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  2. MINISTRY OF CULTURE, SPORTS AND TOURISM HOMA BAY COUNTY YOUTH DEVELOPMENT POLICY Empowering Youth for Self -Reliance and Enhanced Participation in Governance and Leadership in Homa Bay County 3.3.3. Inter-MinisterialSteeringCommittee The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy, in recognition of the County's Policy on Networking, Collaboration and Partnership for Sustainable Development, also proposes the establishment of an inter-ministerial steering committee on youth development and empowerment comprising representatives of relevant ministries dealing with youth issues. The committee will monitor and review the youth activities carried out by various players in Homa Bay County as stipulated in the Youth Development and Empowerment Action Plan that shall be developed from time to time to implement this Policy. The steering committee will also budget for and ensure resources are availed to ensure effective Policy Implementation and coordination. The youth policy shall be reviewed at least once in every ive years and in line with other governmentpolicystatementsbytheinter-ministerialsteeringcommittee. CONCLUSION The youth can no longer be termed as leaders of tomorrowthey must be aided to lead and be seen to lead today than never before. They must be seen as today's leaders and champions of the change we want to see in our society and the nation at-large. Planning cannot continue without involving the youth, especially those who are in dif icult circumstances, in all the sectors of the economy.Theyouthhavearighttoparticipateinissuesthataffecttheirlifeandtoexploittheirfull potential, especially on leadership and governance. They also have responsibilities that must not be relegated to the older generations. This policy seeks to provide exactly that opportunity for improving the quality of life for Youth in Homa Bay County while expanding opportunities in virtually all spheres of their life and that of their environment. It will cater for all categories of youth as outlined in this Policy without discrimination and or favor. The policy seeks to promote youthparticipationindemocraticprocessesaswellasincommunityandcivicaffairsinHomaBay County using legally established legal structures. It also advocates for the creation of a supportive social,cultural,economicandpoliticalenvironmentthatwillempowertheyouthtobepartnersin development and not mere recipients of government and development partners programs and policies. The policy seeks to exploit the favourable policy of structure networking, collaboration and partnership being fronted by the County Government of Homa Bay in its quest to enlist wider stakeholder involvement in the realization of the vision of Homa Bay County, that is, “to be an industrialized,wealthyandhealthycounty” 24 24 Prepared by: 1.Mr. Richard Ochieng Bonyo 2.Mr. David Ajumbo 3.Dr. Isaac Abuya 4.Mr. George Opiata Ogada
  3. FOREWORD Youth are the foundation and a pillar of a society. Their energy, innovativeness, resourcefulness, character and orientation de ine the pace of development and the security of a society and a nation. Through their creative talents and labor/man power, a society/nation makes giant strides in economic development and socio-political actualizations. In their dreams, aspirations and hopes, a nation inds her anchorage and motivation; and on their energies, a nation builds her vitality and sense of pride and a purpose. And because of their dreams and aspirations, the future ofanationisassuredand irmlysecured. It is for this reason that the formulation and implementation of a viable Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy is not only a moral responsibility of the County Government and its leadershipbutalsoimperativeforanymeaningfulsocial,economicalandpoliticaldevelopmentof Homa Bay County as it is to our beloved Nation of Kenya. It is the conviction of the County Government of Homa Bay that youth constitute its only real hope for a great future as we strive to realizetheinherentbene itsofadevolvedgovernmentinKenya. TheMinistryofYouth,CultureandTourismhasthereforetakenacriticallookattheplightofHoma Bay County youth and prepared a consensus blue print for their holistic development and empowerment. In preparing the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy, consultations were held through various governance structures with the County Government of Homa Bay with relevant stakeholders through the of ice of His Excellency the Governor, Of ice the County Assembly Members and with the various youth forums. Their reconciled views overtime formed and informedthebasisofthisPolicyDocument. The policy objectives enunciated in the Document will provide guidelines for the strategies to be adopted in the systematic implementation and administration of the policy provisions. This CountyYouthDevelopmentPolicyrepresentsanimportantmilestone–notonlyforyoungwomen and men of Homa Bay County, but for our country too. It is a cause for celebration and dedication. Celebration,becauseforthe irsttimeinthehistoryofKenya,theaspirations,needsand The Ministry of Youth, Culture, Sports and Tourism of Homa Bay County shall spearhead the overall policy implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review, in addition to mobilizing resources necessary for the implementation of the Policy and its enabling Action Plans. Partnerships within the different organizations will in this endeavor play a keyroleinachievingthepolicy'sgoalsandobjectives. To ensure effective implementation, the policy recognizes the need to strengthen and support the National Youth Council (Homa Bay Chapter) established vide the National Youth Council Act (No. 10 of 2009) through an elaborate institutional development and strengthening programs aimed at giving the necessary enabling environment for the HomaBayCountyYouthCounciltoplayitsrightfulroleinmobilizingtheyouthforpositive action in Homa Bay County according to the provisions of the National Youth Council Act LawsofKenya. The mandate of the Homa Bay County Youth Council as established under the National Youth Council Act will include co-ordination of youth organizations, designing and continuously reviewing the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy and developing an "integrated Homa Bay County Youth Development Action Plan" in collaboration with The Ministry of Youth, Culture, Sports and Tourism of Homa Bay County. The Homa Bay County Youth Council will act as an advisory, research and policy institution on youth affairsintheHomaBayCounty.Primarily,theHomaBayCountyYouthCouncilwill: i. PromoteandpopularizetheHomaBayCountyYouthDevelopmentPolicyandits enablingActionPlans; ii. Ensurestructuresareestablishedanddevelopedforeffectiveimplementationof thepolicyanditsActionPlans; iii. Design key performance indicators and mechanisms to ensure adherence to policybyallstakeholders. 