • Electrical Hazards on Airport

    1. 2. <ul><li>Electrical Hazards on Airports </li></ul><ul><li>Why do I Care? </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Larivée, Eng. </li></ul>IES Aviation Committee Williamsburg 2006
    2. 3. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    3. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul>
    4. 5. MISSION <ul><ul><li>To increase awareness of potential danger present in our own field of expertise and to suggest ways to improve electrical safety on airports </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. FACTS OF LIFE <ul><li>‘’ Electricity has become essential to modern life, perhaps because it is such familiar part of our surrounding, it is often not treated with the respect it deserves. OSHA’’ </li></ul>
    6. 7. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>Electrical safety is to eliminate </li></ul><ul><li>the potential of electrical incidents from occurring </li></ul>
    7. 8. CONCERNS <ul><ul><li>What are Electrical Hazards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are the Electrical Risks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I Really Exposed to Electrical Hazards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do Electrical Accidents Happen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can I do Something to Improve Electrical Safety? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Can we Learn from Electrical Incident? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Information is Available for Electrical Personnel? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. DEFINITION: ‘’ Qualified Person’’ <ul><ul><li>‘’ A person who has the skill and knowledge related to the construction and operation of the electrical equipment and its installation. This person has received safety training on the hazards involved with electrical systems specific wording requiring specific and formal safety training.’’ NEC 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘’ One familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved .’’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA - Subpart S 1910.399 and Safety and Health Regulations for Construction OSHA Subpart K 1926.449 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘’ A person with a recognized degree , certificate, or professional standing or who by knowledge , training , and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.’’ AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 32-1064 MAY 05 </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Misconceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>If a person is an electrician then he is qualified. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable of the construction and operation of the equipment to be worked on, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable of the electrical hazards associated with the equipment and the task, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to recognize the presence of electrical hazards, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to avoid the hazards . </li></ul></ul>DEFINITION: ‘’ Qualified Person’’
    10. 11. <ul><li>An event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel action or equipment failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving electrical installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential to result in an injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical flash and/or burn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric shock from a source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex action to an electric shock </li></ul></ul></ul>DEFINITION: ‘’Electrical Incident’’ How can we learn better from an electrical accidents [1]
    11. 12. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    12. 13. ELECTRICAL HAZARDS 101 <ul><li>Hazard Types </li></ul><ul><li>Theories and Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Body Impedance </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Arc and Flash </li></ul>
    13. 14. HAZARDS <ul><li>General Types [ 2,3 ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation (UV, X-Rays, Radar, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic field (EMF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. HAZARDS <ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Odourless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use is routinely viewed as a safe experience </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. HAZARDS <ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric Shock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical Burns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc-Flash Burns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc-Blast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate wiring (direct sunlight, wrong size, abrasive surface) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed electrical parts (Animals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wires with bad insulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ungrounded electrical systems or tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using wrong PPE or tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead power lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. HEINRICH THEORY An illustration of Heinrich’s Theory - Safety Pyramid [1] Activities Electrician receives fatal shock Electrician falls from ladder due to jerk reaction from shock Electrician receives minor burn from electric shock Electrician receives minor shock while connecting light fixture Electrician connects light fixture with circuit energized 1 Fatal 30 Lost Time Injuries 300 Recordable Injuries 30,000 Near Miss / First Aid 300,000 Hazards Unsafe Acts / At-Risk Behaviors General Safety Hazards
    17. 18. EXAMPLE <ul><li>Task: Connect new load, on Switchgear (SG), at 4.16 kV </li></ul>4.16 kV 600 V What happen? SG 4.16 kV New load
    18. 19. HEINRICH THEORY <ul><li>‘’ The occurrence of an injury invariably results from a completed sequence of factors.’’ [5] </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity or social environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault of a person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe act and/or condition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There is a need to remove Item 3. </li></ul>
