Kashmir conflict

May. 16, 2013

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Kashmir conflict

  1. Presented by Kalsoom Muhammad - RIPS-12-09 Faiza Iftikhar- RIPS-12-27 Sultana Mushtaq-RIPS-12-10 Saira Fatimah-RIPS-12- 23 Rabia Iqbal-RIPS-12-110 Tehreem Ahmed-RIPS-12-24
  2.  Kashmir is a region located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. It includes the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, the Pakistani states of Gilgit- Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and the Chinese regions of Aksai Chin.  To its north lie Chinese and Russian Turkistan. On its east is Chinese Tibet. On the South and South-West lie the states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. On the west is the North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan, China and Russia. West North- East South North
  3.  The Indian Independence Act, 1935 aimed at dividing United India into The Union of India and The Dominion of Pakistan which later became Independent Pakistan in 1947. According to this act the different states had the option of choosing whether they wanted to be a part of India or Pakistan.  Kashmir ruled by a Hindu named Maharaja Hari Singh.  October 1947 a Muslim revolution of freedom took place. The Maharaja had no choice but to sign an “Instrument of Accession” to Indian government providing them control over the Kashmir region.  This was not accepted by Pakistani tribes and the Muslim revolution and decided to move forward into the region and then the Maharaja of Kashmir faced military powers. Maharaja requested India to assist, but India refused to help until Kashmir was officially a part of India. After signing necessary documents India started to progress into Kashmir with military aid leading to the war of 1947 Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in October 1947
  4.  In 1947, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir Hari Singh, opposed either to join Pakistan or India. He signed an agreement with Pakistan on August 16, 1947 and tried to sign a similar agreement with India too. But at the time of independace public uprising between Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs rose up.  On October 22, 1947, the Pathan-armed tribes of the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) invaded Kashmir. Hari Singh was alerted about the invasion. He wanted India’s military support but India refused to help until Kashmir was officially a part of India. India agreed to the accession after consulting Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of the National Conference (NC). Hari Singh signed the accord on October 27 and on the same day Indian armed forces entered Kashmir to drive back the invaders.  This annoyed Pakistani Governor-General Mohammed Ali Jinnah. On October 27th, he ordered Lt. General Sir Douglas Gracey, chief of the Pakistan army, to send Pakistani troops into Kashmir but he withdraw his orders. In November, Jinnah transferred military supplies to the invaders. Indian military in Kashmir
  5.  In 1948 Jinnah sent Pakistani regular troops to Kashmir.  On January 1, 1948, India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru followed the advice of British Governor General Lord Mountbatten, made a criticism with the UN Security Council calling for a peaceful agreement on disputes between India and Pakistan. In the complaint India promised to hold a “plebiscite or referendum under international auspices,” as soon as the invaders would be expelled.  On January 20 and on April 21, 1948 the Security Council established a three-member and five member UN commission respectively on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to send them to Kashmir to investigate the situation.  On July 7, 1948, following Minister Sir Mohammed Zafrullah Khan’s had his troops in Kashmir.  On August 13, UNCIP passed a resolution informing both countries to cease fire and completely withdraw the Pakistani tribesmen in order to conduct a plebiscite. The cease- fire took place in January 1, 1949. UNCIP passing resolution to cease fire in 1948
  6.  UNCIP sent a Monitoring Group for India and Pakistan (UNMGIP) to Kashmir on January 24, to monitor the cease-fire line (CFL). This line was renamed in 1972 as the line of control or line of actual control (LAC).  In December 1949, the Security Council commanded its President General A. G. L. McNaughton of Canada to negotiate with India and Pakistan on basis of demilitarization plan. Pakistan agreed on the plan but India ignored it by taking moral and legal issues of plan which failed the plan.
  7.  On March 14, 1950, the Security Council passed another and appointed Australian judge, Sir Owen Dixon, as UN representative.  In September 1950, Dixon suggested a proposal in which the plebiscite was only to be held in Kashmir Valley but both countries rejected it. Jawaharlal Nehru at a meeting in New Delhi on July 20, 1950, with Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan (centre) and Sir Owen Dixon, U.N. mediator on Kashmir (left).
