Food Security, Water Security,
Improved Food Value Chains for
Sustainable Socio-economic Development
EU-GCC
Regional Secur...
Opening Quotes
“Nobody is qualified to become a statesman
who is entirely ignorant of the problems of wheat.”
Socrates

“T...
Outline
• Definitions:
– Food security
– Water security
– Water-Food-Energy Nexus
• Challenges / Opportunities for Food & ...
UN ESCWA

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

4
Sustainable Development and
Productivity Division
Implementation
Approach

Regional Convening
Power for
Intergovernmental
...
MENA: Water, Food, Energy Challenges
Demographics

Energy

Governance

Food

Water
& Land
29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.or...
• Ongoing
Drought since
at least 2008
• Inability to
“make a living”
• Internal
displacements
• Additional
stress on
resou...
Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future?
Demographics
Drought and water scarcity
Water shortages
Crop failure
Natural resource mism...
Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future?

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the ...
Definition:
“Food security exists when all people, at all times,
have physical, social and economic access to
sufficient, ...
FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World.

Food Security Indicators:
Based on Four Dimensions o...
FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World.

Global Undernourishment Trends:
Increases in Western...
Khouri, N. 2013. Food Security in Saudi Arabia - A Framework.

Combining Indicators:
Hunger, Food Balance and Price Risk

...
Definition:
“The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable
access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality
wat...
UN Water, 2013. What Is Water Security?

Water Security

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

15
UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda.

Water – Food – Energy
The Nexus

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un....
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

• Reducing food losses and food waste
• Water – a keys to sustain...
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Food Losses and Food Waste

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

18
http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa

Qatar:
“Massive amount of food wasted”

Qatar Statist...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

20
Lundqvist, J. et al., 2008. Saving Water: From Field to Fork –
Curbing Losses and Wastage in the Food Chain.

Food Losses ...
Gustavsson, J., et al., 2011. Global Food Losses and
Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention.

Food Supply Chains:
Losse...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Total Carbon Footprint, GB

29 October 2...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Carbon Footprint per Category, GB

29 Oc...
www.waterfootprint.org

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Water Footprint

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

25
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Total Water Footprint, GB

X million m3
...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Water Footprint per Category, GB

29 Oct...
BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals.

Food Losses – Food Waste:
Economic Impact along Supply Chain, ITA
...
Inamo, 2001. 7 (27), www.inamo.de.

Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Water

29 October 2013

www.e...
Agricultural Water Use
e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia

1991
2000
2012

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

31
Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia

Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per
Region for Saudi Arabi...
Transboundary / Shared Water Resources
and Aquifers in Middle East

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

33
UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in WA.

Water Resources in Agricultural Areas:
Wajid Aquifer, Sa...
UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in WA.

Water Resources in Agricultural Areas:
Wadi Najran Basin...
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Trade

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

37
The Economist, 2012. Food. How to feed a planet, continued, 28 May
2012, www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/05/fo...
Jordan
Saudi Arabia
UAE

29 October 2013
www.escwa.un.org
Keulertz, M., 2013. Arab Vulnerability in Global Food Supply Cha...
Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2012.
The Water Footprint of Humanity.

Net Virtual Water Imports
per Country, 1996-200...
UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value
Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region.

Cereal Trade Glo...
UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value
Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region.

Major Cereal Tra...
UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value
Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region.

Agricultural Tra...
GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food
Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground.

Saudi Arabia: Wheat Production,
Consumpt...
Woertz, E., 2013. Food Security in the UAE.

Agro-Projects and MoUs
Announced in the UAE, 2008-2011

29 October 2013

www....
GeoEconomica, 2013. Assessing the Governance and Transparency
Standards of Sovereign Wealth Funds: Santiago Compliance Ind...
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Improving Value Chains

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

47
Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains
for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region.

Green Value Chains: Ch...
Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains
for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region.

Green Value Chains: Ta...
Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains
for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region.

Repositioning of Moroc...
Challenges to / Opportunities for
Food & Water Security

Other Measures
• Investing in GCC-based (global) food trading hou...
Opportunities for International Cooperation:
EU, Maghreb, Mashreq and the GCC 1/2
• Inter-regional cooperation with focus ...
Opportunities for International Cooperation:
EU, Maghreb, Mashreq and the GCC 2/2
• EU, Europe & GCC to cooperate and supp...
Conclusions and Recommendations
1.

2.

3.

4.

Food security as described in this paper has many facets and requires
holi...
Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food.

Today ! – Tomorrow ?

29 October 2013

www.escwa.un.org

55
Food Security, Water Security,
Improved Food Value Chains for
Sustainable Socio-economic Development
EU-GCC
Regional Secur...
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R. Klingbeil & F. Byiringiro, 2013. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development.

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Klingbeil, R. & Byiringiro, F., 2013. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development. Presentation at the SHARAKA conference “EU-GCC Regional Security Cooperation: Lessons Learned & Future Challenges”, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, 28-29 Oct 2013.

