Emergency Management: Lessons Learned and Best Practices


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Presentation given by our Keynote Speaker, Brock Long, Former Director, Alabama Emergency Management

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  • Major hurricanes account for just over 20% of the tropical storms and hurricanes that strike the US. Major Hurricanes cause 80% of the damage African waves (100 per year) account for 60% of the Atlantic basin tropical storms and nonmajor hurricanes, but 85% of major hurricanes. Almost all major hurricanes formed from African waves begin development in the MDR(Main Development Region – North Atlantic & Carribean Sea between 10N and 20N Virtually all Major storms form in August September October.
  • This is a shot of Ike with the weather layer added. Webshots were not taken of Gustav even though we used that feature during the course of the activation.
  • -These are the ACCS Shelters identified for the 2009 Season. -Not all 39 campuses of the ACCS system can be utilized as shelters due to various reasons: prison colleges; lack of structural soundness; agreements with other entities or organizations that would prevent use a shelter; etc.
  • Top Mistakes Final Inspection/IG Audit results in de-obligation due to insufficient documentation Rental costs determined unreasonable due to lack of documentation (obtain quotes from different vendors to determine reasonableness). Damage determined to be ineligible due to lack of maintenance records Upgrades due to codes and standards are requested but no examples of previous code enforcement are demonstrated No notification given to the state in regards to cost overruns (much safer to ask for permission than forgiveness). Change in scope of work without improved project request and approval. Piggy Back contracts are considered “sole source” contracts according to the Federal Bid laws. Damage identified after the 60 day deadline has expired Appeals submitted after the 60 day deadline
  • Emergency Management: Lessons Learned and Best Practices

