Tissue separated from its donor , which then
replace the tissue of recipient.
Technique of skin harvesting and transplantation
was initially described approximately 2500-3000
years ago with the Hindu Tilemaker Caste, in
which skin grafting was used to reconstruct noses
that were amputated as a means of judicial
• Grafting is synonymous to transplantation.
• It refers to movement or transfer of
component of body to another site.
• It may uses,
Historical Back ground
• Modern grafting techniques was described by
Reverdin in 1869.
• Also known as pinch graft.
• pinch graft. Technique in which small piece or
full-thickness skin are obtained by "pinching"
a fold of skin and cutting across its base.
• In modern era we are familiar of surgery.
• It is the form of grafting.
• Sushruta Samhita is known as father of
• John Hunter (1728-1793) is the Father of
Modern Surgery. He invented new procedures
such as tracheotomy.
• The purpose include,
• To repair of wounds.
• Reducing sufferings.
• Reconstruction of fracture bones and tissues.
• Organ transplantation.(overcome functional
• examples.: Skin grafting , Bone grafting etc.
Techniques of grafting
• Grafting refers to transplantation.
• Categorized as,
• Are autogenic/Autologous
• Most common method.
• Transfer of tissues or organs within individual.
• Skin grafts
• vein grafts
• NO immuno suppression
• Allogenic or Homologous
• Involve transfer from one individual to a
different individual of the same species.
• Immuno suppression is required.
• Example: kidney transplantation
• It comes from the Greek word "xenos"
meaning stranger, guest, or host.
• Involve transfer across species barriers.
• Requires immuno suppresion.
Bio artificial organs , tissues
• Refers to the drugs administered immediately
post transplant to induce immuno
• Biologic agents
(monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies)
• Nonbiologic agents