Published in: Technology, Business

R. Klingbeil & F. Byiringiro, 2013. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development.

  1. 1. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development EU-GCC Regional Security Cooperation Doha, Qatar, 28-29 Oct 2013 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer
  2. 2. Opening Quotes “Nobody is qualified to become a statesman who is entirely ignorant of the problems of wheat.” Socrates “There are no water wars because food wars are not judged to be necessary.” J.A. Allan, 1981 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 2
  3. 3. Outline • Definitions: – Food security – Water security – Water-Food-Energy Nexus • Challenges / Opportunities for Food & Water Security – Reducing food losses and food waste – Water – a keys to sustainable food production – Securing food through securing international trade – Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) – Securing food & rural livelihoods: improving value chains • Opportunities for International Cooperation 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 3
  4. 4. UN ESCWA 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 4
  5. 5. Sustainable Development and Productivity Division Implementation Approach Regional Convening Power for Intergovernmental Mechanisms Informing Regional Processes for Global Negotiations and National Action Partnerships Green Economy Energy Section Water Resources Section Energy Productive Sectors Section Shared Water Resources Efficiency Climate Change Adaptation Food Security Renewable Energy MDGs Sustainable Development Goals Energy Security Integrated Water Resources Management Support to Intergovernmental Mechanisms www.escwa.un.org 29 October 2013 ESCWA Committees (Water Resources / Energy); LAS Councils: CAMRE (JCEDAR), AMWC, AMCE 5
  6. 6. MENA: Water, Food, Energy Challenges Demographics Energy Governance Food Water & Land 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 6
  7. 7. • Ongoing Drought since at least 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internal displacements • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 7 irinnews.org, 2009. Syria’s drought-affected provinces as of Aug 2009. Syria’s Ongoing Drought
  8. 8. Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? Demographics Drought and water scarcity Water shortages Crop failure Natural resource mismanagement Climate change Internal displacement Rural disaffection Political unrest ... 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org CCS, CAP and Stimson, 2013. Arab Spring and Climate Change. • • • • • • • • • • 8
  9. 9. Syria’s Past! – Syria’s Future? 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East. Estimated Change in Length of Dry Season 9
  10. 10. Definition: “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Four pillars / dimensions of food security: • Availability • Access • Utilization • Stability 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 10 FAO, 2009. Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security (WSFS). Food Security
  11. 11. FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Food Security Indicators: Based on Four Dimensions of Food Security 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 11
  12. 12. FAO, IFAD, and WFP, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Global Undernourishment Trends: Increases in Western Asia 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 12
  13. 13. Khouri, N. 2013. Food Security in Saudi Arabia - A Framework. Combining Indicators: Hunger, Food Balance and Price Risk 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 13
  14. 14. Definition: “The capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.” 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 14 UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water Security
  15. 15. UN Water, 2013. What Is Water Security? Water Security 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 15
  16. 16. UN Water, 2013. Water Security & the Global Water Agenda. Water – Food – Energy The Nexus 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 16
  17. 17. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security • Reducing food losses and food waste • Water – a keys to sustainable food production • Securing food through securing international trade – Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) • Securing food & rural livelihoods: improving value chains 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 17
  18. 18. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Food Losses and Food Waste 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 18
  19. 19. http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/240072-massive-amount-of-food-wa Qatar: “Massive amount of food wasted” Qatar Statistics Authority (QSA): “(...) more than half of the municipal waste generated (...) contains discarded food.” The Peninsula, 05 Jun 2013 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 19
  20. 20. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 20
  21. 21. Lundqvist, J. et al., 2008. Saving Water: From Field to Fork – Curbing Losses and Wastage in the Food Chain. Food Losses – Food Waste 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 21
  22. 22. Gustavsson, J., et al., 2011. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Extent, Causes and Prevention. Food Supply Chains: Losses of Food – and Water Production Volumes per Commodity Group (million tonnes) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 22
  23. 23. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Carbon Footprint, GB 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 23
  24. 24. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Carbon Footprint per Category, GB 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 24
  25. 25. www.waterfootprint.org Food Losses – Food Waste: Water Footprint 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 25
  26. 26. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Total Water Footprint, GB X million m3 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 26
  27. 27. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Water Footprint per Category, GB 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 27
  28. 28. BCFN, 2013. Food Waste: Causes, Impacts and Proposals. Food Losses – Food Waste: Economic Impact along Supply Chain, ITA XXX million euro 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 28
  29. 29. Inamo, 2001. 7 (27), www.inamo.de. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Water 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 30
  30. 30. Agricultural Water Use e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia 1991 2000 2012 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 31
  31. 31. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia (WaterWatch, 2006) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 32
  32. 32. Transboundary / Shared Water Resources and Aquifers in Middle East 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 33
