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Education 616- Philippine
Values System
Dr. Ma. Cristilina A. Montanez
Associate Professor 5
CTU-Argao GS
REVISITING BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT VALUES
What values are:
• Qualities, characteristics, or
ideas about which we feel
strongly.
• A belief or feeling that
someone or something is
worthwhile.
• Values are standards to
guide your action,
judgments, and attitudes.
Therefore:
 Our values affect our
decisions, goals and
behavior.
 Values define what is of
worth, what is beneficial,
and what is harmful
• You have been given a check for $1000.00 to do whatever
you like with it. What would you do with it?
• Definitely, answers vary from person to person
Conclusion:
• What you spend the money on has everything to do with
what you value
CLASSIC EXAMPLE
•What activities did you do during the
past week?
• Obviously, each person differ in the choice of activities that he/she did.
Conclusion:
• What you choose to do with your time also has everything to
do with what you values.
CLASSIC EXAMPLE
1. The “Inner Man” or Mentalistic Theory of Values – by
William James
“All our obligations, all of what we call good, and what we call
bad, do not exist as good and bad per se. They are our
constructions and are for each of us but a product of each
individual’s wants, needs and desires.”
THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
2. The “Outer Man” or Behavioral Theory of Values
– by BF Skinner
BF Skinner posits that values come from your personal
experience. You get punished or rewarded for things you did,
and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem
good and bad.
Based on Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning - is a learning method
where behavior is influenced by its consequences. Behavior that is
reinforced (rewarded) will likely be repeated, and behavior that is punished
will occur less frequently.
THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
3. The “Id”, “Ego”, “Superego”, Theory of Values and
Preferences by Sigmund Freud
• Freud posits that we have evolutionary-based instinctual drives- ID
based drives to prefer certain things; we develop over time a consciousness
of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want –EGO
based drives – and we have a set of culturally and parentally induced
should and should not – SUPEREGO based drives – that spend a good
amount of time in a tension – producing conflict between what we value
and what we prefer.
THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
4. The Labeling Theory or Cultural Relativism
Theory of Values
• According to this theory, ideas, events, behavior, are neither good nor
bad. If a society comes to an agreement that something is good, and then
it becomes good, when society labels it as bad, then it becomes bad.
THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
1.Values provide framework for our judgments.
2.Values give purpose and direction for the lives of people.
3.Values give significance and meaning to the life and
society.
4.Values make things desirable.
5.Values define what are important to people.
6.Values provide the gap between knowledge and action.
7.Values have a primordial place in education.
IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
Values – Goals – Behavior – Self-value
• Values give direction and consistency to behavior.
• Values help you know what to and not to make time for.
• Values establish a relationship between you and the world.
• Values set the direction for one’s life.
Values can determine level of maturity.
Mature – one who has clear values
Immature - One who has not identified his values.
• Immaturity:
• Unclear values
• Drifters
• Flighty
• Uncertain
• Apathetic
• Maturity
• Clear values
• Life of purpose
• Meaning and direction
Values and Age
Your age will greatly influence your values. Different people and
things influence you at different ages:
• Ages 1-7 --- parents
• Ages 8-13 --- teachers, heroes (sports, rocks, TV)
• Ages 14-20 --- peers (values because of peers or peers because of
values?)
• Ages 21+ your values are established, but you may test your values
from time to time.
Where do we get values?
• our homes,
• school,
• society,
• friends,
• TV,
• church,
• music,
• books,
• families,
• culture,
• employers,
• time-period in which
you were raised (70’s
anti-establishment,
peace, individuality.
80’s money, prestige,
don’t get caught, etc.
90’s earth, green peace,
health and fitness), etc.
Value versus Facts:
• Values are things we feel “should”,
“ought”, or “are supposed to”
influence our lives.
VALUE: All people should be active
in a specific religion.
VALUE: The best time to buy
clothing is when the price is
discounted.
• A value is a statement of one’s
personal beliefs.
• Facts simply state what actually
are. It is easy to confuse values
with facts.
FACT: Many people are active in a
specific religion.
FACT: The most economical time to
buy clothing is when the seasons
change and the price is reduced.