    19. 20. MULTIPLE-CAUSATION FACTORS <ul><li>Investigation of a person falling off a stepladder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe act: climbing a defective ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe condition: a defective ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction: getting rid of the ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple causes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why was the defective ladder not found during inspection? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why did the supervisor allow its use? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t the injured employee know it should not be used? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was the employee properly trained? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was the employee reminded not to use the ladder? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did the supervisor examine the job first? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. MULTIPLE-CAUSATION FACTORS <ul><li>Possible Corrections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An improved inspection procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better definition of role and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-job planning by supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms only. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cause? </li></ul><ul><li>Find the root causes of the accident. </li></ul><ul><li>It lead to permanent results. </li></ul>
    21. 22. FATALITY RATIOS <ul><li>Incident is polar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal with little or no injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major with severe injury or death </li></ul></ul>The Value of Electrical Incident Case Histories [6] Electrical Hazards General Safety Hazards Electrical hazards tend to be more severe than general ones 1 Fatal 10 Recordable Injuries
    22. 23. HOLISTIC APPROACH <ul><li>Refocusing on electrical safety [7] </li></ul>People Managing system Equipment Safety representation - From: ‘’ 7 Habits Of Highly Effective People’’ Stephen Covey Equally balance
    23. 24. HOLISTIC APPROACH <ul><li>Refocusing on electrical safety [7] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 25. HUMAN FACTORS <ul><li>Worker Competency and Injury [8] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey: > 50% of accident - first 2 weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injuries in construction - 2 variables: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unqualified and Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar with site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar with employer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar with work method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non or less familiar with task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity of task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar with tool used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar with team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation limiting expression of competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feel pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crowded site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong tool to perform work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad condition of tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient worker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other related activities around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other operations waiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delay in work </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. HUMAN FACTORS <ul><li>Worker Competency and Injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined effect [5] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with multiple factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 factor in each group causes approximately 60% of injuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 40% have more than 3 conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 27. HUMAN FACTORS <ul><li>Employee trends and influence on safety [5] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From: family, church, school and life experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not as it used to be </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in our society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth are influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School start at 2 years of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce rate is high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Woman and the family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant everything and simplification </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. BODY IMPEDANCE <ul><li>Human Resistance Values for Skin-contact Condition [10] </li></ul>Wet skin 1000  Head to foot 500  Dry skin 100,000 to 600,000  Ear to Ear 100  400 to 600 
    28. 29. ELECTRIC SHOCK [12]
    29. 30. ELECTRIC SHOCK <ul><li>Three principal factors: [11] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to properly or completely de-energized systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally working on energized equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper or inadequate grounding of electrical system components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tool or action cause it </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to environmental condition </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De-energizing the circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using safety equipment on energized circuit </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. STATISTICS <ul><li>Construction Electrocutions, 1992-98 [13] </li></ul>Note : Arc flash injuries are usually listed as burned injuries [1]
    31. 32. STATISTICS <ul><li>Electrocutions from Direct Contact [3] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical equipment (68 deaths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical control panels (16) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switching gear (14) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit breakers/fuse holders (8) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical wiring (59 deaths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light fixtures (29 deaths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3/4 building light fixtures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>others: airport runway lights , neon signs, street lights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transformers (13) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Junction boxes (5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other (12) </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: U.S. Bureau of labor Statistics Data, 1992-98
    32. 33. STATISTICS Taylor, A J et al. Inj Prev 2002;8:306-312 Proportion of fatal occupational electrocutions in the United States 1992-99 by month.