  33. 33. UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in WA. Water Resources in Agricultural Areas: Wajid Aquifer, Saudi Arabia and Yemen Wajid Aquifer is used by the population living in Najran area, with estimated 450,000 people, and Sa’dah Governorate in Yemen. Water resources shared with Yemen. Water use: mainly agricultural, limited municipal and industrial Sustainability: water level decline and salinization due to overexploitation, resulting in partial exhaustion of the resource 29 October 2013 35
  34. 34. UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013. Inventory of Shared Water Resources in WA. Water Resources in Agricultural Areas: Wadi Najran Basin, Saudi Arabia and Yemen 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 36
  35. 35. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Trade 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 37
  36. 36. The Economist, 2012. Food. How to feed a planet, continued, 28 May 2012, www.economist.com/blogs/feastandfamine/2012/05/food Food Surpluses and Deficits by Region 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 38
  37. 37. Jordan Saudi Arabia UAE 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org Keulertz, M., 2013. Arab Vulnerability in Global Food Supply Chains. Based on : Water and Food data base and COMTRADE. Average Annual Wheat Imports, 2008-2012 39
  38. 38. Hoekstra, A.Y. and Mekonnen, M.M., 2012. The Water Footprint of Humanity. Net Virtual Water Imports per Country, 1996-2005 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 40
  39. 39. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Cereal Trade Globally and in the Region: Net Cereal Import 1980-2011 (million tons) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 41
  40. 40. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Major Cereal Traders: Export & Import Countries, 2010 (million tons) 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 42
  41. 41. UN ESCWA & GIZ, forthcoming. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the Arab Region. Agricultural Trade in the UN ESCWA Region 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 43
  42. 42. GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground. Saudi Arabia: Wheat Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1983-2019 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 44
  43. 43. Woertz, E., 2013. Food Security in the UAE. Agro-Projects and MoUs Announced in the UAE, 2008-2011 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 45
  44. 44. GeoEconomica, 2013. Assessing the Governance and Transparency Standards of Sovereign Wealth Funds: Santiago Compliance Index. GeoEconomica: Santiago Compliance Index 2013 www.escwa.un.org 46
  45. 45. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Improving Value Chains 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 47
  46. 46. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Green Value Chains: Characteristics • Addresses socio-economic and environmental development : – – – – higher income, jobs, equity, conservation, etc. • Global companies increasingly looking at issues such as safety, fairness, etc. • Need to prove performance standards • Given the continuously rising global ramifications:  Adapt or be left out • Covers economic, social and environmental (and institutional) issues 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 48
  47. 47. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Green Value Chains: Tasks Seven implementation tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 29 October 2013 Prioritization, Assessments & design of strategies, Upgrading & replication, Vertical & horizontal linkages, Value, quality & competitiveness, Support services for better environment, Monitoring & evaluation. www.escwa.un.org 49
  48. 48. Byiringiro, F., 2013. Green Agricultural Value Chains for Improved Livelihood in the ESCWA Region. Repositioning of Moroccan Vegetable Market for Export 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 50
  49. 49. Challenges to / Opportunities for Food & Water Security Other Measures • Investing in GCC-based (global) food trading house: – Competition to ABCD (US-EU), NOWS (Easter Asia), • Increasing food storage options: – Regional approaches instead of national, • Increasing storage option for water (surplus desalination and treated wastewater): – Strategic subsurface groundwater storage, Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR), 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 51
  50. 50. Opportunities for International Cooperation: EU, Maghreb, Mashreq and the GCC 1/2 • Inter-regional cooperation with focus on socio-economic development and its contributions to sustainable development, • EU & Europe to offer GCC experience sharing and cooperation on – environmental and water statistics, – transboundary water and environmental cooperation, – contribute to better cooperative environment within and beyond GCC to the wider Middle East, • EU & Europe to assist in improving governance of national investment funds (Sovereign Wealth Funds) towards more transparency and accountability; ensuring positive impacts of agricultural investments. 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 52
  51. 51. Opportunities for International Cooperation: EU, Maghreb, Mashreq and the GCC 2/2 • EU, Europe & GCC to cooperate and support local and regional initiatives for improving Green Value Chains in Mashreq, Maghreb & GCC to – provide more socio-economic development opportunities for rural populations, – improve environmental deterioration resulting from overuse of natural resources, – offer chances to improve local livelihoods in more remote areas, – reduce migration to already overcrowded urban centres, – reduce social tension in urban fringes, ... 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 53
  52. 52. Conclusions and Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. Food security as described in this paper has many facets and requires holistic approaches to the management of natural resources and its inter-linkages with national, regional and global socio-economic policies. International trade can contribute to securing food and to sustainable development in both, food producing, i.e. “surplus” and deficit countries if handled in cooperative and transparent manner. Primary focus of food security measures should be on local vulnerable population, rural poor, often located in rural areas with less access to urban infrastructure and resources as local food producers and preservers of natural habitats. If global trade continues to impose non-equitable and unjust trade relations, if national governments continue to ignore the plight of the rural, disadvantaged and poor for more affordable food, equitable use of natural resources and better distribution of wealth the region may not come to a rest easily and further food-related conflicts are likely to influence the fate of governing elites. 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 54
  53. 53. Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food. Today ! – Tomorrow ? 29 October 2013 www.escwa.un.org 55
  54. 54. Food Security, Water Security, Improved Food Value Chains for Sustainable Socio-economic Development EU-GCC Regional Security Cooperation Doha, Qatar, 28-29 Oct 2013 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Fidele Byiringiro, Economic Affairs Officer

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