3.3.2. Micro-ImplementationMechanism A partnership between Homa Bay County Youth Council and the Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Sports and Social Servicesof Homa Bay County will be created with speci ic functions and mandates toinclude: i. Mobilize, sensitize and organize the youth in Homa Bay County under one umbrella for political, economic and socio-cultural development activities (Gainfully involve the youth inactivitiesthatarebene icialtothemandthenationatlarge). iii. Promote relations between youth organizations and other bodies inside and outside Kenyawithsimilarobjectivesorinterests. iv. Inspireandpromotethespiritofunity,patriotismandvolunteerismintheyouth. v. Act as a voice and bridge to ensure that the Government and other policy makers are kept informedoftheviewsandaspirationsoftheyouth. 2 23
  4. conditions of young women and men have been formally recognized and articulated through a major policy initiative championed by the County Government through the Ministry of Youth, Culture and Tourism of Homa Bay County. Dedication because, if the vision and strategies outlined in this Policy are to become reality, we must all dedicate ourselves to the development and empowermentofouryoungmenandwomenbywalkingthetalkandnototherwayround Inthepast,norecognitionwasgiventotheneedsandconcernsofyoungmenandwomen,whowere instead, left to ind their own way in a dif icult and ever changing society, an experience that saw many young men and women lose focus of their hard earned life achievements and endowments. Todaywecancelebratethevisionoftherolesyoungwomenandmenplayinourcountyandcountry at large. Where young people contribute to the development of their county and realize their full potential,itislikelythatsustainabledevelopmentislikelytobearealityandnotanopticalillusion. We are all therefore challenged by this Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy that Youth development cannot be left to the young alone. We must all play a role – the young and the old, government and development partners alike. We are challenged to recognize the contribution we must all make to develop our young women and men. We must recognize the contributions young people make to our society and build upon their imagination, dreams, vision, energy, vibrancy and talents of all young women and men. In doing this we shall squarely address the factors which threatenthedevelopmentofyoungpeople. Tomainstreamyouthagendaindevelopmentplanningandresourcemobilizationandallocation,an effective youth development policy must be responsive to national interests in the ever changing global environment. Consequently, the County Government of Homa Bay humbly appeals to all its stakeholders to embrace this Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy, giving life and meaning tothevisionanddirectionithasset,thatis“Tobeanindustrialized,wealthyandhealthyCounty”. By working together – young and old, government and community, business and youth development organizations; international investors and grant makers, we can redress the legacies ofthepast,dealwiththechallengesofthepresent,andfocusonachievingabrighter,fullerfuturefor allouryoungmenandwomen. My Ministry is indebted to Mr. Richard Ochieng Bonyo (Policy & Resource Mobilization Advisor), Of ice of the Governor; Mr. David Ajumbo (Personal Assistant to the Governor); Dr. Isaac Odhiambo Abuya, Chief of Staff/Principal Secretary and Mr. Opiata Ogada (Chief Of icer), Ministry of Culture, SportsandTourismfortheirvaluableroleindevelopingthispolicy. DorothyOkello CountyExecutiveCommitteeMember, MinistryofYouth,CultureandTourism Sexual activity among the youth begins quite early in their life. Over 44% of girls between 15-19 years old have had sexual intercourse. Sex at this age has adverse effects on health, besides other socio-economic consequences. Studies have shown that most adolescent pregnancies (around 90%) are unplanned. High level of unprotected sexual activity exposes the female youth to the risk of contracting STIs, including HIV/AIDS. The lower level of education for girls, coupled with social cultural practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) and forced early marriages, put the female youth at a disadvantage.Theyhaveledtolowparticipationandrepresentationofyoungwomenin decision-making. Traditional gender roles over-burden the female youth, limiting their opportunitiesforprogressionandself-development. 3.2.5. Theunemployedyouth Unemployment brings along with it social ills such as crime and alcohol and drug abuse. Both the Government and non-governmental agencies must address this problem. The unemployed youth should be provided with access to services and support programmesandopportunitiesforfurthertraining. 3.2.6. Out-of-schoolyouth The out of school youth have special needs in terms of access to socio-economic and other opportunities. The increasing disparity between the annual output of school leavers and the job creation in the economy has resulted in high unemployment levels among the youth. Unemployment, which is mainly as a result of rapid population growth and increased pressure on land, is exacerbated by imbalance of skills among the youth caused by the education system and over-reliance by Kenya's industries on foreigntechnologies. 3.3. PolicyImplementationMechanisms 3.3.1. MacroImplementationMechanism The policy shall be implemented through an action plan detailing strategies, activities, targetgroups,timeframeandthebudgetlines. Implementation will require involvement of all agencies and stakeholders dealing with the youth under the coordination and technical back-stopping of the Ministry of Youth, Culture,SportsandTourismandrelatedlineMinistriesofHomaBayCounty. The Ministry of Youth, Culture, Sports and Tourism shall be the main agency in implementing the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy. Non-governmental organizations, the private sector community, international development partners, donors and various youth organizations will provide the necessary inancial and technical assistance aids in implementing the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policyanditsactionplans. 22 3