    33. 34. STATISTICS <ul><ul><li>2/3 of electrical injuries and incidents are caused by an unsafe acts (NFPA 70E) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocution is the fourth cause of workplace fatalities in US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of trauma is low but challenges in rehabilitation suggest a high social cost </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. ELECTRIC SHOCK <ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>The severity of electrical shock from a given source will depend upon its path through your body and the resistance against it. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to increase insulation between the energized source and you, at any moment. </li></ul>
    35. 36. ELECTRIC ARC <ul><li>Discharge current across 2 electrodes due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Conductive object to close or equipment failure </li></ul><ul><li>Release of energy named incident energy </li></ul>Drawing from Bussmann Handbook for electrical safety 700 mph 30 to 40 psi lung collapse UV Rays 3rd degree burns Energy up to 600 cal/cm 2 ! Up to 140 dB 9 000 ºF sun Arc-Blast 1 MW
    36. 37. ELECTRIC ARC <ul><li>Phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 parameters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source voltage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc fault current </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected duration of arc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosive, it release energy and can kill at 10 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme amount of damage (equipment and/or personnel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident energy (cal/cm 2 ) related to a second degree burn criteria for unprotected human skin </li></ul><ul><li>1 cal/cm 2 = cigarette lighter, 1 second </li></ul>
    37. 38. ELECTRIC ARC <ul><li>Burns from electricity [15] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electro thermal burns – flow of currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severity in accordance to Joules law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W = RI 2 t = VIt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric arc – arc burns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncovered parts or when high voltage clothing catches fire </li></ul></ul></ul>Table from Bussmann Handbook for electrical safety [10] Curable (second-degree) burn 0.1 sec. 176 Incurable (third-degree) burn 0.1 sec. 205 Total cell destruction 1.0 sec. 158 Cell breakdown begins 6.0 hours 110 Damage Duration Skin Temp (F)
    38. 39. ELECTRIC ARC Potential energy exposure – from Duke Power Heat Flux Fault current and energy generated 91,5 26,9 20000 66,8 19,6 15000 43,4 12,8 10000 34,3 10,1 8000 25,5 7,5 6000 16,8 5 4000 8,3 2,5 2000 Cal/cm 2 Cal/cm 2 (amps) Multi phase Arc enclose in box Single phase in open air Fault current
    39. 40. ELECTRIC FLASH <ul><li>How to reduce incident energy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of low-voltage current-limiting fuses to reduce arc-flash energy [16] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select proper fuse or CB settings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of insulated bus bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor contribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing point for absence of voltage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safer design spec: ‘ ’touch safe ’’ terminal, motor with terminal instead of bolted, … base on IEC – IP20 (finger access) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It cost more! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. ELECTRIC FLASH Ferraz Shawmut fuses 800A 1200A 2000A
    41. 42. <ul><li>Condition: </li></ul><ul><li>Two buildings to connect, long distance, oversized wire </li></ul><ul><li>to compensate voltage drop, normally would size protection </li></ul><ul><li>of cable </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence: </li></ul><ul><li>Need a higher fault current, hence longer time to trip CB </li></ul><ul><li>or fuse, in the mean time, incident energy (Cal/cm 2 ) continue </li></ul><ul><li>to accumulate </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: </li></ul><ul><li>Review settings for load connected </li></ul>EXAMPLE Terminal Electrical center
    42. 43. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    43. 44. WORKER PROTECTION <ul><li>Prevent electrical incidents through use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe Work Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical Protection Device (fuse, circuit breaker, GFCI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarding (secure area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Generalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes, Face, Hand, Arm, Clothing, Foot, Head and Hearing protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance with comfort and safe productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incident energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions / application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petrochemical agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosive fumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others : Blankets, covers line hose, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give more protection and employees are less severely burned </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Eye protection and face shield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection for arc flash, molten metal, light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer clearly marked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After July 1994 must comply with ANSI ASTM Z87.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM F2178-02 Standard test method </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Hand and arm protection </li></ul><ul><li>Gloves provide higher insulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection - exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field care (no adhesive tape!) – no folding, clean from substance, remove perspiration and air dry, not close to sources of heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection – Air-tested, … with dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label – class and color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breathable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoallergenic </li></ul></ul></ul>36 26.5 17.5 7.5 1 Max use Volt (kV) White 10 1 Yellow 20 2 Orange 40 4 Green 30 3 Red 5 0 Color Test Volt rating (kV) Glove class