  8.  In April 1951, the US Council appointed Dr. Frank Graham, as UN representative. Between December 1951 and February 1953, Graham tried to convince both countries to accept his demilitarization proposals which mentioned the reduction of the military of both countries in Kashmir and Azad Kashmir before conducting plebiscite but it failed.
  9.  Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s Prime Minister, Mohammed Ali Bogra, met in August 20, 1953 in London. Both agreed to take the issue out of UN and solve it directly. Nehru had already informed Kashmir’s new Prime Minister, Bakshi Mohammed Ghulam Mohammed about his aim and told Bogra that he would conduct a plebiscite in Kashmir.  Bogra returned to Pakistan successfully. But Nehru’s offer failed to take place because Bogra delayed it by the politics of General Ayub Khan who was planning to grab political power. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mohammed Ali Bogra, talks in August 20, 1953
  10.  On 30 October 1956, India adopts a constitution for Kashmir declaring it a part of the Indian Union. India's Home Minister, Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant, during his visit to Srinagar, declared that the State of Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India and there can be no question of a plebiscite to determine its status and forcefully incorporated Kashmir into it and renamed it as Jammu Kashmir.
  11.  In February 1957, the Council authorized its president Gunnar Jarring to supervise India and Pakistan on the proposals of demilitarization and plebiscite. Jarring did not have any success and in April referred it to the Council to hold by negotiation, which Pakistan accepted but India rejected.  In September Pakistan Prime Minister General Ayub Khan Noon’s said that his country was ready to withdraw its troops from Kashmir. The Security Council sent Frank Graham who again tried to make an agreement between the two countries but India again rejected it.
  12. Graham Report: 1958  In March 1958, Graham submitted a report to the Security Council (CSC) suggesting to settle the dispute but as usual India rejected it. From the mid-1950s onward, the Soviet Union frees India by its frequent rejection in the UN. Since then, the issue died in the Security Council until it was again raised in 1963 and 1965. The Indo- Pak borders remained mostly quiet during the period 1949-65. In 1965, India and Pakistan fought another war.
  13.  Pakistan made plans for “Operation Gibraltar” to recover Kashmir. As it did in 1947, it first sent Pakistani guerrillas into the Valley in August 1965 hoping that the Kashmiri Muslims would rise in rebellion against India.  On September 1, when Indian troops crossed the international border, Pakistan launched an attack on Jammu. In response, India launched a series of attacks through and started battle with the Pakistani army. As the war continued, the UN Security Council, supported by Britain and the USSR, call for an immediate cease-fire, which both countries accepted on September 6.
  14.  In January 1966, at the invitation of Soviet Premier Alexsei Kosygin, both Lal Bhadur Shastri and M. Ayub Khan Khan, met in the city of Tashkent (Republic of Uzbekistan) and signed the agreement known as the Tashkent Declaration. On January 10, the agreement was official and ended by the withdrawal of the Indo- Pakistani forces to the previous cease-fire lines. Shastri died of a heart attack in Tashkent right after he signed the declaration and Mrs. Indira Gandhi succeeded him.
  15.  In 1971 India and Pakistan fought a third war over Bangladesh’s Independence in which the Kashmir dispute was a secondary issue.
  16.  On July 2, 1972, Mrs. Gandhi signed the Simla agreement with Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first President and later Prime Minister of Pakistan. Under this agreement: “settling their differences through bilateral negotiations .”  They also agreed that in “Jammu and Kashmir, the Line of Control (LOC) resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971, shall be respected by both sides without discrimination to the recognized position of either side." This agreement became the basis for the renewal of relations between the two countries.
  17.  On July 24, 1973, Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Mrs. Gandhi signed another agreement in New Delhi agreeing to free all POW’s except for 195 who were held to be tried but were later released without trial.
  18.  Pakistan unilaterally separated Gilgit Agency and Baltistan from Azad Kashmir in 1974, and integrated them into Pakistan same to what India did in 1956.