  5. Table of Contents FOREWORD 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8 CHAPTER ONE: 9 INTRODUCTION 9 1.1. Introduction 9 1.2. De inition of the Youth 10 1.3. Issues Affecting the Youth in Homa Bay County 10 1.3.1. Unemployment and underemployment 10 1.3.2. Health related problems 10 1.3.3. Increasing school and college drop - out rates 11 1.3.4. Crime, Recidivism, Addiction toDrugs and Deviant Social Behavior 11 1.3.5. Limited sports and recreation facilities 11 1.3.6. Abuse and exploitation 11 1.3.7. Limited participation and lack of opportunities in the public domain 12 1.3.8. Limited and poor housing 12 1.3.9. Limited access to information and communication technology (ICT) 12 1.4. Purpose of the Policy 12 1.4.1. Vision of the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy 12 1.4.2. Motto of Policy 12 1.4.3. Policy Goal and Objectives 13 Policy Goals 13 Goals Elaboration and Explanation 13 Policy Objectives 13 Core Focus of Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy 14 CHAPTER TWO 14 PRINCIPLES AND VALUES UNDERLYING THE HOMA BAY COUNTY YOUTH DEVELOPMENT POLICY 14 2.1. Fundamental Principles Underpinning the Policy 14 2.2. Rights, Responsibilities and Obligations of the Youth in Ensuring the Success of the Goals of this Policy 2.2.1. Rights of youth 15 15 3.2. PRIORITYTARGETGROUPS This policy document is a basis for developing opportunities for all the youth in Homa Bay County. However, in addressing the needs of the youth in the County, special attention shall be paid to certain groups because of their speci ic needs. In each of the target areas, the County Government of Homa Bay and its collaborating partners and associates dealing withtheyouthwillgivespecialattentionto: 3.2.1. Youthwithdisability Formanyyouthadisabilityleadstorejection,isolationanddiscrimination,hinderingtheir psychological and emotional development. Young men and women with disability require speci icstrategiestoensuretheyparticipatefullyinsociety.Specialmeasureswillbeputin place to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed. The policy adopts a developmental approach to youth with disability where human rights, participation and inclusiveness are promoted. The policy advocates greater awareness of the issues faced by young women and men who are mentally or/and physically, visually impaired or have a hearingimpairment. 3.2.2. Streetyouth Due to the breakdown of the social fabric street families have continued to increase. From street boys and girls we now have street youth and families. These are people who live and/or work in the streets, many of them due to homelessness. The street youth are especially vulnerable as they lack protection, supervision or direction from responsible adults. The policy advocates re-integration and rehabilitation of street youth in the communitiesandstrengtheningoffamilysystems. 3.3.3. YouthinfectedwithHIV/AIDS The age group 15-30 has been affected the most by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The youth are exposed to the HIV/AIDS due to biological, socio-cultural and economic factors. The high rate of teenage pregnancies, abortions, school drop-out and sexually transmitted diseases con irm that the youth are engaging in sex early, increasingly being exposed to HIV/AIDS. The policy advocates community-and home-based care and positive living for this target group. Due to high HIV prevalence in Homa Bay County, there is an urgent need for stakeholders to develop unique interventions to reverse the high prevalence rates, eradicate stigma and discrimination related to HIV infection, ensure zero new HIV infection,ZeromothertochildtransmissionofHIVandzeroAIDsrelateddeaths. 3.2.4. FemaleYouth The female youth constitute 52% of total youth in Kenya. The situation is not different in Homa Bay County where the percentage of the female youth is 56% of the total youth population according to 2009 National Population and Housing Census. 4 21
  6. 2.2.4. Obligations of the County Government of Homa Bay 17 2.2.5. Obligations of the private sector and civil society organizations 17 CHAPTER THREE 18 POLICY DEVELOPMENT PREMISE & JUSTIFICATION 18 3.1. Justi ication for the Homa Bay County Youth Policy 18 3.1.1. Democracy, Governance and Con lict 18 3.1.2. Livelihoods, Enterprise and Employment 19 3.1.3. Health and Wellbeing 19 3.1.4. Capacity Development (Education and Training) 20 3.2. PRIORITY TARGET GROUPS 22 3.2.1. Youth with disability 22 3.2.2. Street youth 22 3.2.3. Youth infected with HIV/AIDS 22 3.2.4. Female Youth 23 3.2.5. The unemployed youth 23 3.2.6. Out-of-school youth 23 3.3. Policy Implementation Mechanisms 23 3.3.1. Macro Implementation Mechanism 23 3.3.2. Micro -Implementation Mechanism 25 3.3.3. Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee 25 CONCLUSION 25 · AccordingtotheIEA/UNICEFReport(2013),almost2millionyouth(15–30years) are out of school and the majority has no regular work or income, making them vulnerable to recruitment into political campaigns and criminal gangs including terrorism groups like Al Shabaab. Due to this exclusion, the report highlighted present youth frustrations and failed expectations, due to lack of opportunity for regularemployment. · An observation from the IEA/UNICEF Report reveals that socio-economic issues connected to unemployment, education and poverty are the key issues in the vulnerabilityofyouth.Accordingtothereport,thereisanin luxofyouthfromrural areas to urban areas in search of better livelihoods. The report asserts that there is a large and increasing urban population which accounts for 32 percent of the population of those aged (15-30) with a rapid rate of urbanization which is unable to provide employment opportunities to the75 percent out of school youth who do nothaveregular,fulltimeemployment. · Youth vulnerability in Kenya is traced to the colonial and post colonial Kenyan experience. The report suggests that youth need to be mentored and proposes a stable community with leadership from adults that guides youth's social, economic, cultural, and spiritual development in an increasingly nurturing and supportivecommunityenvironment. · In an attempt to address the issues affecting the youth in Homa Bay County and thereby implement some of the recommendations drawn from the IEA/UNICEF 2013 Report, the County Government of Homa Bay now prepares this Policy Document to guide the resource mobilization efforts and develop inter-ministerial strategies aimed at strategically addressing challenges facing the youth in Homa Bay County. The policy paper is an of icial position statement of the County Government of Homa Bay to further exploit its policy of multi-stakeholder approachtoimprovethestatusoftheyouthinHomaBayCounty. 2.2.2. Responsibilities and obligations of the youth in Homa Bay County 16 16 2.2.3. Obligations of leaders, adults and parents of Homa Bay County 20 5