• A fact is established by
observation and measurement.
VALUES SYSTEM
• the set of values according to which people, a society, or organization
regulate their behavior
• refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to
ethical and ideological values.
• Ethical values serve to distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong,
and moral and immoral. At a societal level, these values frequently form a
basis for what is permitted and what is prohibited.
• deal with politics, religion, economics, and social mores. In theory, Ideological
values ideological values should derive logically as natural consequences of
the particulars of fundamental ethical values and their prioritizations.
FILIPINO VALUES: NATURE,
CONSTELLATION AND CONTEXT
What are Filipino values? What is distinctly
Filipino in our value system?
•The Filipino value system arises from our
culture or way of life, our distinctive way of
becoming human in this particular place
and time.
We speak of Filipino values in a fourfold sense.
• First, although mankind shares universal human values, it is
obvious that certain values take on for us a distinctively Filipino
flavor.
• The Greek ideal of moderation or meden agan, the Roman in
medio stat virtus, the Confucian and Buddhist "doctrine of the
Middle", (zhong ) find their Filipino equivalent in hindi labis,
hindi kulang, katamtaman lamang
.
• Secondly, when we speak of Filipino values, we do
not mean that elements of these Filipino values are
absent in the value systems of other peoples and
cultures.
• All people eat, talk and sing, but they eat different
foods, speak various languages and sing different
songs. Thus, we easily recognize Filipino, American,
Chinese, Japanese or any other foreign food,
language or music.
• The difference lies in the way these elements are ranked,
combined or emphasized so that they take on a
distinctively Filipino slant or cast.
• For instance, in China, honesty and hard work may rank
highest; Chinese and Japanese cultures give great value to
politeness and beauty; American culture to promptness
and efficiency; and Filipino culture to trust in God and
family centeredness. In this sense of value-ranking and
priority of values, we can speak of dominant Filipino
values.
• Thirdly, universal human values in a Filipino context (historical,
cultural, socio-economic, political, moral and religious) take on
a distinctive set of Filipino meanings and motivations.
• This is true not only of the aims and goals, beliefs, convictions,
and social principles of the traditional value system of the
lowland rural family but also of the "nationalistic“ tradition (
pagsasarili, pagkakaisa, pakikisama, pakikipagkapwa-tao, and
pagkabayani)
• A Filipino value or disvalue does not exist alone, in
isolation or in a vacuum
• Filipino values like bahala na, utang na loob, hiya,
pakikisama, pakiusap are clustered around core values like
social acceptance, economic,
security, social mobility, and are always
found in a definite context or set of circumstances.
•Both positive values and negative values
together form a characteristic constellation.
In School In government offices In business firms In the barrio
 aralan at dasalan
[studying and
praying],
 kuwentuhan at laruan
[story telling and
game],
 inggitan at tsismisan
[envying
and gossiping])
 pagkakaisa
[unity] ,
 pagkabayani
[heroism],
 intriga
[intrigue],
 palakasan
[show of power],
 sipsipan
[bribery],palusot),
 palabra de honor
[word of honor],
 delicadeza
[finesse], "
 commission
“kickback”
 padulas
[grease money],
 lagay
[bribe])
 paggalang
[honoring],
 pagdadamayan
[comforting],
 bayanihan
[cooperation]
 bahala na
[come what may],
 utang na loob
[gratefulness],
 hiya
[shame]
 pakiusap
[appeal],
 palakasan
[show of power]).
• To change a framework of values, it may be necessary to
change the constellation and context of those negative
values that hinder Filipino and Christian development.
• Fourthly, we can speak of Filipino values in the sense that the
historical consciousness of values has evolved among our people.
• The Filipino concept of justice has evolved from inequality to
equality, and to human dignity; from the tribe, to the family, and to
the nation
• Filipino consciousness of these different values varies at different
periods of our history.
THE FILIPINO VALUES
 Values may be defined as those standards of which
a group or society judges the desirability and
importance of persons, ideas, actions and goals.
 They are shared convictions or beliefs in what are
considered contributory to the welfare of the group.
What are the positive traits that show the
strengths of the Filipino character?
