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Ch 3 improving writing techniques

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© 2010 Thomson South-Western
Instructor Only Version
CHAPTER 3Chapter-3
Improving Writing Techniques
Chapter-3
Chapter 1, Slide 2Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 2Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
Chapter 1, Slide 3Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 3Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
Organizing
Information
Into an
Outline
Chapter 3, Slide 4Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
Tips for Making Outlines
Tips:
 Define main topic in title.
 Divide the topic into three to five main points.
 Break the components into subpoints.
 Make each component exclusive
(no overlapping).
 Don't put a single item under a major
component.
 Use details and evidence to support subpoints.
Chapter 1, Slide 5Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 5Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
Organizing
Business
Messages
DIRECT STRATEGY
Main idea comes
first followed by
details and explanations
Chapter 1, Slide 6Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 6Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e

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Ch 3 improving writing techniques

  • 1. © 2010 Thomson South-Western Instructor Only Version CHAPTER 3Chapter-3 Improving Writing Techniques Chapter-3
  • 2. Chapter 1, Slide 2Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 2Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
  • 3. Chapter 1, Slide 3Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 3Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Organizing Information Into an Outline
  • 4. Chapter 3, Slide 4Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Tips for Making Outlines Tips:  Define main topic in title.  Divide the topic into three to five main points.  Break the components into subpoints.  Make each component exclusive (no overlapping).  Don't put a single item under a major component.  Use details and evidence to support subpoints.
  • 5. Chapter 1, Slide 5Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 5Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Organizing Business Messages DIRECT STRATEGY Main idea comes first followed by details and explanations
  • 6. Chapter 1, Slide 6Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 6Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
  • 7. Chapter 1, Slide 7Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 7Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Organizing Business Messages INDIRECT STRATEGY Explanation precedes main idea
  • 8. Chapter 1, Slide 8Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 8Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e
  • 9. Chapter 1, Slide 9Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 9Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Advantages DIRECT STRATEGY  Saves reader’s time  Sets a proper frame of mind  Prevents frustration  Appears businesslike INDIRECT STRATEGY  Respects feelings of audience  Encourages a fair hearing  Minimizes a negative reaction
  • 10. Chapter 1, Slide 10Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 10Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Useful when DIRECT STRATEGY  Receiver is receptive  Receiver requires no education about topic  Message is routine INDIRECT STRATEGY  Receiver may be upset or hostile  Receiver must be persuaded or educated  Message is sensitive
  • 11. Chapter 3, Slide 11Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Effective Sentences subject verb Employees send many e-mail messages. Complete Sentences PhrasesClauses Complete sentences have subjects and verbs and make sense (are capable of standing alone).
  • 12. Chapter 3, Slide 12Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Effective Sentences Clauses also have subjects and verbs.  Independent clauses can stand alone.  Dependent clauses rely on independent clauses for their meaning. Complete Sentences PhrasesClauses dependent clause independent clause When you speak, you reveal yourself.
  • 13. Chapter 3, Slide 13Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Effective Sentences Phrases are groups of related words without subjects and verbs. Complete Sentences PhrasesClauses phrase phrase In the afternoon, I work at the mall.
  • 14. Chapter 1, Slide 14Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 14Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Fragment: A fragment is a broken off part of a sentence. Even though the pay was low. Many candidates applied. Revision: Even though the pay was low, many candidates applied. Although, as, because, even, except, for example, if, instead of, since, so, such as, that, which, and when-these words introduce dependent clause. Avoid sentence fragments.
  • 15. Chapter 1, Slide 15Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 15Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Fused Sentences: Without a conjunction and a semi colon, a run-on sentence results in two independent clauses. Two candidates applied only one was hired. Avoid sentence fragments. Avoid run- on (fused) sentences. Revisions: Two candidates applied. Only one was hired. Two candidates applied; only one was hired. Two candidates applied, but only one was hired.
  • 16. Chapter 1, Slide 16Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 16Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Comma Splice Many were qualified, Jeff was hired. Avoid sentence fragments. Avoid comma- splice sentences. Avoid run- on (fused) sentences. Revisions: Many were qualified. Jeff was hired. Many were qualified; Jeff was hired. Many were qualified; however, Jeff was hired. Many were qualified, but Jeff was hired.