  7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy is a framework for youth development and empowerment across the entire county of Homa Bay. It endeavors to ensure that all young women and men are given meaningful and productive opportunities to reach their full potential, both as individuals and as active participants in society through their formal and informal structures. The Policy addresses the major concerns and issues critical to young men and women in Homa Bay County and gives direction to youth programmes and services provided by the county government and non-governmental organizations operating in Homa Bay County. Through the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy, the county government of Homa Bay declares the importance of the active involvement of young people in the pursuit of the County DevelopmentAgenda,demonstratingthedistinctiveandcomplementaryrolesofallnationaland county government ministries, the non-governmental (civil society) sector and youth groups in promoting and advancing youth development; providing a framework with common goals for development and promoting a spirit of co-operation, collaboration, networking and coordination. HomaBayCountystandstobene itthroughtheimplementationoftheYouthDevelopmentPolicy. By placing young people in the broader context of County development programming, the Youth Development Policy highlights the importance of youth development to nation building with a particular special focus on the development of Homa Bay County as a County of Choice and a preferredInvestmentHubinWesternKenyaregion. Young women and men are not only a major resource and inheritors of future society; they are also active contributors to the nature of society we desire to live in today than never before. The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy recognizes and values young women and men as a key resource and invaluable asset and places their needs and aspirations central to the development of Homa Bay County. It provides a foundation and mechanism for youth participation in socio-economic development whilst recognizing that young people should be protagonists of their own development and not merely recipients of government or donor support. It enables the County Government of Homa Bay to give a special priority to youth development and empowerment and display its commitment to youth development and empowerment through the creation of appropriate policy implementation mechanisms, structures, strategies and the mobilization and allocation of suf icient resources for this vital cause. The Policy therefore sensitizes government institutions and civil society toward youth developmentandacknowledgestheinitiativesofyoungmenandwomen. 3.1.3. HealthandWellbeing • Youth consider that their health problems have been too narrowly de ined as sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. They view health from a broad perspective, which includes personal health; community and environmental conditions; and psycho-social well-being, including values of integrity, caring, unity indiversity,spiritualpurpose,and livesofservice,aswellasrecreation and sports. Youth activities and organizations, they feel, should engage in activities thatpromotethesevalues. • Thereisahighlevelofsexualabuseofgirlsandyoungwomen,withmorethan20 percent becoming mothers before the age of 16 years, and a much higher percentagewhosufferthroughabortions. • There are many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) who began working on these issues, particularly those funded to combat HIV/AIDS that have evolved into multi-functional, youth serving organizations, addressing livelihoods, public advocacy, and capacity building. • Youth feel that most existing health services are not “youth friendly,” and they would like to be able to access information and treatment from “one-stop, friendly”healthservicesthatarebothcon identialandtrustworthy. 3.1.4. CapacityDevelopment(EducationandTraining) · There are 155,000 youth enrolled in formal technical, entrepreneurial, and vocational training institutions, yet many do not obtain the competencies needed to be successful in micro-enterprise, nor do they easily ind employment in the formal sector. There are many more youth who are involved in non-formal education experiences, often linked to the development of micro-enterprise. Yet there is little inter-organizationalsharingandnoqualitycontrolofNon-FormalEducation(NFE). · Out of school youth want and need ways of achieving competencies that are practical and recognized as legitimate. This is a matter of high priority for Kenya's development, and for the growth of opportunity for youth. The Ministry of Higher Education, Science, and Technology has proposed to Parliament the development of a NationalQuali icationsFramework(NQF)toaddressthiscriticalneed. · The report adequately captured the voices of young people with regard to vulnerability. However, it omitted a substantial discussion on poverty, equity (with regards to access of resources and opportunities), crime and drugs which are some of the glaring causes of risk among young people especially in Homa Bay County which currentlyisleadinginHIVprevalencenationallyaccordingtoNACCReport(2013). 6 19
