Health impairments ppt


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Health impairments ppt

  1. 1. Amarillo College Children with Special Needs CDEC 1359 November 2010 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Children with asthma
  2. 2. Definition “Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder that produces airway hyper-responsiveness, air flow limitation and persistent respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and shortness of breath,”¹
  3. 3. Rate of Occurrence • Asthma affects 17.3 million people in the United • Children age 10 and younger account for 50% of asthma cases. • More than twice as many boys than girls have asthma • Asthma affects all races worldwide but is more common in blacks and Hispanics, but this may be due to socioeconomic conditions rather than genetics. • Five thousand people die each year from asthma. About 25% of children who have asthma have at least one parent who smokes.
  4. 4. Causes or triggers of Asthma  Respiratory infections  Allergens (anything that causes an allergic reaction)  Irritants such as tobacco smoke, cold air, chemicals, perfumes, paint odors, hair sprays  Weather change  Exercise  Emotional factors  Inflammation of the upper airways such as sinus infections, lung infections, bronchitis
  5. 5. Behavioral Characteristics The main characteristic is wheezing. Wheezing is a whistling, hissing sound when breathing. Breathlessness Chest congestion & tightness Coughing & Fatigue Difficulty speaking Other Characteristics
  6. 6. Physical Characteristics A person’s airway comes in contact with a trigger Airways become inflamed and fill with mucus, swell and narrow Muscles within the airway contract causing further narrowing Breathing becomes more difficult An asthma attack occurs
  7. 7. Educational Needs Physical Education Close monitoring Excused from physical education if necessary Classroom Monitoring Ability to have inhaler nearby Curriculum Make up work if necessary No cognitive impairment
  8. 8. Resources • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Asthma's Impact on Children and Adolescent: • American Lung Association: • Center for Disease Control; Basic Information about Asthma: • Asthma in Children:
  9. 9. Organizations National Asthma Education & Prevention Program National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Information Center (301) 251-1222 Internet: Allergy & Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics (800) 878-4403 American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (800) 822-ASMA Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (800) 7-ASTHMA
  10. 10. Parent Resources Websites to Visit • Website: Do you want to learn about asthma? Here are some fun facts and some games and learning activities that are fun and easy to do at home or in the classroom, whether you are a child, childcare provider, parent, or teacher. • Interactive Website: Interactive tutorial all about asthma that can be viewed on the web: • Article: Asthma Basics for parents, kids and teens: • Book: Children With Asthma: A Manual for Parents [Paperback] by Thomas F. Plaut
  11. 11. Classroom Strategies Make your school asthma friendly: Make sure your school and grounds are tobacco free Have a policy that allows students easy access to asthma medications Make sure students with asthma can fully and safely join in physical education and recess. Have a written emergency plan for teachers & staff to take care of a child having an asthma attack Make sure your school has good indoor air quality
  12. 12. Definition AIDS/HIV Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus destroys or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
  13. 13. Rate of Occurrence • At the end of 2009, there were 2.5 million children living with HIV around the world.2 • An estimated 400,000 children became newly infected with HIV in 2009. • Of the 1.8 million people who died of AIDS during 2009, one in seven were children. Every hour, around 30 children die as a result of AIDS. • There are more than 16 million children under the age of 18 who have lost one or both parents to AIDS. • Most children living with HIV – almost 9 in 10 – live in sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world where AIDS has taken its greatest toll. ****************************************** • There are between 6,000 to 7,000 children who are born to HIV-infected mothers each year in the United States. • Teens between the ages of 13 to 19, especially among minority groups, represent one of the fastest growing HIV-positive groups. • Between 1992 and 1997 the number of infants who became HIV positive when born to an infected mother decreased by 50 percent.
