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Treated Wastewater as an
Unconventional Water Resource:
Examples from MENA Region
Muscat, Oman
February 2014

Ralf Klingbe...
Outline
• UN ESCWA
• Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
• Examples from MENA Region:
– “Reduce” Demand for Centrally Treated W...
UN ESCWA

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

• Located in Beirut
since 1997
• 17 Member State...
Organizational Chart
Sustainable Development Policies
Division SDPD

Energy Section
EnS

Economic Development and Globaliz...
Al Baz I. 2011.

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

February 2014

www.escwa.un.org

5
Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
MENA Region
Volume of WW (109 m3 / yr)

10.88

6.47
4.36

Choukr-Allah R. 2012.

Reused

Un...
Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
“3R” Approach from Solid Waste Management
Applied to Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

Reduce...
Domestic Reuse: “Grey Water”

Drinking
10%

Cleaning
5%

Surendran S. 1998, Jefferson B et al., 2004, http://guelph.ca

Re...
Reduce

Marsh
Plants

Pump

February 2014

Drainage pipe

www.escwa.un.org

Reed Bed Treatment:
• WW passing through
soil ...
• Set up locally / “reduce” demand for centrally treated WW
• Reduce costs for operation of large WW collection systems
• ...
Reuse

• 33 million m3 of TWW / year
• 3 Treatments
• Sludge treatment
Sludge disposal site

Wastewater Treatment Plant

F...
Marrakesh Wastewater Treatment Plant &
Reuse Project, Morocco
WWTP

PS2

Reuse

PS2

PS3

• 60 km of pipes
• 4 pumping sta...
Reuse

Aqaba Water, Jordan
Aqaba treatment plant:
• Network coverage:
97% of urban Aqaba
• TWW: 4.5 million m3/y
• 25 % of...
Reclaimed Wastewater Usage:
• Aqaba treatment plant greening project
• Palm tree forest project
• Aqaba city greening proj...
Korba aquifer:
• 90% of the region’s groundwater
• Used mainly for irrigation
• Prior to recharge, contaminated with seawa...
Korba Aquifer Recharge:
• Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion
• Treated WW better suited for irrigation,
due to r...
Salalah Aquifer Recharge, Oman

Recycle

Groundwater Levels

Salinity Levels

February 2014

Shammas MI. 2007, 2008.

Sala...
Conclusions & Outlook 1/2
Wastewater treatment & reuse:
• Preserve natural water resources
• Supply water scarce region wi...
Conclusions & Outlook 2/2
Outlook:
• High level of political and public commitment, stakeholder
participation
• Recognize ...
Treated Wastewater as an
Unconventional Water Resource:
Examples from MENA Region
Muscat, Oman
February 2014

Ralf Klingbe...
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R. Klingbeil & M. El Khawand, 2014. Treated Wastewater as an Unconventional Water Resource: Examples from MENA Region.

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Klingbeil, R. & El Khawand, M., 2014. Treated Wastewater as an Unconventional Water Resource: Examples from MENA Region. Presentation at the International Seminar “Use of Unconventional Water in Urban Water Management”, Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources (MRMWR), Oman, UNESCO Regional Centre on Urban on Water Management (RCUWM), Muscat, Oman, 24-26 Feb 2014.

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R. Klingbeil & M. El Khawand, 2014. Treated Wastewater as an Unconventional Water Resource: Examples from MENA Region.

