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Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & WaterTransboundary Water and TransboundaryAquifers in the Middle East:Opportun...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 2Purpose• Why are we working on TBW & TBA issues?• Guidance and assistance to ESCWA MCs in...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 3Outline• Transboundary water and aquifers in ESCWAregion• Water-related agreements and th...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 4TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 5TBW Agreements 1/4• 1992 UN ECE Water Convention, and2003 Amendment• Why potentially rele...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 6TBW Agreements 2/4• 1997 UN Non-navigational Use Convention(UN Watercourse Convention)• W...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 7TBW Agreements 3/4• 2000 EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC),2006 Groundwater Direc...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 8TBW Agreements 4/4• 2008 UNGA Resolution on the Law of TBAs(“UNTBA”), inc. UN ILC comment...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 9Principles of TB Cooperation1. (Limited) Sovereignty of Riparian / Aquifer States2. Equit...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 10ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 1/5Hydrogeological Cross-sectionfrom: M Zeitoun, C Messerschmid,...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 11ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 2/5Historical Use: Surface and Groundwaterfrom: M Zeitoun, C Mes...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 12ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 3/5Historical Use: Different Sectors, Partiesfrom: M Zeitoun, C ...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 13ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 4/5Historical Use: One Party’s GW Abstractionfrom: M Zeitoun, C ...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 14ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 5/5Groundwater Development Costsfrom: AM MacDonald et al., 2009,...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 15• Sustainability– social, economy,environment• Cooperation & Participation– local, regio...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 16EGM IWRM Principles in SWR• ESCWA Expert Group Meeting– Applying IWRM Principles inManag...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 17Future of UNGA Resolution• What kind of legal instrument shall it take?• What kind of le...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 18ESCWA Services• Water Resources Section:– Cooperation through CWR and activities of work...
20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 19ESCWA contacts• Sustainable Development & Productivity Division– SDPDChief/SDPD Ms. Anha...
Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & WaterTransboundary Water and TransboundaryAquifers in the Middle East:Opportun...
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R. Klingbeil, 2009: Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers in the Middle East: Opportunities for Sharing a Precious Resource

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Klingbeil, R., 2009. Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers in the Middle East: Opportunities for Sharing a Precious Resource. Presentation at the Seminar “Sharing an Invisible Water Resource for the Common Good: How to Make Use of the UN General Assembly Resolution on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers”, 2009 Stockholm World Water Week, 20 August 2009, Stockholm, Sweden.

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R. Klingbeil, 2009: Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers in the Middle East: Opportunities for Sharing a Precious Resource