  8. At all levels, the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy will ensure that county government authorities and governance structures work in a cooperative and harmonious manner when designing and delivering programmes and services which address youth development and empowerment needs and opportunities. Furthermore, the Policy will encourage an understanding amongst young men and women of the processes of governance and provide opportunities for their participation in County Development Planning, Budget Process, Budget Tracking and Participatory Development Needs Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation, thus enabling young women and men to play a positive role in governance, leadership and in promoting sustainable development built on a more accountable and transparentgovernanceandmanagementofpublicaffairsinHomaBayCounty. At least eight thematic areas have been identied as being of critical importance when addressing youth issues in Homa Bay County. TheYouth Policy provides a foundation and direction for a Homa Bay County Youth Action Plan that will follow this policy document. This plan will have a number of action plans in each of these identied thematic youth development areas of concern. This Plan will complement the National Youth Policy and will describe the role of all agencies engaged in youth development and the programmes, services, facilities and activities they undertake to achieve the goals and objectives of the Policy. The Ministry of Youth, Culture and Tourism recognizes that the implementation of the youth policy poses several challenges, which may be beyond the Ministry's realm of control. However, there is a strong commitment to making optimal efforts in meeting these challenges through enhanced structured partnerships, collaborations, networking and public engagement mechanisms. There is need therefore to partner with all stakeholders in contributing to the implementation of the Homa Bay County Youth DevelopmentPolicybycontinuouslyreectingon emergingrealitiesandconcernsoftheyouth. The Ministry takes this opportunity to thank all those who fully participated by providing professional and technical support in the process of formulating the policy. Particular mention goes to Mr. Richard Ochieng Bonyo – Resource Mobilization and Policy Development Ofce in the Ofce of H.E. The Governor, Mr. DavidAjumbo – PersonalAssistant to H.E. the Governor, Mr. IsaacAbuya – the Chief of Staff in the Ofce of H.E. the Governor and Hon. George Opiata Ogada – Chief Ofcer, Ministry of Youth, Culture and Tourism. Moreover, we are indebted to the national governmental organizations, international development agencies (especially GTZ, UNDP AND UNICEF), NGOs and all bodies which indirectly provided support through their well researched reports on the status of the youth in Kenya. It is through thesereportsthatthetenetsofthisPolicywerehatchedanddelivered. …………………………………………. H.E. Hon. Cyprian OtienoAwiti Governor, HomaBayCounty CHAPTER THREE POLICY DEVELOPMENT PREMISE & JUSTIFICATION 3.1. Justi icationfortheHomaBayCountyYouthPolicy The Youth Situation Review and Investment in Kenya by Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) and UNICEF (2013) observed the following about the situation of youth in Kenya and that were contributing to their volatile and precarious behaviors as well as to their vulnerability to social behavior outages. These indings have guided and informed the decision of the County Government of Homa Bay to develop this policy document. The indingsareexcerptedandexplainedasfollows:- 3.1.1. Democracy,GovernanceandCon lict • Youth feel acutely disempowered by existing governance structures and procedures, where they often have only token representation, and where policiesarenotimplementedasstatedduetoahighlevelofcorruption. • There is lack of appropriate information about policies, programs, and opportunities,andagooddealofmisinformation. 3.1.2. Livelihoods,EnterpriseandEmployment • Although there are thousands of registered youth organizations, they do not necessarily reach the most vulnerable, their impact is highly variable, and many are short-lived and dependent on a single source of inancing or support. • Kenya's informal enterprise sector, jua kali, has grown to engage some 70 percentofthelaborforce,albeitofteninpart-time,underpaid,andshort-term status. Given the very low growth of employment in the formal sector, the growthofmicroenterpriseprovidesthebestopportunityforyouthlivelihood. • Thegrowthandspreadofmicro- inancinginKenyaisremarkable,providinga strongbasefor inancingstart-up,small-scale,youth-organizedenterprise. • Youth who become engaged in viable micro-enterprise move through what is termedas“ThreeStageYouthEnterpriseDevelopmentProcess,”startingwith assessments and often voluntary service projects, then moving onto informal money-earning activities, and ending with micro- inance and viable enterprise.Itisaprocessthattypicallytakesuptothreeyears. • There are hundreds, if not thousands, of youth-led informal enterprises and organizationsthataresuccessful(andevenmorethatarenotsustained). 18 7
  9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy comes in the face of a myriad of challenges facing the youth in Kenya. Although the number of organizations dealing with young people has increased over the years, the lack of a comprehensive policy in Homa Bay County ever since the inauguration of the irst ever County Government System makes it dif icult for these groups to effectivelyaddressthesechallenges. The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy is aimed at ensuring the youth play their role, alongsideadults,inthedevelopmentofthepursuitofsustainabledevelopmentoftheCounty.The policy's goal is to promote youth participation in community and civic affairs and to ensure that youth programmes are youth-centric. The policy proposes guidelines and strategies that can be used to facilitate participation of the youth in fast tracking social, economic and political developmentofHomaBayCounty. The policy also spells out the strategic areas that must be addressed in order for Homa Bay County's young people to effectively play their rightful role in nation building, particularly in Homa Bay County. These areas are: Employment creation, health, education and training, sports andrecreation,theenvironment,artandculture,themediaandparticipationandempowerment. Theyouthareclassi iedintoprioritytargetgroupstomakeiteasiertotacklechallengesuniqueto each group. The priority groups are: Youth with disability, street youth, and youth infected with HIV/AIDS,femaleyouth,unemployedyouthandoutofschoolyouth. The implementation action plan to followthis policy is to ensure that the policy becomes a reality through thematic areas planning and resource mobilization and allocation. It suggests the need tostrengthentheNationalYouthCouncilstructuresinHomaBayCountytofacilitate,co-ordinate, monitor, advocate and promote youth issues and youth-led initiatives in Homa Bay County, under the ministry in charge of Youth, Culture and Tourism. The Institutional Framework so adopted will minimize duplicity and enhance ef iciency and effectiveness of service delivery to the youth. It is in this light that the policy proposes that the youth division be upgraded into a department to effectivelyspearheadtheprocesswithinthealreadyestablishedyouthgovernancestructures. The policy will be revised every ive years and as and when other national government policy documentsarerevisedandorproducedbytheCabinet. vi. Trainandsocializetheyouthintodifferentskillsandleadershipdomains vii. Provide inancialsupporttoyouthprojects viii. Offer room for youth participation at all levels of leadership, governance and administrationoftheiraffairs ix. Assisttheyouthtorealizetheirgoalsandfullpotential. 