  19.  In 1968, following the end of the third Indo- Pakistani war, India released Sheikh Abdullah, leader of National conference and his colleague, Mirza Afzal Beg, from jail. Abdullah accepted Kashmir’s accession to India as final. As seen in March 10, 1972, in an interview with The Times (London), he said, “our dispute with the government of India is not accession but it is the quantum of autonomy” for Kashmir. In June 1972, the state government headed by Mir Passim put the ban on Abdullah’s entry into Kashmir as he demanded for a plebiscite.
  20.  In 1974, Sheikh Abdullah and Mirza Afzal Beg joined India in a series of negotiations. The negotiations between Mrs. Gandhi’s special representative G. Parthasarathi and Mirza Beg resulted in a six-point accord called the Kashmir Accord.
  21.  The accord was signed by Abdullah on February 12, 1975. Abdullah agreed to Kashmir’s status as a part of India allowing enjoying special conditions. On February 25, 1975, Abdullah became the Chief Minister of the state. In July 1975, his party, the National Conference finally came into existence again. He governed the state until he died on September 21, 1982.
  22.  Sheikh Abdullah’s son, Dr. Farooq Abdullah, succeeded him. But Dr. Farooq joined by the influential Maulvi Farooq of the Awami Action Committee demanded autonomy.
  23.  During the 1983 legislative elections despite Mrs. Gandhi’s anger and her management of the elections, Dr. Farooq Abdullah won the election.
  24.  Upset by Dr. Farooq’s demand for autonomy, Mrs. Gandhi dismissed Abdullah’s government in 1984 and replaced it with Ghulam Mohammad Shah as its Chief Minister.
  25.  As public violence increased under Ghulam Mohammad Shah’s leadership, in the Valley and Jammu, he was dismissed in 1986. In the same year Dr. Farooq Abdullah signed a deal with Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, the new Prime Minister. In June 1986, National Conference and Congress were united.
  26.  The union of two parties won a victory in the March 1987 elections but it did not help Abdullah to keep power for long. The election of 1987 resulted in Abdullah’s defeat following the Muslim uprising in 1989.
  27.  Pakistan was ready to support the secessionist groups with funds, weapons and training, as it continued to make claims over Kashmir. Three principal umbrella groups were involved in the uprising. One group, composed of Muslim fundamentalists. The second umbrella group was tied to the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) who demanded an independent Kashmir. The third group was the Jammu and Kashmir Peoples’ League. These groups demanded that a plebiscite as promised by India and guaranteed by the UN Resolutions of 1948-49 be conducted so that the Kashmiris could exercise their right of self- determination.
  28.  India, however, rejected their demands based on the argument that in 1956 the Kashmir constituent assembly acceded to India. It further argued that the plebiscite was outdated and that based on the July 1972 Simla agreement Pakistan was forced to resolve the Kashmir dispute bilaterally with India and not under the guidance of any international organization.
  29.  The action of Indian Government dismissed Abdullah’s government in August 1990. Under the July 1990 Jammu and Kashmir Disturbed Areas Act and Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSP; the security forces forcefully committed a series of human right abuses. The abuses included the following:  Staged tease “encounters” for the deaths of victims, who died in police custody,  Cruel treatment of prisoners and suspects with beatings, burnings with cigarettes, suspension by the feet and electric shocks,  Random arrest and detention of the suspects for more than 12 months,  Searching and arresting suspects without a warrant.
  30.  By early 1996, the central government decided to deal with the insurgency (rebellion). It restored state government under Abdullah who had won in the September elections, although the All-Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference (APHC) boycotted the elections. In February 1996, the central government released from jail the four Pakistani separatist leaders, Imran Rahi of the Hiz-Ul- Mujahideen, Bilal Lodhi of the Al-Barq, Babbar Badr of the Muslim Janbaz Force (MJF), and Ghulam Mohiuddin of the Muslim Mujahideen and started talks with them. They agreed to talks with the government with no conditions and without Pakistan’s involvement. On February 10, another Pakistani Master Ahsan Dar, the founder of the Hiz-Ul-Mujahideen, who was in jail, joined them by supported the four Pakistani. The leader of the Peoples League, Shabir Ahmad Shah, also joined the conference, saying that the problem could not be solved without the including Pakistan in the talks. The constant insurgency increased conflict between India and Pakistan and increased the chance of nuclear encounter.