  • 17. Chapter 1, Slide 17Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 17Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Quick Check Revise the following to avoid fragments, run-on sentences, and comma-splices. You can create a Web- based job portfolio; it will impress potential employers. You can create a Web- based job portfolio it will impress potential employers. Send a scannable résumé. When you apply for a job. Send a scannable résumé when you apply for a job.
  • 18. Chapter 1, Slide 18Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 18Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Although technical skills are important, communication skills are also in great demand. College used to be for young people; however, many older students now seek degrees. Although technical skills are important. Communication skills are also in great demand. College used to be for young people, however many older students now seek degrees. Revise the following to avoid fragments, run-on sentences, and comma-splices.
  • 19. Chapter 1, Slide 19Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 19Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Technology is changing the business world. People are writing more messages than ever before. OR: Technology is changing the business world; people are . . . . Technology is changing the business world people are writing more messages than ever before. Revise the following to avoid fragments, run-on sentences, and comma-splices.
  • 20. Chapter 1, Slide 20Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 20Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Executives are busy. They won't read wordy messages and reports. OR: Executives are busy; they won't read . . . . Executives are busy, they won't read wordy messages and reports. Revise the following to avoid fragments, run-on sentences, and comma-splices.
  • 21. Chapter 3, Slide 21Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Emphasis Through Mechanics 1. Underlining: Which of these methods do you prefer? 2. Italics and Boldface: The use of boldface and italics captures the reader’s attention. 3. All Caps: Notice how EXPENSE-FREE VACATION stands out.
  • 22. Chapter 3, Slide 22Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e 5. Tabulation: Listing items vertically emphasizes them: 1. First item 2. Second item 3. Third item Font change: different font adds interest and emphasis 4. Dashes: Other methods–including dashes–may be used. Emphasis Through Mechanics
  • 23. Chapter 1, Slide 23Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 23Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Which of these other means of achieving mechanical emphasis is/are appropriate in business letters? White space Color Lines Boxes Columns Titles Headings Subheadings Discuss any differences with the suggested answers provided.    
  • 24. Chapter 1, Slide 24Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 24Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e White space Color Lines Boxes Columns Titles Headings Subheadings Which of these other means of achieving mechanical emphasis is/are appropriate in memos?    
  • 25. Chapter 1, Slide 25Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 25Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e White space Color Lines Boxes Columns Titles Headings Subheadings Which of these other means of achieving mechanical emphasis is/are appropriate in e-mail messages?    
  • 26. Chapter 1, Slide 26Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 26Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e White space Color Lines Boxes Columns Titles Headings Subheadings Which of these other means of achieving mechanical emphasis is/are appropriate in reports?        
  • 27. Chapter 3, Slide 27Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Emphasis and De-emphasis Through Style To emphasize an idea 1. Use a vivid expression, such as in bug-free software rather than dependable software. General: A customer said that he wanted the contract returned soon. Vivid: Mr. Le Clerc insisted that the contract be returned soon.
  • 28. Chapter 3, Slide 28Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e 2. Label the main idea Such as more importantly, the principal reason, or the best alternative. Unlabeled: Explore the possibility of leasing a site, but also hire a consultant. Labeled: Explore the possibility of leasing a site; but most importantly, hire a consultant
  • 29. Chapter 3, Slide 29Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e 3. Put the important idea first or last in the sentence Un-emphatic: Profit-sharing plans are more effective in increasing productivity when they are linked to individual performance rather than to group performance. Emphatic: Productivity is more likely to be increased when profit- sharing plans are liked to individual performance rather than to group performance. Emphatic: Profit –sharing plans linked to individual performance rather than to group performance are more effective in increasing productivity
  • 30. Chapter 3, Slide 30Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e 4. Put the important idea in a simple sentence or in an independent clause. Emphatic: You are the first trainee that we have hired for this program (simple sentence for emphasis) Emphatic: Although we considered many candidates, you are the first trainee that we have hired for this program. (independent clause contains main idea) Un-emphatic: Although you are the first trainee that we have hired for this program, we had many candidates and expect to expand the program in the future.