2.2.4. ObligationsoftheCountyGovernmentofHomaBay It is the obligation of the County Government of Homa Bay in collaboration with the National Government of the Republic of Kenya to ensure that all its citizens are served to their expectations in accordance with the legal and regulatory framework in Kenya. The County Government, through the County Assembly of Homa Bay shall develop favorable legislations and through the Ministry of Youth, Culture, Sports and Tourism, carefully plan and be involved in developing youth-centered action-plans aimed at developing the youth to be responsible and available to contribute to the current and future Homa Bay County development efforts. Speci ically, the County Government of Homa Bay (County Executive andCountyAssembly)shallbe:- i. Be the lead agent in supporting the implementation of the Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy. This support will cover all the other areas, such as creation of suf icient legal and regulatory frameworks, creation of employment opportunities for the youth, expanding training and education facilities for increased access by the youth and improving health facilities to ensure that they are youth-friendly and able to meet and surpass the unique healthcare needs of theyouthinHomaBayCounty. ii. EnsurethattheyouthenjoytheirStaterights iii. Providethenecessaryframeworkforyoungpeopletoful illtheirobligations iv. Createamechanismandopportunitiesforinvolvementofyouthininternship. 2.2.5. Obligationsoftheprivatesectorandcivilsocietyorganizations The private sector (members of the corporate world and the civil society family) shall take a very crucial role in the overall job creation and employment of the youth; engage in entrepreneurial development; provision of information and transfer of technology and skills, linking the youth organizations and forums to local and international development assistance frameworks as well as initiative micro-development and youth empowerment projects at the grassroots level. In all these, the County Government of Homa Bay shall encourage and create enabling investment and development environment to attract investment from the private sector community while encouraging them to exploit the Homa Bay County's Policy on Networking, Collaboration and Partnership for Sustainable Development within the overall policy framework on Public-Private Sector Partnership (PPP). 8 17
  10. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction Thenumberofyoungpeopleacrosstheworldisincreasingandtodaytheyarethemajority in most countries1 including Kenya, where 15 to 34 year olds total 13.66 million, approximately 35.39% of the population. This proportion of youth is expected to growand form the bulk of the population in the next 10-20 years, a phenomenon referred to as a youth bulge. This trend has generated interest among development players hence the recognition that young people are important players in development. As such, more literatureonyouthisemergingbutitisscatteredinvariousplacesandeffortstocollateitis minimal. TheNationalYouthPolicyinKenyaobservethatKenyansintheagebracketof30yearsand below constitute about 75% of the country's population, forming the largest source of human resource. However, they have remained on the periphery of the country's affairs and their status has not been accorded due recognition. They have been excluded from designing, planning and implementing programmes and policies that affect them. Many of the youth who are productive and energetic remain unemployed, continue to suffer from poor health, and lack suf icient support. Some of them have special needs that require attention. These include those living on the streets, those living with HIV/AIDS, the girls andthosewithdisabilities. According to the National Youth Policy in Kenya, the responsibility of ensuring that the aspirations and hopes of the youth are met cannot be left in the hands of a single stakeholder. Everyone in the community, both young and old must play their role. It is for this reason that the Government of Kenya and other stakeholders embarked on the development of a comprehensive youth policy. The National Youth Policy recognizes that the youth are a key resource that can be tapped for the bene it of the whole country. Thus, the policy endeavors to address issues affecting young people by providing broad-based strategies that can be used to give the youth meaningful opportunities to reach their maximum potential. It provides a broad framework within which all stakeholders, including the private and public sector and civil society, can contribute to youth development.Thedocumentgoesfurthertosuggestanimplementationmechanism. viii. Freedomofspeech,expressionandassociation ix. Participateinmakingdecisionsthataffecttheirlives x. Protectionfromsocial,economicandpoliticalmanipulation xi. Ownershipandprotectionofproperty 2.2.2. ResponsibilitiesandobligationsoftheyouthinHomaBayCounty The policy seeks not only to safeguard the rights of the youth, but also to help them to understand, appreciate and ful ill their responsibilities, for the development of an increasingly cohesive, united and purpose driven society. Towards this goal the youth in HomaBayCountywillberequiredto:- i. HonorandobeyGod ii. BepatrioticandloyaltoKenya,HomaBayCountyandpromotethewell-being andstabilityofthesocietyingeneralandHomaBayCountyinparticular iii. Contributetosocial-economicdevelopmentatalllevels,includingthrough volunteerism,internship,industrialattachment,researchpractice, innovationandcreativityaswellasthroughentrepreneurialskills exploitation. iv. Createandpromoterespectforhumanity,sustainpeacefulco-existence, nationalunityandstability v. Protect,conserveandnurturetheenvironment vi. Helptosupportandprotectthosewhoaredisadvantagedandvulnerablein theirmidst vii. Promotedemocracyandtheruleoflaw viii. Creategainfulemployment ix. Takeadvantageofavailableeducationandtrainingopportunitieswithin HomaBayCountyandbeyondtodevelopdesirableskills,expertiseand attitudes x. Developapositiveattitudetowardsworkandcommunitydevelopment xi. Avoidcarelessandirresponsiblesexualbehavior. xii. Takeresponsiblechargeoftheirlives 2.2.3. Obligationsofleaders,adultsandparentsofHomaBayCounty The strong family ties inherited from our traditional societies and cultural orientation, which called for mutual respect between the various age groups, have weakened. As a result, signs of rebellion are visible among a number of youths. The policy spells out obligationsforleaders,parentsandguardians.Theyshould:- i. Promoteresponsibleandresponsiveleadership,parentingandguardianshipto enabletheyouthpursuetheirdreamsinasupportive,nurturingandcaring society ii. Providepositiverolemodelsfortheyouth iii. Provideequalopportunitiesandaccesstofamilytotheyouth,regardlessoftheir sex iv. Meetbasicandmaterialneedsoftheyouth v. Provideguidanceandcounselingtotheyouth 16 9