Katapatan
The Filipino virtue of righteousness in thought and
deed. In a person, this virtue strengthens him against
cheating and lying. It results in the cooperation and trust
among neighbors, friends and co-workers.
Pakikipagkapwa-tao and Family Orientation
This indigenous Filipino trait is the regard for the
dignity of others and being with them. It consists of all
levels of interaction with one's fellowman in times of crisis,
like illness and death. This is embodied in the concept of
neighborliness like mutual visiting and exchange of food.
Pleasant attitudes are also exhibited towards relatives and
friends such as extending moral and emotional support.
This is also evidenced in the insertion of many light scenes
wherein there is light-hearted bantering, jokes among
PANANALIG [Faith]
The Madonna and Child epitomizes the kind of faith
every Filipino carries in the heart an assurance that the
Divine Being watches over each one of us.
PAG-AARUGA [Nurturing]
Every Filipino child grows and learns under the wing
of a mentor who instills in the child the sense of love,
compassion, heroism and courage.
KASIPAGAN [Industry]
The Fruits of the earth spring forth only through our
industry and it is only through our work that we will be
able to achieve the rebuilding of our mother country, the
task of every one of us.
TIBAY NG LOOB [Courage]
Stalwart and firm in idealism and goodwill, the
modern Philippine hero stands by his or her values and
ideals.
What are the traits that hinder the advancement of the
Filipinos?
BAHALA NA [Extreme reliance on higher force or fate]
Bahalana is a common expression among Filipinos which rests on the
fatalistic outlook and strong dependence on spirits. It literally, the Bahala
na means "Leave it to God." The abundance of superstition can further
encourage the superstitiousness of the Filipinos. This can promote the
lack of initiative among Filipinos. Rather than relying on one's own effort
and industry to solve problems, one leaves his fate to gods or "spirits".
This trait also encourages the Filipino to be matiisin or being too patient
for long suffering.
KANYA-KANYA [ TO EACH ITS OWN]
A negative Filipino trait is a selfish and self-serving
attitude. This is often elicited when one's peer has
gained honor or prestige. Most if not all of the
conflicts in the Filipino stories are a result of envy and
and jealousy. This "crab mentality" that characterizes
many Filipinos is
counter-productive.

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Lecture-Material-No.1-Education-616-Philippine-Values-System.pptx

  • 1. Education 616- Philippine Values System Dr. Ma. Cristilina A. Montanez Associate Professor 5 CTU-Argao GS
  • 2. REVISITING BASIC CONCEPTS ABOUT VALUES What values are: • Qualities, characteristics, or ideas about which we feel strongly. • A belief or feeling that someone or something is worthwhile. • Values are standards to guide your action, judgments, and attitudes. Therefore:  Our values affect our decisions, goals and behavior.  Values define what is of worth, what is beneficial, and what is harmful
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  • 6. • You have been given a check for $1000.00 to do whatever you like with it. What would you do with it? • Definitely, answers vary from person to person Conclusion: • What you spend the money on has everything to do with what you value CLASSIC EXAMPLE
  • 7. •What activities did you do during the past week? • Obviously, each person differ in the choice of activities that he/she did. Conclusion: • What you choose to do with your time also has everything to do with what you values. CLASSIC EXAMPLE
  • 8. 1. The “Inner Man” or Mentalistic Theory of Values – by William James “All our obligations, all of what we call good, and what we call bad, do not exist as good and bad per se. They are our constructions and are for each of us but a product of each individual’s wants, needs and desires.” THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
  • 9. 2. The “Outer Man” or Behavioral Theory of Values – by BF Skinner BF Skinner posits that values come from your personal experience. You get punished or rewarded for things you did, and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem good and bad. Based on Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning - is a learning method where behavior is influenced by its consequences. Behavior that is reinforced (rewarded) will likely be repeated, and behavior that is punished will occur less frequently. THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
  • 10. 3. The “Id”, “Ego”, “Superego”, Theory of Values and Preferences by Sigmund Freud • Freud posits that we have evolutionary-based instinctual drives- ID based drives to prefer certain things; we develop over time a consciousness of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want –EGO based drives – and we have a set of culturally and parentally induced should and should not – SUPEREGO based drives – that spend a good amount of time in a tension – producing conflict between what we value and what we prefer. THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
  • 11. 4. The Labeling Theory or Cultural Relativism Theory of Values • According to this theory, ideas, events, behavior, are neither good nor bad. If a society comes to an agreement that something is good, and then it becomes good, when society labels it as bad, then it becomes bad. THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF VALUES
  • 12. 1.Values provide framework for our judgments. 2.Values give purpose and direction for the lives of people. 3.Values give significance and meaning to the life and society. 4.Values make things desirable. 5.Values define what are important to people. 6.Values provide the gap between knowledge and action. 7.Values have a primordial place in education. IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
  • 13. Values – Goals – Behavior – Self-value • Values give direction and consistency to behavior. • Values help you know what to and not to make time for. • Values establish a relationship between you and the world. • Values set the direction for one’s life.