  1. 1. Treated Wastewater as an Unconventional Water Resource: Examples from MENA Region Muscat, Oman February 2014 Ralf Klingbeil Myriam El Khawand
  2. 2. Outline • UN ESCWA • Wastewater Treatment and Reuse • Examples from MENA Region: – “Reduce” Demand for Centrally Treated Wastewater Using Reed Bed Treatment - United Arab Emirates – “Reuse” Treated Wastewater at Large Consuming Facilities - Morocco, Jordan – “Recycle” Treated Wastewater by Reintroducing it into the Hydrologic Cycle (Managed Aquifer Recharge) - Tunisia, Oman • Conclusions and Outlook February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 2
  3. 3. UN ESCWA United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia • Located in Beirut since 1997 • 17 Member States February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3
  4. 4. Organizational Chart Sustainable Development Policies Division SDPD Energy Section EnS Economic Development and Globalization Division EDGD U N E S C W A Social Development Division SDD Information Communication and Technology Division ICTD Statistics Division SD Emerging Conflicts and Related Issues ECRI Food and Environmental Policies Section FEPS Water Resources Section WRS ESCWA Centre for Women ECW Administrative Services Division ASD February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 4
  5. 5. Al Baz I. 2011. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 5
  6. 6. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse MENA Region Volume of WW (109 m3 / yr) 10.88 6.47 4.36 Choukr-Allah R. 2012. Reused Untreated Treated Total produced 2.18 Wastewater Reuse Index (WRI*) February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 6
  7. 7. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse “3R” Approach from Solid Waste Management Applied to Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Reduce Reuse Recycle February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 7
  8. 8. Domestic Reuse: “Grey Water” Drinking 10% Cleaning 5% Surendran S. 1998, Jefferson B et al., 2004, http://guelph.ca Reduce Green Buildings: “Grey Water” Bath 35% Laundry 20% Toilet 30% February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8
  9. 9. Reduce Marsh Plants Pump February 2014 Drainage pipe www.escwa.un.org Reed Bed Treatment: • WW passing through soil filter planted with wetlands vegetation • WW undergoes chemical, physical and biological treatments • Treated WW is collected in tanks via drainage pipes • Treated WW can be directly reused 9 Sustainable Sanitation Alliance. 2009. Reed Bed Treatment and Reuse, UAE
  10. 10. • Set up locally / “reduce” demand for centrally treated WW • Reduce costs for operation of large WW collection systems • Reduce environmental risks associated with leaking or overloaded pipes • Treated WW reused for car washing, fish ponds and irrigation of palm trees and gardens • Reed plants can be harvested and used in production of bioenergy and biomaterials - paper and reed concrete (not yet in UAE) February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10 Sustainable Sanitation Alliance. 2009. Sievert W. 2010 Reduce Reed Bed Treatments and Reuse, UAE
  11. 11. Reuse • 33 million m3 of TWW / year • 3 Treatments • Sludge treatment Sludge disposal site Wastewater Treatment Plant February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 11 Choukr-Allah R. 2010. Project Design Document Marrakesh Wastewater Treatment Plant & Reuse Project, Morocco
  12. 12. Marrakesh Wastewater Treatment Plant & Reuse Project, Morocco WWTP PS2 Reuse PS2 PS3 • 60 km of pipes • 4 pumping stations • Irrigation of golf courses (24 million m3 / year required) • “ Green “ Morocco • Anaerobic treatment of sludge generates methane, covers 33% of WWTP energy requirement Choukr-Allah R. 2010. PS4 February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 12
  13. 13. Reuse Aqaba Water, Jordan Aqaba treatment plant: • Network coverage: 97% of urban Aqaba • TWW: 4.5 million m3/y • 25 % of total water supply February 2014 www.escwa.un.org Aqaba Water. 2014. Natural treatment plant (1987): • 40% of Aqaba WW Mechanical treatment plant (2005): • 60% of Aqaba WW 13
  14. 14. Reclaimed Wastewater Usage: • Aqaba treatment plant greening project • Palm tree forest project • Aqaba city greening project • Pioneering project • Alsalam forest project • Al-Haq farms project • Phosphate Mining Company - industrial complexes Aqaba Water. 2014. Reuse Aqaba Water, Jordan February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 14
  15. 15. Korba aquifer: • 90% of the region’s groundwater • Used mainly for irrigation • Prior to recharge, contaminated with seawater intrusion, nitrate and bacterial pollutants • TWW “recycled” into the aquifer via infiltration basins February 2014 El Ayni F. et al., 2011, Chaieb H. 2011. Recycle Korba Aquifer Recharge, Tunisia www.escwa.un.org 15
  16. 16. Korba Aquifer Recharge: • Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion • Treated WW better suited for irrigation, due to reduced need for fertilizers Groundwater Simulation Salinity of groundwater prior to recharge February 2014 www.escwa.un.org Cherif S. et al., 2013 Recycle Korba Aquifer Recharge, Tunisia Salinity of groundwater after 3 years of recharge 16
  17. 17. Salalah Aquifer Recharge, Oman Recycle Groundwater Levels Salinity Levels February 2014 Shammas MI. 2007, 2008. Salalah Aquifer Recharge: • Halts aquifer depletion • Halts water salinisation www.escwa.un.org 17
  18. 18. Conclusions & Outlook 1/2 Wastewater treatment & reuse: • Preserve natural water resources • Supply water scarce region with “new water” • Reduce pollution and cross-contamination • Prevent seawater intrusion • Promote safe agricultural practices • Increase green spaces in cities Reduce Reuse Recycle February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 18
  19. 19. Conclusions & Outlook 2/2 Outlook: • High level of political and public commitment, stakeholder participation • Recognize all the involved institutions to improve accountability • Qualified independent regulator to improve compliance with standards and transparency • Ensure quality of TWW complies with national quality standards - which may vary depending on intended reuse • High quality sewage treatment facilities, networks and infrastructure February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 19
  20. 20. Treated Wastewater as an Unconventional Water Resource: Examples from MENA Region Muscat, Oman February 2014 Ralf Klingbeil Myriam El Khawand

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