  1. 1. Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & WaterTransboundary Water and TransboundaryAquifers in the Middle East:Opportunities for Sharing aPrecious ResourceWorld Water WeekStockholm, 20 August 2009
  2. 2. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 2Purpose• Why are we working on TBW & TBA issues?• Guidance and assistance to ESCWA MCs inshared / transboundary water / aquifercooperation with other MCs or Non MCs• Helping in finding own / individual cooperationmechanisms• What would our MCs want us to do for them?
  3. 3. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 3Outline• Transboundary water and aquifers in ESCWAregion• Water-related agreements and their relevancefor ESCWA region• Principles of transboundary cooperation• Examples of transboundary investigations• IWRM and transboundary cooperation• Future of 2008 UNGA Resolution (“UNTBA”)• ESCWA services, contacts
  4. 4. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 4TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East
  5. 5. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 5TBW Agreements 1/4• 1992 UN ECE Water Convention, and2003 Amendment• Why potentially relevant to UN ESCWA MCs?– The convention addresses surface as well asgroundwater, more detailed than UN 1997 Convention– After ratification of 34 Parties the convention enteredinto force on 06/10/1996 and is thus binding to allParties, though not yet all ECE MCs– Its proposed amendment would open the conventionfor accession by Non ECE MCs– Interesting for ESCWA MCs sharing water with ECE:EGY, IRQ, JOR, LBN, PAL/oPt, SYR
  6. 6. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 6TBW Agreements 2/4• 1997 UN Non-navigational Use Convention(UN Watercourse Convention)• Why potentially relevant to UN ESCWA MCs?– Global TBW treaty, unfortunately not yet entered intoforce due to missing ratifications (only 17/35)– Does not include all GW, nor does it provide sufficientGW-specific guidance– Ratified by 5/14 UN ESCWA MCs:IRQ, JOR, LBN, QAT, SYR(PAL announced will to ratify, YEM signed, not ratified)– Due to absence of perennial transboundary surfacewater in large parts of the region, maybe not asrelevant as an agreement that fully addresses andincludes groundwater/aquifers as well
  7. 7. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 7TBW Agreements 3/4• 2000 EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC),2006 Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC)• Why potentially relevant to UN ESCWA MCs?– WFD and GWDD addresses surface as well asgroundwater, with a detailed focus on water qualityimprovements– Binding for EU MCs, also at the margins of EU– Need for compliance for all potential EU candidatecountries– ESCWA MCs cannot join if not EU candidate country– Interesting for ESCWA MCs sharing water with EU MCsor potential EU candidate countries:IRQ, LBN, SYR
  8. 8. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 8TBW Agreements 4/4• 2008 UNGA Resolution on the Law of TBAs(“UNTBA”), inc. UN ILC comments 08/05/08• Why potentially relevant to UN ESCWA MCs?– Guidance for individual TBA cooperation betweenneighbouring countries– Detailed definition of groundwater/aquifer terms andissues to be considered when considering to developagreements with neighbouring countries– 2007/2008 Comments by 2/14 UN ESCWA MCs:IRQ, SAU (plus comments by AWC)– Separate individual TBA agreements are less likelysince only few TBAs are disconnected from TBsurface water
  9. 9. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 9Principles of TB Cooperation1. (Limited) Sovereignty of Riparian / Aquifer States2. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation3. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm4. General Obligation to Cooperate Regular Exchange of Data and Information Bilateral and Regional Agreements & Arrangements5. Environmental Protection Protection and Preservation of Ecosystems Prevention, Reduction and Control of Pollution6. Monitoring and Management
  10. 10. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 10ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 1/5Hydrogeological Cross-sectionfrom: M Zeitoun, C Messerschmid, S Attili, 2009, Groundwater.
  11. 11. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 11ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 2/5Historical Use: Surface and Groundwaterfrom: M Zeitoun, C Messerschmid, S Attili, 2009, Groundwater.
  12. 12. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 12ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 3/5Historical Use: Different Sectors, Partiesfrom: M Zeitoun, C Messerschmid, S Attili, 2009, Groundwater.
  13. 13. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 13ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 4/5Historical Use: One Party’s GW Abstractionfrom: M Zeitoun, C Messerschmid, S Attili, 2009, Groundwater.
  14. 14. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 14ISR-PAL Western Aquifer 5/5Groundwater Development Costsfrom: AM MacDonald et al., 2009, Hydrogeology Journal.
  15. 15. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 15• Sustainability– social, economy,environment• Cooperation & Participation– local, regional, national,basin-wide– water using sectors– information exchange• Basin approach– which basin?• Water resources– knowledge, assessments• Enabling environment• Water allocation– informed decision makingIWRM and TB cooperation• Limited Sovereignty• Equitable andReasonableUtilisation• Obligation notto CauseSignificant Harm• General Obligation toCooperate• EnvironmentalProtection• Monitoring andManagement
  16. 16. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 16EGM IWRM Principles in SWR• ESCWA Expert Group Meeting– Applying IWRM Principles inManaging Shared Water ResourcesTowards a Regional Vision– Beirut, 01-03 December 2009– by invitation only• Focus:– Promoting cooperation, ensuring participation and identifyingmutual interest in order to enhance the management of sharedwater resources– Ensuring equitable, reasonable and sustainable beneficial use– Identifying appropriate mechanisms for conflict prevention andresolution
  17. 17. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 17Future of UNGA Resolution• What kind of legal instrument shall it take?• What kind of legal instrument is the most practical forcountries to develop their own individual adaptedagreements?• The current form already offers guidance for individualagreements - for those willing to cooperate.• ESCWA will continue to support its MCs in developing aregional vision for the cooperation on TBW & TBAs– Requests from the MCs– ESCWA Ministerial Council Resolutions– Meetings of the Committee on Water Resources
  18. 18. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 18ESCWA Services• Water Resources Section:– Cooperation through CWR and activities of work plan– SWR assessments, guidance– Development of negotiation skills & dispute resolution• Regional Advisor Environment & Water:– Responding to specific requests from MCs• … with individual MCs, between MCs, between MCs andNon-MCs– Provide forums for transboundary exchange– Offer recommendations for building / enhancing bilateral /multilateral cooperation– Provide expert assessments of TBW situations– Assistance for development of individual agreements– Mediation / arbitration between countries/parties, if requested
  19. 19. 20 August 2009 www.escwa.un.org 19ESCWA contacts• Sustainable Development & Productivity Division– SDPDChief/SDPD Ms. Anhar Hegazi– Water Resources Section - WRSChief/WRS Ms. Carol Chouchani Cherfanechouchanicherfane@un.org– Regional Advisor Environment & WaterRalf Klingbeilklingbeil@un.org
  20. 20. Ralf KlingbeilRegional AdvisorEnvironment & WaterTransboundary Water and TransboundaryAquifers in the Middle East:Opportunities for Sharing aPrecious Resourcewww.escwa.org.lb

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