  31.  In the midst of the Kashmir Muslim insurgency, tensions between India and Pakistan became so intense that in May 1990, the Pakistani military headed by General Mirza Aslam Beg was willing to use nuclear weapons to “take out New Delhi.” Prime Minister Benazeer Bhutto, took a hostile stand towards India. Despite these hostile relations, India and Pakistan held several talks at foreign secretary levels between 1990 and January 1994, but without any results. Pakistan insisted that India stop its counter-insurgency operations, while India insisted that that the talks should focus on Pakistan’s cross border aid to the Muslim militants.
  32.  After Benazeer’s second discharge, Nawaz Sharif took office as Prime Minister in February 1997. Indo- Pak relations temporarily soften. Several meetings were held. At meetings they formed eight joint “working groups” that would look at the Kashmir issue, for the first time since 1972.
  33.  These relations changed after the parliament elections of March 1998 when Indian government that took a hard stand against Pakistan. The Home Minister, L. K. Advani, of the new government threatened to go after the terrorists even into the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir. Indo-Pakistani conflicts increased in May 1998.  On July 29, when Vajpayee and Sharif met at the tenth summit of the SAARC held in Columbo, Sri Lanka, the encounter failed. Sharif insisted to resolve the “core issue” of Kashmir. India’s foreign secretary, K. Raghunath, responded by saying Pakistan’s focus on the issue of Kashmir as “neurotic”. In contrast, when they met on September 23, at UN General Assembly session, in New York, they agreed to try to resolve the Kashmir issue “peacefully”. This agreement was not taken up by the Pakistani military including General Musharraf.
  34. The Threat of War and the Bush Administration’s Role in Ending It: 2001  On December 13, 2001 the Indian parliament building was attacked by the Pakistan-based terrorist. Tensions between India and Pakistan got intense. Both countries started moving military along the Line Of Control (LOC).
  35.  On January 12, 2002, Gn. Pervaiz Musharraf promised not to use his country as a base for terrorism in Kashmir. India adopted it and the situation was calm. But Gn. Musharraf released 500 militants and went against his promise.  In May 14, the Indian government send 100,000 troops to close the LOC. Musharraf responded by sending half million troops to the borders and on May 27. These tensions made the two countries come closer to the war. It was this threat that made British Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw; U.S. Deputy of Secretay of State, Richard Armitage; and Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, to visit both Pakistan and India in May and June 2002 and they succeeded in resolving tensions.
  36.  During the SAARC summit meeting, held January 4-6, 2004, Vajpayee met Gn. Musharraf on January 5. They discussed an agreement that had been put together by Indian and Pakistani officials. As Musharraf said in December 2004, he wanted to compromise on the conflict by negotiations. Therefore, the leaders gave their approval on the agreement.
  37.  In order to settle the dispute that remained forgotten till the present Pakistani and Indian politics, the International Community must enter and take on some new steps. Since 1947, the Kashmir conflict has threatened to initiate a nuclear war between India and Pakistan. These countries have already fought three wars over the region; still the United Nations have failed to settle the situation. In January 2008, leaders of Pakistan and India suggested that they can lastly complete a long-term resolution with international support. United States has been working to facilitate peace talks between Pakistan and India to resolve the Kashmir Conflict. In July 15, 2009, Pakistani Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had agreed to discuss resolution of the dispute. All what these two countries should unite is to begin the upholding or supporting of conflict resolution. All that is left is action.
  38. References  kashmir.htm    within-the-kashmir-region/The Territorial Dispute within the Kashmir Region    he-Kashmir-problem#ref673547 ,9171,793895,00.html  008082703195.html?nav=rss_world