  11. Premised on the general guidelines provided by the National Youth Policy, The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy is written in the context of existing sectoral policies, national development plans, international policies and charters to which Kenya is a signatory; as central to the holistic integration and inclusion of the youth in Homa Bay County's development. Cognizance is given to the Charter of United Nations, the Commonwealth Youth Charter, Universal Declaration of Human Rights and United NationsWorldProgrammefortheYouthtotheyear2000andbeyond,amongothers. This policy paper is an attempt to address the youth situation in Homa Bay County towards consolidating resources for youth development and empowerment related activities including but not limited to youth education, training and capacity development; youth participation in micro-, small- and medium-enterprise activities; youth involvement in community volunteerism and development support; youth and reproductive health; youth and public participation in governance and leadership and youthandenvironmentalmanagementandconservationamongothers. 1.2. De initionoftheYouth This policy de ines a Youth as one aged between 15 – 30 years of both sexes. This takes into account the physical, psychological, cultural, social, biological and political de initionsofthetermasprovidedfortheConstitutionofKenya2010. 1.3. IssuesAffectingtheYouthinHomaBayCounty 1.3.1. Unemploymentandunderemployment The economic growth rate has not been suf icient to create enough employment opportunitiestoabsorbtheincreasinglaborforceofabout500,000annuallynationally. Most of these are the youth, only about 25% of whom are absorbed,leaving 75% to bear the burden of unemployment. Furthermore, some of those absorbed in the labour markethavejobsthatdonotmatchtheirquali icationsandspecialization. 1.3.2. Healthrelatedproblems Theyouthfaceamyriadofhealthrelatedproblems,includingwidespreadmalaria, malnutrition,HIV/AIDSandSexuallyTransmittedInfections(STIs),drugand substanceabuseaswellaspooraccesstohealthservices.TheHIV/AIDSpandemicis moreprevalentamongtheyouthunder30yearsofage.Availablestatisticsshowthat theyouthmakeup33%ofKenyansinfectedwithAids.Femalegenitalmutilationand teenagepregnancyareuniquetothefemaleyouth.Someoftheconsequencesof thesearedroppingoutofschoolandriskstolifethroughunsafeabortions. Thekeyprinciplesthatunderliethepolicyare: (i) Respect of cultural belief systems and ethical values: The policy respects the cultural, religious, customary and ethical backgrounds of the different communities and conforms to universally recognized human rights, without discrimination based on gender,race/origin,age,ethnicity,creed,politicalaf iliationorsocialstatus. (ii) Equity and accessibility: The policy subscribes to the principles of equal opportunities and equitable distribution of programmes, services, and resources. It also endeavors topromoteaccesstosocio-economicopportunitiesfortheyouth. (iii) Gender inclusiveness: The policy underscores the need to promote a gender-inclusive approach to the development of youth. It seeks to promote gender equity and equality,includingworkingtoeliminategenderdiscriminationandviolence. (i) Good governance: The policy seeks to promote the values of good governance, a just and tolerant society, promotion of transparency and accountability and a spirit of nationhood and patriotism. In addition, the policy serves as a channel to promote values of conscientiousness, inclusiveness, sel lessness, volunteerism and pursuit of goodconduct (ii) Mainstreaming youth issues: The needs, opportunities and challenges facing the youth are concerns for the whole society. The youth policy aims at ensuring that youth issues are re lected in all sectors of national development, on both the micro and macro levels, within the public, private sectors and civil society. It emphasizes af irmativeactionfortheyouthasastrategyofparticipationandempowerment. 2.2. Rights, Responsibilities and Obligations of the Youth in Ensuring the Success of the GoalsofthisPolicy 2.2.1. Rightsofyouth The policyrecognizesthe importance of youth to enjoy their youthfulnessand be proud in doingso. Irrespectiveofsocialstatus,sex,religion,politicalaf iliationandpersuasion,the youth have a right to the following as provided for under the Bill of Rights in the ConstitutionofKenya2010:- i.Life ii. Meaningfulandqualityeducationandtraining iii. Goodhealth iv. Marriageatthelegalageofconsent v. Protectionfromsexualexploitationandabuse vi. Seekmeaningfulemployment vii. Adequateshelter,foodandclothing 10 15