    47. 48. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100% Cotton fabrics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyester / cotton fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nylon / cotton fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All are flammable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nylon and polyester can melt over the skin and cause more serious injuries </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for characteristics; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of ignition, degree and ease of flame spread, heat produced during burning, rate of heat transfer, ease of extinguishing the flame </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Value of reference 1.2 calorie/cm 2 = 5 Joules/cm 2 = 5 Watt-sec/cm 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of flame resistant (FR) Clothing : Self extinguish / each layer = thermal barrier </li></ul></ul>3 rd degree burn to bare skin 8 Ignite cotton shirt 4 2 nd degree burn to bare skin 1.2 Degree burn Incident Energy (cal/cm 2 )
    49. 50. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor: Winter ? Rain ? Cold ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation value, wind resistance, snow or water, PPE characteristics, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual inspection max 1 year (NFPA 70E art.250.2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing max 3 years (NFPA 70E art.250.2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited life – possibly 3 years or 120 to 150 washing cycles, do not wash with other clothes, no bleach, see manufacturer instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use them if contaminated with grease, oil, flammable liquids or combustibles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 51. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer, care instructions, fabric fiber content, garment size, manufacturer tracking code, compliance with ASTM F1506, ATPV rating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Option HAF (Heat Attenuation Factor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat blocked by fabric </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum for arc-flash protection test method ASTM F1959 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APTV and HAF are values to measure heat transfer through fabric </li></ul></ul>
    51. 52. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>When to use PPE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Hazard Analysis results </li></ul></ul>Task and Hazards Risk Category - table from NFPA 70E – 2004, table 130.7(C)(9)(a ) Metal Clad Switchgear 600 V Class Switchgear 2 Work on energized parts, including voltage testing 1 Removal of bolted covers (to expose bare, energized parts) 0 CB or fuse switch operation with cover on Panel boards energized (240V. and below) 4 Work on energized parts, including voltage testing 3 Insertion or removal (racking) of CBs from cubicles, doors open 600 V Class Motor Control Centers (MCC) Hazards / Risk Category Task
    52. 53. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>PPE rating for various apparel </li></ul>Arc Flash the Basic –Power System Engineering 45-75 Electrical Arc Hood 7.3 Gold reflective U/V Face Shield 31 6.0 oz. Aramid over 10 FR Cotton 12.5 12 oz. Cotton (4 oz) under Fr cotton (8 oz) 40 Switching suit of FR coverall 24-30 oz. Weave 6 Single layer FR 7.5 oz. Weave 6.4 Single layer Aramid 6.0 oz. Weave 13.7 Nomex III 6.0 oz. Weave 1.2 Clear U/V Face shield 22.6 Nomex (2 layers) 12 oz. Weave 2 Untreated cotton 4 oz. Weave PPE Rating Cal/cm 2 Apparel
    53. 54. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM Committee – F18 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing and evaluation, program management, test method, development and application </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSHA – 1910.132 to 1910.138 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard – 29 CFR - for protective equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA - Standard on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flame-Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Flash Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection, Care, Use, and Maintenance of Flame-Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Flash Fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protective Clothing & Equipment Committee </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 55. WORKER PROTECTION <ul><li>Testing devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing the limit and signal to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for operation of instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for no voltage at equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live stick </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non contact-type: AC voltage accuracy and enabling of DC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voltmeter, clamp-on meter, … proximity and contact </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meter safety check list </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test lead safety check list </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need a ‘’ Voltgeiger meter’’! </li></ul>Pictures - Fluke Corporation <ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessories </li></ul></ul>
    55. 56. <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulated tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rated voltage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and check – cracked or broken insulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM F1505 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard specification for Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max 1000 Vac or 1500 Vdc </li></ul></ul></ul>WORKER PROTECTION Pictures – Klein tools
    56. 57. WORKER PROTECTION <ul><li>Grounding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary grounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil resistivity and weather conditions directly affects the grounding system. </li></ul></ul></ul>From AEMC site 330 000 14 -15 79 000 23 -5 30 000 32 (ice) 0 13 800 32 (water) 0 9 900 50 10 7 200 68 20 Resistivity ( Ώ .cm) Temp F Temp C 4 200 6 400 30 6 300 12 000 20 10 500 19 000 15 43 000 165 000 5 150 000 250 000 2.5 <ul><li>10 9 </li></ul><ul><li>10 9 </li></ul>0 Sandy Loam Top Soil % by weight Moisture Resistivity ( Ώ .cm) Content