  • 14. Values can determine level of maturity. Mature – one who has clear values Immature - One who has not identified his values. • Immaturity: • Unclear values • Drifters • Flighty • Uncertain • Apathetic • Maturity • Clear values • Life of purpose • Meaning and direction
  • 15. Values and Age Your age will greatly influence your values. Different people and things influence you at different ages: • Ages 1-7 --- parents • Ages 8-13 --- teachers, heroes (sports, rocks, TV) • Ages 14-20 --- peers (values because of peers or peers because of values?) • Ages 21+ your values are established, but you may test your values from time to time.
  • 16. Where do we get values? • our homes, • school, • society, • friends, • TV, • church, • music, • books, • families, • culture, • employers, • time-period in which you were raised (70’s anti-establishment, peace, individuality. 80’s money, prestige, don’t get caught, etc. 90’s earth, green peace, health and fitness), etc.
  • 17. Value versus Facts: • Values are things we feel “should”, “ought”, or “are supposed to” influence our lives. VALUE: All people should be active in a specific religion. VALUE: The best time to buy clothing is when the price is discounted. • A value is a statement of one’s personal beliefs. • Facts simply state what actually are. It is easy to confuse values with facts. FACT: Many people are active in a specific religion. FACT: The most economical time to buy clothing is when the seasons change and the price is reduced. • A fact is established by observation and measurement.
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  • 20. VALUES SYSTEM • the set of values according to which people, a society, or organization regulate their behavior • refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. • Ethical values serve to distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong, and moral and immoral. At a societal level, these values frequently form a basis for what is permitted and what is prohibited. • deal with politics, religion, economics, and social mores. In theory, Ideological values ideological values should derive logically as natural consequences of the particulars of fundamental ethical values and their prioritizations.
  • 22. What are Filipino values? What is distinctly Filipino in our value system? •The Filipino value system arises from our culture or way of life, our distinctive way of becoming human in this particular place and time.
  • 23. We speak of Filipino values in a fourfold sense. • First, although mankind shares universal human values, it is obvious that certain values take on for us a distinctively Filipino flavor. • The Greek ideal of moderation or meden agan, the Roman in medio stat virtus, the Confucian and Buddhist "doctrine of the Middle", (zhong ) find their Filipino equivalent in hindi labis, hindi kulang, katamtaman lamang .
  • 24. • Secondly, when we speak of Filipino values, we do not mean that elements of these Filipino values are absent in the value systems of other peoples and cultures. • All people eat, talk and sing, but they eat different foods, speak various languages and sing different songs. Thus, we easily recognize Filipino, American, Chinese, Japanese or any other foreign food, language or music.
  • 25. • The difference lies in the way these elements are ranked, combined or emphasized so that they take on a distinctively Filipino slant or cast. • For instance, in China, honesty and hard work may rank highest; Chinese and Japanese cultures give great value to politeness and beauty; American culture to promptness and efficiency; and Filipino culture to trust in God and family centeredness. In this sense of value-ranking and priority of values, we can speak of dominant Filipino values.