    1. 1. Building A Stronger Rhode Island: Hurricane Lessons Learned & Best Practices
    2. 3. Higher Probability For Major Hurricane Strikes Inactive Decades <ul><li>INACTIVE YEAR CYCLES: </li></ul><ul><li>1903-1925 </li></ul><ul><li>1971-1994 </li></ul><ul><li>47 Year Total </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE YEAR CYCLES: </li></ul><ul><li>1926-1970 </li></ul><ul><li>1995-present </li></ul>Active Decades
    3. 4. Rhode Island Hurricane History <ul><li>Active Year Storms : </li></ul><ul><li>1938 New England hurricane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100+ deaths in Rhode Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm surge of 16ft Narragansett Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$4.2 billion (normalized damages today) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1954 hurricanes Carol & Edna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>130 mph peak gust recorded at Block Island, RI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 to 10ft of surge reported in Providence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960 Hurricane Donna </li></ul><ul><li>1961 Hurricane Esther </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Hurricane Floyd </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Hurricane Charley </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive Year Storms: </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Gloria 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Bob 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Longest gap between storms: 1923-1934 (11 years) </li></ul>
    4. 5. Building Resilient Communities Begins With Citizen Awareness
    5. 6. Katrina – How It Applies To Rhode Island?
    6. 7. Do Citizens Understand Their Vulnerability?
    7. 9. Base Flood Elevation vs. Storm Surge
    8. 10. 1938 Hurricane Storm Surge
    9. 11. Citizens Often Evacuate For The Wrong Reason Hurricane Ivan Behavioral Study 2004
    10. 12. U.S. Tropical Cyclone Deaths 1970-1999
    11. 13. U.S. Tropical Cyclone Deaths 1970-1999
    12. 14. Katrina Syndrome <ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealistic operational timeframes required to implement your response plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuating citizens 100’s of miles inland rather than 10’s of miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan requires host state evacuation agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow evacuations – moving more citizens than necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens do not understand why they are asked to evacuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuilding to the same BFE standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remedies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk based & time phased evacuations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well designed evacuation zones that reduce the number of people evacuated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear evacuation warning order terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of evacuation distances – tiered shelter approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate policies that stand in the way of priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help citizens visualize vulnerability </li></ul></ul>Edit Footer Title
    14. 16. Typical Alabama Reaction Timelines Since 1851 31% of all storms that impacted Alabama provided less than 72 hours notice Hurricane Camille (Cat 5 1969) was named 72 hours from the coast
    15. 17. Operational Timing vs. Arrival of Storm Impacts Ike Isabel Expanding wind fields & hazard impact before arrival of TS winds
    16. 18. Risk Based Evacuations, Not Mass Evacuations <ul><li>Well designed zones will reduce operational timeframes </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation zones must reflect how evacuations are communicated to the public </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation Clearance times are directly attached to these zones </li></ul><ul><li>AL was evacuating more citizens than necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Zones must be designed to reduce the number of people asked to evacuate </li></ul>
    17. 19. Reducing Evacuation Distance – Reduces Issues <ul><li>Evacuations should not exceed state borders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuate 10’s of miles, not 100’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource type shelter management teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier shelter activations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate shadow evacuations through training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use consistent terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior citizens – Knight Ridder study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policies Impacting Your Shelter Capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEMA Safe Room Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EM Declaration Cap - $5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOJ’s interpretation of functional needs for shelters </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. New Real-Time Evacuation Technology Edit Footer Title
    19. 21. Best Practice Sheltering Example <ul><li>Baldwin County </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Needs Facility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will serve as a functional needs hurricane shelter for up to 400 people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces CTN support requirements & timeframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures standard of care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During Hurricane Ivan (in 2004) evacuated functional needs clients to Tuscaloosa </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Host State Evacuation Plans - Gustav Lesson <ul><li>Operational timeframes vs. political favors </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama operated 70+ shelters statewide </li></ul><ul><li>Hosted 8300 transportation dependent evacuees from LA. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate 13,000 evacuees statewide </li></ul><ul><li>Total estimated cost $80 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total AL Cost $5.5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2.2 million for Post Secondary Education Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2.8 Million for other ARC Shelters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operated 3 special needs shelters </li></ul><ul><li>Received 159 special needs citizens </li></ul>
    21. 23. Helping Citizens To Understand The Threat Edit Footer Title Visualization, Social Networking & Outreach
    22. 25. Surge/Flood Depth Modeling November 3, 2008 Slide #
    23. 26. Pre-Disaster Response Considerations <ul><li>Vendor managed logistics concept </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-event Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity Contracts – (What does legislation allow?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Public Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debris Hauling & Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-establish resource typed points of distribution (PODS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand when to activate and when to shut down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre- establish Disaster Recovery Center locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary & Alternate locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure state agency and VOAD support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USACE power assessments for critical infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term sheltering & housing </li></ul><ul><li>State disaster assistance for non-declared events </li></ul><ul><li>Locals – Don’t wait on the Federal & State government. </li></ul>
    24. 27. Recovery: Top Mistakes <ul><li>Lack of documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rental costs determined unreasonable due to lack of documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-event maintenance records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstration of previous code enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No notification given to the state in regards to cost overruns </li></ul><ul><li>Change in scope of work without improved project request and approval. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of “Piggy Back” contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Damage identified after the 60 day deadline has expired </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals submitted after the 60 day deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Event procedures & policies did not match Post-Event procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Proper procurement procedures not followed </li></ul>
    25. 28. Mitigation Considerations <ul><li>Unfortunately mitigation is becoming a recovery program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-disaster funding vs. post disaster funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced mitigation status = 5% increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitigation: Post Event HMGP priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property Loss Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local/State Mitigation plan priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitigation plans must be socialized </li></ul><ul><li>Florida Building Code 2001 </li></ul>
    26. 29. Non-Stafford Act Disaster Declarations <ul><li>Deepwater, H1N1, CP&G gas explosion & international events </li></ul><ul><li>There are 56 different types of federal declarations </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama Deepwater declarations included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SBA , Economic Injury Assistance loans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Pollution Act, 1990, National Pollution Fund Center Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration, fisheries assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency managers were the primary responders at the state and local level despite the lack of Stafford Act support </li></ul>
    27. 30. Brock Long, Vice President Hagerty Consulting brock.long@hagertyconsulting.com 334-652-1450