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SIF #2: 8 - HABIT for the ExoMars Surface Platform


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HABIT for the ExoMars Surface Platform, development of the HABIT Instrument. Innovation project by Javier Martín-Torres and Maria-Paz Zorzano, presented by Álvaro Soria-Salinas

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SIF #2: 8 - HABIT for the ExoMars Surface Platform

  1. 1. ì HABIT for the ExoMars Surface Platform. Investigating the present day habitability of Mars. HabitAbility: Brine, Irradiance and Temperature Javier Martín-Torres and Maria-Paz Zorzano Presented by : Álvaro Soria-Salinas Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Space Campus, Kiruna
  2. 2. ExoMars 2020
  3. 3. HABIT Scientific goals ì  The search for present life and habitability on Mars is conditioned by the availability of liquid water. It has recently been shown that liquid water is stable on Mars in the form of brines [Martín-Torres et al., Nature Geoscience 2015].Two other environmental conditions constrain the habitability of the near surface of Mars, the thermal range and the UV radiation dose [Rummel et al. Astrobiology, 2014]. ì  HABIT will provide an unequivocal, in-situ, proof of presence of liquid water on Mars without the need to interfere with the natural locations on Mars where this process takes place and thus avoiding forward contamination. It will furthermore improve our knowledge about when and where this process takes place and will help us to define better the future planetary protection protocols, and the bounding limits of Martian- like plausible life forms versus Earth-like plausible life forms. ì  The objectives of HABIT are: ü  to investigate (and quantify) the habitability of the landing site in terms of the three most critical environmental parameters for life as we know it: availability of liquid water, UV biological dose and thermal ranges (on Earth, microbial metabolism has only be found above 240 K and reproduction above 255 K); ü  to provide environmental information (air and ground temperature, ground relative humidity RH) and UV irradiance), to investigate the atmosphere/regolith water interchange, the subsurface hydration, as well as the ozone, water and dust atmospheric cycle and the convective activity of the boundary layer; ü  to demonstrate an In-Situ Resource Utilization technology for future Mars exploration
  4. 4. HABIT Goals (in no particular order) •  To provide environmental information at the Landing Site/Habitability conditions •  To demonstrate liquid water formation on Mars •  To demonstrate an In-Situ Resource Utilization technology for future Mars exploration
  5. 5. Project co-Is (including aerospace, research and academic institutions from 7 ESA countries, and USA, and 3 astrobiology partners) PI: Javier Martín-Torres, Luleå University of Technology (LTU) Sweden; Space Campus Kiruna, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, part of the Nordic Network of Astrobiology. Co-PI: María-Paz Zorzano, LTU, Sweden and Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, INTA), Spain; Hardware development: Omnisys Calibration: Atmospheric Science Group, LTU Co-Is: •  Charles Cockell, University of Edinburg, UK Center for Astrobiology, UK, Co-I •  Ozgur Karatekin, Royal Belgium Observatory, Belgium •  Akos Kereszturi, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungary •  Peter Read, Oxford University, U.K. •  Stephen Lewis,The Open University, UK •  Jose Luis Pérez-Diaz, University of Alcalá ,de Henares, Spain •  Morten Bo Madsen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark •  Petra Rettberg, DLR, Germany •  Michael Mischna, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA •  Edgard Valentín-Rivera, A recibo Observatory, USA •  Henry Sun, Desert Research Institute, USA •  Gilbert Levin, Arizona State University, USA
  6. 6. HABIT and the ExoMars/SP goals ExoMars ì  To search for signs of past and present life on Mars. ì  To investigate the water/ geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. ì  To study Martian atmospheric trace gases and their sources. ì  To characterize the surface environment. Surface Platform (SP) ì  Long term climate monitoring and atmospheric investigations ì  Studies of subsurface water distribution at the landing site ì  Atmosphere/surface volatile exchange ì  Monitoring of the radiation environment (and comparison with TGO measurements)
  7. 7. HABIT=ENVPACK+BOTTLE •  Air temperature and convective heat transfer sensor (ATS) •  Ground temperature sensor (GTS) •  UV irradiance sensor (UVS) •  Brine conductivity (BOTTLE)