  • 31. Chapter 3, Slide 31Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e 1. Use general, rather than specific words Vivid: 125 customers complained. General: Some customers complained. 2. Place the bad news in a dependent clause connected to an independent clause containing a positive idea. Emphasizes bad news: We can not issue you credit at this time, but we do have a plan that will allow you to fill your immediate needs on a cash basis Deemphasizes bad news: We have a plan that will allow you to fill your immediate needs on a cash basis since we cannot issue credit at this time. De-emphasis Through Style
  • 32. Chapter 3, Slide 32Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Active- and Passive-Voice Verbs Active-voice verbs show the subject performing the action. Taylor made a major error in the estimate. (Active voice; the subject is acting) Dr. Smith recommended Tina for the job. (Active voice; the subject is acting)
  • 33. Chapter 3, Slide 33Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e In passive-voice sentences, the subject is being acted upon. Passive-voice verbs require helper verbs: Active- and Passive-Voice Verbs A major error was made in the estimate. (Passive voice; the subject is being acted upon) Tina was recommended for the job by Dr. Smith. (Passive voice; the subject is being acted upon)
  • 34. Chapter 3, Slide 34Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Active- and Passive-Voice Verbs 1. Use the active voice for most business writing. 2.Use the passive voice to emphasize an action or the recipient of the action–rather than the actor 3. Use the passive voice to deemphasize negative news 4. Use the passive voice to conceal the doer /an action.
  • 35. Chapter 1, Slide 35Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 35Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Quick Check Convert the following sentences to active voice. You may have to add a subject. Our membership meeting was postponed by the president. The résumés of job candidates are sorted quickly by the software program Resumix. The president postponed our membership meeting. The software program Resumix sorts résumés of job candidates quickly.
  • 36. Chapter 1, Slide 36Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 36Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Convert the following sentences to active voice. You may have to add a subject. All team messages are sent by e-mail. Drug tests are required of all new employees. Team members send all messages by e-mail. The company requires drug tests for all new employees.
  • 37. Chapter 1, Slide 37Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 37Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Convert the following sentences to active voice. You may have to add a subject. We were given our orders by the manager. Our intranet is used by employees to complete forms. The manager gave us our orders. Employees use our intranet to complete forms.
  • 38. Chapter 1, Slide 38Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 38Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Convert the following sentences to passive voice. We must delay shipment of your merchandise because of heavy demand. Management rejected our plan. Your merchandise shipment must be delayed because of heavy demand. Our plan was rejected by management.
  • 39. Chapter 1, Slide 39Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 39Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Convert the following sentences to passive voice. The technician could not install the computer program. Someone did not submit the accounting statement on time. The computer program could not be installed. The accounting statement was not submitted on time.
  • 40. Chapter 3, Slide 40Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Developing Parallelism Parallel expression uses balanced construction. Match nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, phrases with phrases, and clauses with clauses. Training sessions have been stimulat- ing and challenging. (Matches -ing verbals) Training sessions have been stimulat- ing and a challenge. Poor Parallel
  • 41. Chapter 3, Slide 41Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e We are very concerned with the quality, location, and transportation costs of raw materials. (Matches nouns) We are very concerned with the quality of raw materials, where they are located, and how much it costs to transport them. Poor Parallel Developing Parallelism
  • 42. Chapter 3, Slide 42Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Serena takes the telephone orders, Matt locates the items in the ware- house, and Yolanda sends the items. (Matches active-voice verbs) Serena takes the telephone orders, Matt locates the items in the ware- house, and the items are sent by Yolanda. Poor Parallel Developing Parallelism
  • 43. Chapter 1, Slide 43Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 43Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Quick Check How could parallelism be improved in the following sentence? Our knowledge management system focuses on the collecting, storing, and sharing of best practices. Our knowledge management system focuses on the collecting, storage, and sharing of best practices.