    57. 58. WORKER PROTECTION <ul><li>Grounding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety grounding jumpers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use as safety ground after the circuit de-energized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protective ground set, ASTM F-855 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clamp capacity and capacitance influenced by maintenance and care – testing is a must </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground connection first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable sensitive to UV rays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Std 80 – Sub-Station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of working zone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grounding point in equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grounding procedure tied with lock out tag out procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Step and touch potential </li></ul></ul></ul>From: NDB Technologies
    58. 59. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    59. 60. SAFETY MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Safety program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: To prevent incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical program part of a global program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must include: electrical safety principles, electrical safety controls, electrical safety procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles (typical *) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspect/evaluate the electrical equipment, maintain the electrical equipment’s insulation and enclosure integrity, plan every job, …, use the right tools, assess people’s ability, audit principles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures developed around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment (yours) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment of the company or facility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Including; diagram, pictures, details of equipment, ppe involved, insulating materials and tools involved, … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>* From NFPA 70E – 2004 Annex E
    60. 61. SAFETY MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Electrical Hazards Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to your daily activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job/Task Analysis (JTA) and Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) [14] </li></ul></ul>JTA Job be broken down in each step Identify tasks and elements Identify existing or potential job hazards Find best way to performed the job JHA Take JTA info Identify hazards that exists and may occur What would cause the hazards Revise JTA
    61. 62. SAFETY MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Activities following incident </li></ul><ul><li>Injury report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary facts, employee and environment, insurance, medical and regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive analysis; work environment, equipment, procedures, work practices, interviews to determine the cause, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built around incident investigation and injury report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate and raise awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent similar events from occurring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share stories with outside organisations </li></ul></ul>
    62. 63. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    63. 64. CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS <ul><li>NFPA 70E – Standard for Electrical Safety in the </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1979 1st edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This standard for electrical safety protection is being considered for adoption in Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual edition (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety-Related Work Practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety-Related Maintenance Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Requirements for Special Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation Safety Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handbook Standard for electrical Safety in the Workplace </li></ul></ul>
    64. 65. <ul><ul><li>NFPA 70: NEC 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1980 - Electric arc flash some attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended primarily for design use, installation and inspection of electrical installations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too technical and complex for employer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 70B: Electrical Equipment Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened the electrical safety requirements associated with electrical maintenance and refers to NFPA 70E with respect to arc flash safety. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 2112: Standard on Flame-Resistant Garments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 2113: Standard on Selection, Care, Use, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Flame-Resistant Garments </li></ul></ul>CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
    65. 66. CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS <ul><li>OSHA (Occupational Safety Health and Administration) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employer and employee in their workplace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1970 Formed, prior to that, NEC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1981 Remove direct reference to NEC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1991 Add ‘’Safety-Related Work Practices’’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CFR (code of regulation), divided in 50 titles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title 29 (volume 7) relate to safety in workplace </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 states have their own </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part 1910 applies to General Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part 1926 applies to the Construction Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility of employer adequate, maintenance and cleaning of PPE even if you own it (1910.132) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to demonstrate the understanding of the training </li></ul></ul></ul>