  14. 14. Causes Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is spread through one of the following ways: Vertical transmission - HIV can be spread to babies born to, or breastfed by, mothers infected with the virus. Needles - HIV is frequently spread by sharing needles, syringes, or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus. Blood contamination - HIV may also be spread through contact with infected blood Sexual contact - In adults and adolescents, HIV is spread most commonly by sexual contact with an infected partner.
  15. 15. Behavioral Characteristics CHILDREN Young children become infected with AIDS/HIV due to maternal transmission in the uterus, during the delivery process and through breast feeding; Children can also become infected through child sexual abuse ADULTS Adults become infected with the virus due to behaviors: • Sharing needles with drug use • Unprotected sex • Through blood transmissions (mostly in Third world countries)
  16. 16. Physical Characteristics • Infants - At birth, infants born to an HIV-infected mother may test negative for the virus and have no symptoms. This does not mean that the infant does not have the virus. Blood tests will be done at various stages after birth up to and past 6 months of age to determine an infant's HIV status. There may not be symptoms at first, but develop later. Symptoms may include the following: – failure to thrive - delayed physical and developmental growth as evidenced by poor weight gain and bone growth. – swollen abdomen (due to swelling of the liver and spleen) – swollen lymph nodes – intermittent diarrhea (diarrhea that may come and go) pneumonia – oral thrush - a fungal infection in the mouth that is characterized by white patches on the cheeks and tongue. These lesions may be painful to the infant
  17. 17. Educational Needs • HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact in a child care setting. The HIV virus cannot be spread by sneezing, coughing, hugging, or touching. Parents worry about accidents and fights, but fresh blood-to-blood contact among children is extremely unusual. No case of HIV/AIDS transmission in a child care center has ever been reported. • For clean ups: Use gloves and clean up as you normally would disposing paper towels and other items in a plastic bag. • If a child bites you and draws blood, wash the area immediately with soap and water. As you would for any human bite, consult your physician. • At Meal Time • Do not allow children to share food. Otherwise, there are no restrictions. Clean up and sanitize as you normally would • Clean and sterilize baby bottles as usual. • At Play Time • If the child puts something in their mouth, the toy should be cleaned and sanitized as normal. • In the Laundry • If items have been soiled with body fluids, wash separately. Otherwise, articles can be washed with others • For First Aid • Keep a first aid kid handy. It should include: a box of disposable latex gloves, antiseptic or disinfectant, a bottle of bleach diluted to 1 tbsp bleach to one quarter water mixed immediately before use, disposable paper towels, gauze, medical tape and plastic bag for waste disposal.
  18. 18. Resources • You Can Call Me Willy [Paperback /children’s book] by Joan C. Verniero • The Encyclopedia of AIDS: A Social, Political, Cultural, and Scientific Record of the HIV Epidemic, Raymond A. Smith, Editor. Copyright © 1998, Raymond A. Smith. Carried by permission of Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. • Adverting HIV and AIDS: HIV, AIDS and Children: • HIV Info Source: Children and HIV •
  19. 19. Organizations AIDS Healthcare Foundation: Project Hope: Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation : National Association of People With AIDS Hotline: 1-240-247-0880
  20. 20. Parent Resources Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDs Children Parents and AIDS: Brochure Children and HIV HIV/AIDS and Children Information for the Parents of an HIV Positive Child
  21. 21. Classroom Strategies 1. Information about a child with HIV/AIDS should remain confidential. 2. Use universal precautions when dealing with body secretions such as blood. 3. Protect child with AIDS/HIV from being exposed to secondary infections. 4. Assure that any open abrasions, cuts, or wounds are covered until a scab appears. 5. No additional classroom strategies are required.
  22. 22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Asthma's Impact on Children and Adolescent: Management of Asthma in Children: American Family Physician Center for Disease Control; Basic Information about Asthma: Asthma in Children: Asthma Basics for parents, kids and teens: Asthma in Children: emedicinehealth
  23. 23. The complete resource on HIV/AIDs AIDS: Medline Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDs HIV Info Source: Children and HIV