  8. 8. Technical Challanges ì  Low mass ì  Low power consump.on ì  Materials ì  Surface finishes
  9. 9. Mechanical Design
  10. 10. HABIT : Ops and IFR Operation Functional Requirements •  The instrument shall perform the following environmental and vessel measurements: •  (i) air temperature (x3);; (ii) wind-activity (forced convection regimes); ii) Ground temperature; iv) Brine conductivities (x6); (iv) vessel temperatures (x6); Filtered-UV irradiances (x6). •  The instrument shall be able to operate autonomously measuring at 1Hz, with regular acquisitions (about 5 to 10 minutes per hour plus one to four hours of extended continuous acquisitions as defined in the schedule table) during the day and in particular during the cold night hours, on a predefined schedule basis programmed by the SP Compute Element (SPCE).The instrument shall be able to heat autonomously each vessel, for salt dehydration (regeneration), at night. By optimizing this, the amount of water captured at night shall be maximized for future ISRU applications. •  Conductivity of 5 containers with salts, 0.1uS/cm, 1Hz, 5 min/hour. •  UV measurements in ABC [200-400 nm],A,B,C,D, and E filtered photodiodes. 10% accuracy, 1 Hz, 5 min/hour •  Ground temperature IR thermopile in the 8-14 um, 2to 10 K accuracy, 1 Hz, 5min/hour •  Air temperature measurement, with three pt1000 per ATS and 3 Fr4 fins., 1 to 5 K, at 1 Hz, 5 min/hour. •  GTS FOV to the ground •  UVS FOV to the sky •  Implementation: as clean as possible from surface platform thermal contamination
  11. 11. ENV predecessor: MSL-REMS, more than 1100 sols of operations on Mars 200 220 240 260 280 720 735 750 765 780 795 00:00 04:00 08:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 00:00 T[K] P[Pa] Ta Tg P 0 20 40 60 80 100 00:00 04:00 08:00 12:00 16:00 20:00 00:00 0 5 10 15 20 RH% UV[W/m 2 ] LMST RHa RHg UVABC Mar$n-Torres, Zorzano, et al., 2015
  12. 12. Martian water cycle observations Mar$n-Torres, Zorzano, et al., 2015
  13. 13. Dry-hydrated-liquid brine-Dry cycle
  14. 14. BOTTLE module= salts+HEPA filter Salt Te (K) RH % Mel$ng T (oC ) Captures H2O / sol (g) Volume of salt cm3 NaClO4 236 53 482 4.9 2.1 Mg(ClO4)2 206 52 220 5.2 1.8 Ca(ClO4)2 196 55 270 4.0 3.0 CaCl2 226 60 772 5.9 1.2 The deliquescence of salts leads to the direct forma.on of liquid solu.ons at saturated condi$ons i.e. concentra$ons of about 50% of salt, not in diluted condi$ons!
  15. 15. Field site testing:1. REXUS rocket •  Vertical atmospheric sounding (rapid T and RH changes) of salt-water- temperature cycle. •  BOTTLE prototype, spinning at 4Hz, sampling up to 80–100 km •  Flight duration: 2–5 hours •  NaClO 4 (5.3g), Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 (4.1g), Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 (7.6g), CaCl 2 (2.5g).
  16. 16. 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 T[K] a.w. Liquid Kiruna 16.03.2015 Kiruna 16.08.2015 Gale sol 551 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 EarthLT Winter-spring long time outdoors campaign of diurnal and seasonal RH/T cycles Field site testing 2: ESRANGE, in the polar artic Zorzano & Mar.n-Torres, 2016
  17. 17. Field site testing:3. High-cold arid environments •  SpacewarBound India 2016 at Ladakh/ Atacama in Chile. •  5 km height, high UV exposure, dry and cold, frost forma.on and saline lake environments. •  In combina.on with biological sample projects for UV resistant, permafrost and salty environments micro- organisms. Summer 2016
  18. 18. HABIT: assessing the Martian habitability and enabling its safe exploration, including the future human exploration of Mars •  Evaluate the present day habitability of Mars. •  It will allow for the first-in situ detec.on of liquid water on Mars without direct contact with the site. •  Provide reference for comparison with terrestrial-based requirements of planetary protec.on. •  Characterize the near surface environment and the most important cycles (water cycle, dust cycle, thermal .des, wind, UV level etc..). •  Quan.fy the diurnal and seasonal liquid water availability. •  Provide environmental data to complement the SP meteorological sta.on and to be compared with REMS/MSL, Twins/Insight, MEDA/rover2020 •  Validate an ISRU module for atmospheric water capturing system •  Important EPO (already 15 master and PhD students involved in valida.on, prototyping and outreach, two accepted student contribu.ons to the 1st symposium on Space Educa.onal, PADOVA, 9 – 12 DECEMBER 2015)
  19. 19. HABIT will pave the way to of the future exploration missions to Mars