  • 26. • Thirdly, universal human values in a Filipino context (historical, cultural, socio-economic, political, moral and religious) take on a distinctive set of Filipino meanings and motivations. • This is true not only of the aims and goals, beliefs, convictions, and social principles of the traditional value system of the lowland rural family but also of the "nationalistic“ tradition ( pagsasarili, pagkakaisa, pakikisama, pakikipagkapwa-tao, and pagkabayani)
  • 27. • A Filipino value or disvalue does not exist alone, in isolation or in a vacuum • Filipino values like bahala na, utang na loob, hiya, pakikisama, pakiusap are clustered around core values like social acceptance, economic, security, social mobility, and are always found in a definite context or set of circumstances.
  • 28. •Both positive values and negative values together form a characteristic constellation. In School In government offices In business firms In the barrio  aralan at dasalan [studying and praying],  kuwentuhan at laruan [story telling and game],  inggitan at tsismisan [envying and gossiping])  pagkakaisa [unity] ,  pagkabayani [heroism],  intriga [intrigue],  palakasan [show of power],  sipsipan [bribery],palusot),  palabra de honor [word of honor],  delicadeza [finesse], "  commission “kickback”  padulas [grease money],  lagay [bribe])  paggalang [honoring],  pagdadamayan [comforting],  bayanihan [cooperation]  bahala na [come what may],  utang na loob [gratefulness],  hiya [shame]  pakiusap [appeal],  palakasan [show of power]).
  • 29. • To change a framework of values, it may be necessary to change the constellation and context of those negative values that hinder Filipino and Christian development.
  • 30. • Fourthly, we can speak of Filipino values in the sense that the historical consciousness of values has evolved among our people. • The Filipino concept of justice has evolved from inequality to equality, and to human dignity; from the tribe, to the family, and to the nation • Filipino consciousness of these different values varies at different periods of our history.
  • 31. THE FILIPINO VALUES  Values may be defined as those standards of which a group or society judges the desirability and importance of persons, ideas, actions and goals.  They are shared convictions or beliefs in what are considered contributory to the welfare of the group.
  • 32. What are the positive traits that show the strengths of the Filipino character? Katapatan The Filipino virtue of righteousness in thought and deed. In a person, this virtue strengthens him against cheating and lying. It results in the cooperation and trust among neighbors, friends and co-workers.
  • 33. Pakikipagkapwa-tao and Family Orientation This indigenous Filipino trait is the regard for the dignity of others and being with them. It consists of all levels of interaction with one's fellowman in times of crisis, like illness and death. This is embodied in the concept of neighborliness like mutual visiting and exchange of food. Pleasant attitudes are also exhibited towards relatives and friends such as extending moral and emotional support. This is also evidenced in the insertion of many light scenes wherein there is light-hearted bantering, jokes among
  • 34. PANANALIG [Faith] The Madonna and Child epitomizes the kind of faith every Filipino carries in the heart an assurance that the Divine Being watches over each one of us.
  • 35. PAG-AARUGA [Nurturing] Every Filipino child grows and learns under the wing of a mentor who instills in the child the sense of love, compassion, heroism and courage.
  • 36. KASIPAGAN [Industry] The Fruits of the earth spring forth only through our industry and it is only through our work that we will be able to achieve the rebuilding of our mother country, the task of every one of us.
  • 37. TIBAY NG LOOB [Courage] Stalwart and firm in idealism and goodwill, the modern Philippine hero stands by his or her values and ideals.
  • 38. What are the traits that hinder the advancement of the Filipinos? BAHALA NA [Extreme reliance on higher force or fate] Bahalana is a common expression among Filipinos which rests on the fatalistic outlook and strong dependence on spirits. It literally, the Bahala na means "Leave it to God." The abundance of superstition can further encourage the superstitiousness of the Filipinos. This can promote the lack of initiative among Filipinos. Rather than relying on one's own effort and industry to solve problems, one leaves his fate to gods or "spirits". This trait also encourages the Filipino to be matiisin or being too patient for long suffering.
  • 39. KANYA-KANYA [ TO EACH ITS OWN] A negative Filipino trait is a selfish and self-serving attitude. This is often elicited when one's peer has gained honor or prestige. Most if not all of the conflicts in the Filipino stories are a result of envy and and jealousy. This "crab mentality" that characterizes many Filipinos is counter-productive.