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A brief history of fluid mechanics

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- 2. History of Fluid Mechanics Invented scientists Concept Pictorial representation Sailing ships with oars and irrigation systems (Prehistoric period) Ancient civilizations Concept of flow problems Source: https://www.freepik.com/pre mium-vector/vintage-sailing- ship-drawing_17744860.htm Archimedes Source: https://www.britannica.co m/biography/Archimedes Alexandria Third Century B.C Parallelogram law of vector addition 2
- 3. Invented scientists Concept Pictorial representation Archimedes (285-212 B.C) Source: https://www.mecholic.co m/2018/06/conditions- of-equilibrium-of- floating.html Leonardo da vinci (1452-1519) Source: https://www.leonardodavinci.net/ Description of waves, jets, hydraulic jumps, eddy formation, streamlined and parachute designs Source: Vortex studies in currents (Windsor Castle, The Royal Collection, RL 1266ov) Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edm e_Mariotte Built and tested the first Wind tunnel History of Fluid Mechanics Laws of buoyancy for floating and submerged bodies 3
- 4. History of Fluid Mechanics Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Is aac_Newton Law of motion and law of viscosity of the linear fluid Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli, Jean D’Alembert, Joseph- Louis Lagrange and Pierre-Simon Laplace Solution of Friction – flow problem by differential equation of motion and their integral form D’Alembertz (1717-1783) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Jean_le_Rond_d%27Ale mbert The body immersed in a frictionless fluid has zero drag 4
- 5. History of Fluid Mechanics Chezy, Pitot, Borda, Weber, Francis, Hagen, Poiseuille, Darcy, Manning, Bazin and Weisbach Produced data on variety of laws such as open channels, ship resistance, pipe flows, waves, and turbines Fundamental physics of flow William Froude (1810-1879) & Robert Edmund Froude (1846-1924) Law of model testing Lord Rayleigh (1842–1919) Dimensional Analysis Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912) Fluid dynamics Concept Source: https://www.simscale.com/docs/simwiki/numerics- background/what-is-the-reynolds-number/ 5
- 6. History of Fluid Mechanics Navior (1785-1836) & Stokes (1819-1903) Fluid motion governing equation including viscous term Ludwig Prandtl (1875–1953) Fluid flows with small viscosity 6
- 7. Dimensions and Units Fundamental Dimension SI Unit BG Unit Conversion factor Mass (M) Kilogram (kg) Slug 1 slug = 14.5939 kg Length (L) Meter (m) Foot (ft) 1 ft = 0.3048 m Time (T) Second (s) Second (s) 1 s = 1 s Temperature (ϴ) Kelvin (K) Rankine (⁰R) 1 K = 1.8 ⁰R SI = International System of Units BG = British Gravitational Units Derived Dimension in Fluid Mechanics Derived Dimension SI BG Conversion factor Area (L2) m2 ft2 1 m2 = 10.764 ft2 Volume (L3) m3 ft3 1 m3 = 35.315 ft3 Velocity (LT-1) m/s ft/s 1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s Acceleration (LT-2) m/s2 ft/s2 1 ft/s2 = 0.3048 m/s2 Pressure or Stress (ML-1T-1) N/m2 lbf/ft2 lbf/ft2 = 47.88 Pa Angular velocity (T-1) s-1 s-1 1 s-1 = 1 s-1 Energy, Heat, work (ML2T-2) Nm (J) ft.lbf 1 ft.lbf = 1.3558 J Density (ML-3) kg/m3 slugs/ft3 1slugs/ft3 = 515.4 kg/m3 Viscosity (ML-1T-1) kg.s/m slugs/ft.s 1 slugs/ft.s = 47.88 kg.s/m Power (ML2T-3) J/s (W) ft.lbf/s 1 ft.lbf/s =1.3558 W Fundamental Dimension in Fluid Mechanics 7
- 8. Prefixes for Engineering Units Multiplicative factor Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 10 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro µ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 8
- 9. Dimensional Homogeneity In engineering and science, all equations must be dimensionally homogeneous, each additive term in an equation have the same dimensions. Example 1 : Velocity measurement by pitot tube 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 LT gH of Dimension V of Dimension LT L T L gH of Dimension LT T L V Velocity of Dimension gH V Example 2 : Bernoulli’s Incompressible Equation Each term has same dimension (ML-1T-2 ) constant 2 2 1 gZ V p 9
- 10. Branches of Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Hydrostatics Study of fluids at rest or flow with constant velocity Kinematics Study of the geometry of fluid motion Fluid Dynamics Study of the forces that cause accelerated motion 10 Reference 1. Yunus A. Cengel ; John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd.,2014 2. R.C. Hibbler, Fluid Mechanics, Pearson Publishing Education Ltd., 2022