  • 44. Chapter 1, Slide 44Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 44Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e How could parallelism be improved in the following sentence? The fall seminar is in October, the winter seminar is in December, and the spring seminar is in May. The fall seminar is in October, December is scheduled for the winter seminar, and May is the month of the spring seminar.
  • 45. Chapter 1, Slide 45Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 45Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e How could parallelism be improved in the following sentence? We are pleased to recommend Elizabeth because she is sincere, reliable, and diligent. We are pleased to recommend Elizabeth because she has sincerity, she is reliable, and she works with diligence.
  • 46. Chapter 3, Slide 46Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers For clarity, modifiers must be close to the words they describe or relate. Be particularly careful to place a logical subject immediately after an introductory verbal phrase.
  • 47. Chapter 3, Slide 47Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e After considering the problem carefully, management suggested new procedures. After considering the problem carefully, new procedures were suggested by management. Poor Revised Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
  • 48. Chapter 3, Slide 48Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Any student who is enrolled in the college has full online privileges. Any student has full online privileges who is enrolled in the college. Poor Revised Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
  • 49. Chapter 3, Slide 49Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e It’s hard to under- stand why employees with software problems would not go to our technical support staff. It’s hard to under- stand why employees would not go to our technical support staff with software problems. Poor Revised Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
  • 50. Chapter 3, Slide 50Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Using a search engine, we finally located the Web site. Using a search engine, the Web site was finally located. Poor Revised Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
  • 51. Chapter 1, Slide 51Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 51Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Quick Check Revise the following sentence to correct any misplaced modifiers. Retain the introductory phrases. To be hired, two years of experience is required. Dipped in butter, you can really enjoy a fine lobster. To be hired, one must have two years of experience. Dipped in butter, a fine lobster can truly be enjoyed.
  • 52. Chapter 1, Slide 52Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 52Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e By advertising extensively, all open jobs were filled quickly. After leaving the office, Jeff's car would not start. By advertising extensively, we filled all open jobs quickly. After leaving the office, Jeff could not start his car. Revise the following sentence to correct any misplaced modifiers. Retain the introductory phrases.
  • 53. Chapter 1, Slide 53Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 53Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e She died in the house in which she was born at the age of 88. Despite being paralyzed, doctors hoped that Mark would walk again. At the age of 88, she died in the house in which she was born. Despite Mark's paralysis, doctors hoped that he would walk again. Revise the following sentence to correct any misplaced modifiers. Retain the introductory phrases.
  • 54. Chapter 1, Slide 54Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Chapter 3, Slide 54Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Revise the following sentence to correct any misplaced modifiers. The sentence is correct as it stands. “You” is the understood subject of a command. To receive an employment form, fill out this application. (Tricky!)
  • 55. Chapter 3, Slide 55Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Three Ways to Achieve Paragraph Coherence Next month we plan to launch a promotion for our new Web site. The promotion will involve newspaper and TV campaigns. To help guide your reader or listener from one thought to another, develop coherence by using one of these devices:  Repetition of key ideas or key words.
  • 56. Chapter 3, Slide 56Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Considerable interest is being shown in our extended certificates of deposit. They are more profitable when left on deposit for long periods.  Use of pronoun. Three Ways to Achieve Paragraph Coherence
  • 57. Chapter 3, Slide 57Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Time Association before, after first, second meanwhile next until when, whenever  Use of an appropriate transitional expression. Three Ways to Achieve Paragraph Coherence
  • 58. Chapter 3, Slide 58Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Cause–Effect consequently for this reason hence therefore Contrast although but however instead nevertheless on the other hand Three Ways to Achieve Paragraph Coherence
  • 59. Chapter 3, Slide 59Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Illustration in this way for example Additional Idea furthermore in addition likewise moreover similarly TIP: Paragraphs with eight or fewer printed lines look inviting and readable. Three Ways to Achieve Paragraph Coherence
  • 60. Chapter 3, Slide 60Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 8e Paragraph Length Paragraphs with 8 or fewer printed lines look inviting and readable and long, solid chunk of print appear formidable