    66. 67. <ul><li>FAA AC 150/5340-26A - Chapter 2, Safety (11 pages) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common causes of accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety procedures and guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety checklist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety equipment in vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical hazards of series ligthing circuits </li></ul></ul>CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS <ul><ul><li>Safety Warning signs/danger tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grounding and bounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confined spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire extinguishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First aid </li></ul></ul>
    67. 68. <ul><li>IEEE – Guide for performing Arc-Flash Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arc-flash hazard distance and incident energy exposed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empirically derived model 208 Volt to 15 000 Volt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE/ANSI C-2 National Electrical Safety Code </li></ul><ul><li>(2007) and Handbook </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New revision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation, operation or maintenance of electric supply and communication lines and associated equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical supply stations, Overhead line, underground lines and work rules </li></ul></ul></ul>CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
    68. 69. <ul><li>ANSI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Z16.2 Method of recording Basics Facts relating to Nature and Occurrence of Work Injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature, part of body, source, accident type, hazardous condition, agency of accident, agency of accident part and unsafe act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z89.1 Head protection and Z87.1 Eye and face protection </li></ul></ul>CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
    69. 70. <ul><li>ASTM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To help choose correct tools, equipment, materials and test methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-committee F18 on Electrical Protective Equipment for Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker Personal Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulating Cover-Up Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools & Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection and Non-Destructive Test Methods for Aerial Devices in MCS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing Apparel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM series D and F that cover: blankets, eye and face protection, gloves and sleeves, protective clothing, dielectric overshoes, fibreglass tools, plastic guard, temporary grounding </li></ul></ul>CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
    70. 71. AGENDA <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazards 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, Standards and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
    71. 72. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Create a sub-committee to investigate electrical safety topics related to airport electricians </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sub section: ‘’ safety’’ - IES aviation web site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference material used in this presentation available: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of associations promoting electrical safety, papers and documents indexes and list of books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Training, Training, Training ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical safety is changing and technology is being developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 70E – Training on 2004 version </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor PPE development </li></ul>
    73. 74. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Request manufacturers for safer product design. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate for a system to share historical cases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Society Petroleum and Chemical Industry - have done some work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANSI Z16.2 Method of recording Basics Facts relating to Nature and Occurrence of Work Injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Bureau of Labor Statistics www.bls.gov/iif/oshtc.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigate non-contact measurement devices for airfield lighting application </li></ul>
    74. 75. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Update document: ‘’MAINTENANCE OF AIRPORT VISUAL AID FACILITIES 150/5340-26A’’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination with NFPA 70E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify definition of qualified person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place emphasis to personal protection equipment (PPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect technical papers related to electrical safety and prepare index for IES aviation web site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical Safety Workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yearly IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry – Technical conference – Safety Technical Session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others related forum </li></ul></ul>
    75. 78. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Qualified person – safety training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘’’… safety training on the hazards involved .’’ NFPA 70E 2004 definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Handbook of NFPA 70E explained at 110.6 a complete sets of criteria that a qualified worker must be trained to do) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is a cost of doing work unsafely </li></ul><ul><li>5 years study, US Public Utility, direct cost $49 823 (indirect expense inestimable) [19] </li></ul>
    76. 79. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Electrical incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors present during accident investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safe work procedures not implemented or not followed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate or proper PPE not provide or worn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lockout/tag out procedures not implemented or not followed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No compliance with OSHA, NEC or NESC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate training in electrical safety (worker and supervisor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing the electrical safety culture is </li></ul><ul><li>necessary to move ahead </li></ul>Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE program by NIOSH) [9]
