Children with Special Needs
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Children with asthma
“Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder that
produces airway hyper-responsiveness, air
flow limitation and persistent respiratory
symptoms, such as wheezing, coughing, chest
tightness and shortness of breath,”¹
Rate of Occurrence
• Asthma affects 17.3 million people in the United
• Children age 10 and younger account for 50% of asthma cases.
• More than twice as many boys than girls have asthma
• Asthma affects all races worldwide but is more common in blacks and Hispanics,
but this may be due to socioeconomic conditions rather than genetics.
• Five thousand people die each year from asthma.
About 25% of children who have asthma have at least one parent who smokes.
Causes or triggers of Asthma
Allergens (anything that causes an allergic reaction)
Irritants such as tobacco smoke, cold air, chemicals,
perfumes, paint odors, hair sprays
Inflammation of the upper airways such as sinus
infections, lung infections, bronchitis
The main characteristic is wheezing.
Wheezing is a whistling, hissing sound when
Chest congestion &
Coughing & Fatigue Difficulty speaking
A person’s airway comes in contact with a trigger
Airways become inflamed and fill with mucus, swell and narrow
Muscles within the airway contract causing further narrowing
Breathing becomes more difficult
An asthma attack occurs
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for
Environmental Health, Asthma's Impact on Children and
• American Lung Association: http://www.lungusa.org/
• Center for Disease Control; Basic Information about Asthma:
• Asthma in Children:
National Asthma Education & Prevention Program National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Information Center (301) 251-1222
Allergy & Asthma Network
Mothers of Asthmatics (800) 878-4403
American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (800) 822-ASMA
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (800) 7-ASTHMA
Websites to Visit
• Website: Do you want to learn about asthma? Here are some fun facts and some
games and learning activities that are fun and easy to do at home or in the
classroom, whether you are a child, childcare provider, parent, or teacher.
Interactive Website: Interactive tutorial all about asthma that can be viewed on
the web: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/asthma/htm/index.htm
• Article: Asthma Basics for parents, kids and teens:
• Book: Children With Asthma: A Manual for Parents [Paperback] by Thomas F.
Make your school asthma friendly:
Make sure your school
and grounds are
Have a policy that
allows students easy
access to asthma
Make sure students
with asthma can fully
and safely join in
physical education and
Have a written
emergency plan for
teachers & staff to take
care of a child having an
Make sure your school
has good indoor air
AIDS/HIV Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
is the virus that is responsible for causing
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The virus destroys or impairs cells of the
immune system and progressively destroys
the body's ability to fight infections and
Rate of Occurrence
• At the end of 2009, there were 2.5 million children living with HIV around the world.2
• An estimated 400,000 children became newly infected with HIV in 2009.
• Of the 1.8 million people who died of AIDS during 2009, one in seven were children.
Every hour, around 30 children die as a result of AIDS.
• There are more than 16 million children under the age of 18 who have lost one or both
parents to AIDS.
• Most children living with HIV – almost 9 in 10 – live in sub-Saharan Africa, the region of
the world where AIDS has taken its greatest toll.
• There are between 6,000 to 7,000 children who are born to HIV-infected mothers each
year in the United States.
• Teens between the ages of 13 to 19, especially among minority groups, represent one
of the fastest growing HIV-positive groups.
• Between 1992 and 1997 the number of infants who became HIV positive when born to
an infected mother decreased by 50 percent.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
is the virus that is responsible for
causing acquired immune
deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is
spread through one of the
- HIV can be spread
to babies born to, or
with the virus.
Needles - HIV is
frequently spread by
syringes, or drug use
someone who is
infected with the virus.
- HIV may also be
contact with infected
Sexual contact - In
adolescents, HIV is
commonly by sexual
contact with an
Young children become infected with AIDS/HIV due to maternal transmission
in the uterus, during the delivery process and through breast feeding;
Children can also become infected through child sexual abuse
Adults become infected with the virus due to behaviors:
• Sharing needles with drug use
• Unprotected sex
• Through blood transmissions (mostly in Third world countries)
• Infants - At birth, infants born to an HIV-infected mother may test
negative for the virus and have no symptoms. This does not mean that the
infant does not have the virus. Blood tests will be done at various stages
after birth up to and past 6 months of age to determine an infant's HIV
status. There may not be symptoms at first, but develop later. Symptoms
may include the following:
– failure to thrive - delayed physical and developmental growth as evidenced by
poor weight gain and bone growth.
– swollen abdomen (due to swelling of the liver and spleen)
– swollen lymph nodes
– intermittent diarrhea (diarrhea that may come and go) pneumonia
– oral thrush - a fungal infection in the mouth that is characterized by white
patches on the cheeks and tongue. These lesions may be painful to the infant
• HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact in a child care setting. The HIV virus cannot be
spread by sneezing, coughing, hugging, or touching. Parents worry about accidents and fights, but
fresh blood-to-blood contact among children is extremely unusual. No case of HIV/AIDS
transmission in a child care center has ever been reported.
• For clean ups: Use gloves and clean up as you normally would disposing paper towels and other
items in a plastic bag.
• If a child bites you and draws blood, wash the area immediately with soap and water. As you would
for any human bite, consult your physician.
• At Meal Time
• Do not allow children to share food. Otherwise, there are no restrictions. Clean up and sanitize as
you normally would
• Clean and sterilize baby bottles as usual.
• At Play Time
• If the child puts something in their mouth, the toy should be cleaned and sanitized as normal.
• In the Laundry
• If items have been soiled with body fluids, wash separately. Otherwise, articles can be washed with
• For First Aid
• Keep a first aid kid handy. It should include: a box of disposable latex gloves, antiseptic or
disinfectant, a bottle of bleach diluted to 1 tbsp bleach to one quarter water mixed immediately
before use, disposable paper towels, gauze, medical tape and plastic bag for waste disposal.
AIDS Healthcare Foundation: http://www.aidshealth.org/
Project Hope: http://www.projecthope.org
Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation :
National Association of People With AIDS Hotline:
Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDs
Children Parents and AIDS: Brochure
Children and HIV
HIV/AIDS and Children Information for the Parents of an HIV Positive Child
1. Information about a child with HIV/AIDS should remain confidential.
2. Use universal precautions when dealing with body secretions such as
3. Protect child with AIDS/HIV from being exposed to secondary infections.
4. Assure that any open abrasions, cuts, or wounds are covered until a scab
5. No additional classroom strategies are required.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental
Health, Asthma's Impact on Children and Adolescent:
Management of Asthma in Children: American Family Physician
Center for Disease Control; Basic Information about Asthma:
Asthma in Children:
Asthma Basics for parents, kids and teens:
Asthma in Children: emedicinehealth
The complete resource on HIV/AIDs
Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDs
HIV Info Source: Children and HIV