  12. 1.3.3. Increasingschoolandcollegedrop-outrates Manyyouthdropoutofschoolandcollegeduetothehighcostofeducationandincreasein overall poverty levels, poor returns on investment in education and lack of a re-admission policyforteenagemothers,amongotherreasons. 1.3.4. Crime,Recidivism,AddictiontoDrugsandDeviantSocialBehavior Due to idleness, especially after formal education, the youth become restless and try anything. Some end up in crime or with deviant social behavior emanating from thwarted or simply aborted dreams and opportunities. For ex-inmates, juvenile delinquents and addict, Comprehensive and Continuous Prisoners' and Ex-Inmates' Assistance Programs including Community-Assisted Quality and Digni ied Re-Entry, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (COA 3Rs); The Prevention of HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse among the Young Ex-prisoners and ex-addicts in Homa Bay County is still a mirage and; the Capacity Building, Skills-Based Training and Reintegration of ex-offenders into the Community's Productive Systems for Sustainable Self-Reliance and Nation Building is a need that cannotbeover-emphasizedifsecuritystatusandcohesionbuildinginHomaBayCountyis tobeasustainablereality. 1.3.5. Limitedsportsandrecreationfacilities Sports and recreation facilities provide the youth with an opportunity to socialize and spend their time productively, strengthening and developing their character and talents. However, such facilities are scarce and, where they exist, they are sometimes not accessibletotheyouth. 1.3.6. Abuseandexploitation Owing to their vulnerability, the youth are exposed to political machinations and misuse, sexual abuse and other forms of economic exploitation under the guise of employment and other forms of abuse. There is currently little protection from the authorities as youth desperatelyseeksforalternativestotheirviciouscycleofplights. 1.3.7. Limitedparticipationandlackofopportunitiesinthepublicdomain Despite their numerical strength and superiority, youth are least represented in political and economic spheres due to societal attitudes, socio-cultural and economic barriers, and lack of proper organization. These leaves the youth with only informal avenues through which to vent their frustrations and displeasure in what they term neglect by those in authoritytounderstandandtackletheirneedsandchallenges. I. Tocreateproperconditionsfortheyouthtoempowerthemselvesandexploit theirpotential ii. Toidentifywaysofempoweringtheyouth. iii. Topromoteacultureofvolunteerismamongtheyouth iv. Toexploreandsuggestwaysofengagingtheyouthintheprocessofeconomic development v. ToidentifyconstraintsthathindertheKenyanyouthfromrealizingtheir potential vi. Toproposewaysofmentoringtheyouthtobejustandmorallyuprightcitizens vii. Topromotehonesthardworkandproductivityamongtheyouth. CoreFocusofHomaBayCountyYouthDevelopmentPolicy 1. SportsandRecreation, 2. EnvironmentManagementandConservation, 3. ArtsandCulture, 4. ParticipationinDemocracy,GovernanceandCon lictManagement; 5. Livelihoods, 6. Micro-andSmall-Enterprise(MSE)andEmploymentCreation; 7. Health and Wellbeing (HIV/AIDs, Mental Wellness, Emotional Health, and PhysicalHealthetc);and 8. Capacity Development (Education and Training) through increased investmentinVocationalandTechnicalTraining. CHAPTER TWO PRINCIPLES AND VALUES UNDERLYING THE HOMA BAY COUNTY YOUTH DEVELOPMENT POLICY 2.1. FundamentalPrinciplesUnderpinningthePolicy The Homa Bay County Youth Development Policy should be seen as a vehicle for prioritizing public actions aimed at creating an enabling environment for the youth to fully achieve their aspirations through coordinated partnerships, collaboration and networking among and within stakeholders. Comprehensive and multi-sectoral programmes aimed at supporting youth initiatives are, therefore, essential for initiating and maintaining sustainable development in HomaBayCounty.Thepolicyisconsistentwiththecountry'sNationalYouthPolicy,MediumTerm Expenditure Framework (MTEF) focus, Kenya Vision 2030, National laws, Homa Bay County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP) 2013 -2017 and county and national development priorities. 14 11
  13. 1.3.8. Limitedand poorhousing Many youth, especially those in the urban areas, do not have access to decent housing in environments that favor and guarantees healthy living within the aspirations of the vision statement of Homa Bay County. Many live in squalid conditions that only thicken their feelingsofhopelessnessandillusion. 1.3.9. Limitedaccesstoinformationand communicationtechnology(ICT) The youth cannot exploit career, business and education opportunities available because they lack access to ICT services that is reliable, user friendly and cost effective, due to unavailability especially in rural areas, and high costs of accessing the few available ICT servicesthrows outtheseservicesfromthosewho deservesthemthemost,thatistheyouth. The above issues and many others not highlighted call for urgent intervention. A comprehensive Youth Development Policy such as this is therefore a major step forward towards putting youth interest and needs in the limelight of meaningful social, economic and politicaldevelopmentagendainHomaBayCounty. 1.4. Purpose ofthePolicy 1.4.1. Visionof theHomaBay CountyYouth DevelopmentPolicy The Homa Bay CountyYouth Development Policy visualizes a County where youth have an equal opportunity as other citizens to realize their fullest potential, productively participating ineconomic,social,political,culturalandreligiouslifewithoutfearorfavor. 1.4.2. Mottoof Policy “Tapping the Untapped Resource – Mobilizing and Allocating Resources for Youth Developmentand Empowerment” 1.4.3. PolicyGoaland Objectives PolicyGoals Goal#1: The overall goal of the policy is to promote youth participation in democratic processes as well as in community and civic affairs, and ensuring that youth programmes involve them andareyouth-centered. Goal#2: The policy is intended to expand opportunities, enhance capabilities, and providing second chancesfor theyouthof HomaBayCounty. GoalsElaborationand Explanation Thegoalof thepolicyis elaboratedas follows:- (i) Expanding opportunities for developing human capital can be achieved by expanding access to and improving the quality of education and health services; by facilitating the start to a working life; and by giving young people a voice to articulate the kind of assistancetheywantandachancetoparticipateindeliveringit. (ii) Develop young people's capabilities to be aware of the consequences of their action, especially those that will affect them later in life; building their decision-making skills; and giving them the right incentives so that their decisions are well informed, adequately resourced,andjudicious. (iii) Provide an effective system of second chances through targeted programs that help young people recover from missed opportunities through remedial education, retraining, treatment and rehabilitation to give them hope and the incentive to catch up from bad luckor badchoicesmade. 1.4.3. PolicyObjectives Theobjectivesofthepolicyareas adoptedfromtheNationalYouthPolicyareas follows:- I. To sensitizenationalpolicymakersontheneedtoidentifyandmainstreamyouth issues innationaldevelopment ii. To emphasize,support andpartnerwithpositiveandeffectiveinitiativesand programmessetup by associations,no-prots groups thathelptheyouthtofullltheir expectationsandmeettheirneeds 12 13