    77. 80. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Safety Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is yours completed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it cover all aspect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When was the last time you did an update? (if more then 5 years, you can improve it!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it adapted with the actual regulations and standards? (electrical code changed every 4 years) </li></ul></ul>
    78. 81. CONCLUSION <ul><li>‘ ’ Consider the difference between the way we handle safety and the way we handle quality, cost and schedule in a project’’ </li></ul>
    79. 82. <ul><li>Richard Larivée, Eng. </li></ul><ul><li>BPR inc. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>514 257-2412 </li></ul><ul><li>‘’ Safety has priority over services continuity, equipment damage or economics ‘’ </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Buff Book </li></ul>MERCI - THANK YOU
    80. 83. Alma • Gaspé • Granby • Harrington Park (NJ) • Îles-de-la-Madeleine • Jamaïque • Laval • Lévis • Longueuil • Montréal • Paris • Québec • Rimouski • Rivière du-Loup • Saguenay • Saint-Hyacinthe • Trois-Rivières
    81. 84. BPR Group <ul><li>1550 employees </li></ul><ul><li>23 offices </li></ul><ul><li>45 years </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>25 years of airport experience and 40 in infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Airfield lighting and control systems design specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Civil expertise in various climate conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in hydrology and sewer overflow with projects in : New York, Cleveland, Louisville, Paris, Bordeaux, Toronto, Montréal, … </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in various industries </li></ul>
    82. 85. References <ul><li>How can we learn better from electrical accidents Floyd, Eastwood, Liggett IEEE PCIC-98-34 www.cdc.gov/elcosh/docs/d0500/d000554/d000554.PDF </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Library of Construction Occupational Safety and Health - www.cdc.gov/elcosh/docs/hazard/safety.html </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Physical Hazards - www.afscme.org/health/safe09.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Safety and Health Management C. Ray Asfahl (2004 Ed) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Safety Management : A System Approach 3rd 1989 - Dan Petersen </li></ul><ul><li>The value of electrical Incident Case Histories - Eastwood, Hancharyk, Pace IEEE PCIC-2003-34 </li></ul><ul><li>Refocusing Electrical Safety - Danny Ligget IEEE PCIC-2004-37 </li></ul><ul><li>Les accidents du travail dans l’industrie de la construction : l’application des compétences des travailleurs compromise. - AQHSST Avril 1999 Girard et al. www.presst.qc.ca/actes99/pdf/girard2.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program et facts from 1982 to 1992 - www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/98-131.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Handbook for Electrical Safety - edition 2 Bussmann - www.bussmann.com/library/docs/SafetyHandbook2004.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazard Analysis - www.avotraining.com/common/documents/NEC_Digest%20_Electrical_%20Hazard_Analysis.pdf </li></ul>
    83. 86. References <ul><li>A summary of Arc Flash Energy Calculations - Doan, Sweigart IEEE PCIC-2002-34 </li></ul><ul><li>Why Construction Workers are Getting Electrocuted - Presentation from Michael McCann - Fatal occupational electrocutions in the United States - Injury Prevention - A J Taylor1, G McGwin, Jr2, F Valent1 and L W Rue, III3 www.cdc.gov/elcosh/docs/d0500/d000539/d000539.html </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 70E – Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Effects of Electrical current on living organisms, more particularly human - J. Cabanes - EDF (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of low-voltage current-limitting Fuses to reduce Arc-Flash energy - IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol36, No 6, Nov/Dec 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel Safety and Plant Reliability Considerations in the Selection and Use of Voltage Test Instruments – IEEETrans. On Ind. Appl. Vol. 33, No2 March 97 Floyd and Nenninger </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Energy (DOE) Handbook – Electrical Safety - DOE-HDBK-1092-2004 December 2004 - www.eh.doe.gov/techstds/standard/hdbk1092/hdbk10922004.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Take Basics to the Future – An Overview of the State of the Art in Electrical Safety Technology, Work, Practices and Management System – 2003 IEEE – IAS Electrical Safety Workshops – Floyd, Andrew, Capelli-Schellpfeffer, Neal, Leggitt </li></ul>
    84. 87. Other material <ul><li>Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) - Electrical Safety - UFC 3-560-02 - August 2004 (Rev 1, 16 Feb 05) - www.afcesa.af.mil/ces/cesm/documents/rev1_Bars.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>The other Electrical Hazards: Electric Arc Blast Burns - Lee, Ralph H. IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, Vol 1A-18 No3 May/June 1982 p. 246 </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Between Electrical Accident Parameters and Sustained Injury – Capelli Schellpfeffer, Lee, Toner, Diller PCIC-96-35 </li></ul><ul><li>The value of electrical incident case Histories -PCIC-2003-34 Eastwood, Hancharyk, Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Hazard Analysis – Dennis Neitzel – AVO International Training Institute www.avotraining.com/common/documents/NEC_Digest%20_Electrical_%20Hazard_Analysis.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Electrical Hazards OSHA 3075 - www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3075.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Health Topics Construction – Electrical www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/constructionelectrical/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Why measure soil resistivity AEMC www.aemc.com/techinfo/appnotes/Ground_Resistance_Testers/App-Ground-SoilResistivity.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE the industry Application Magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Safety Handbook – Cadick, Capelli-Schellpfeffer & Neitzel </li></ul>