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Characterization of water privatization in Web of Science according evidence from
text mining and cocitation analysis / Carlos Vílchez-Román
1. Introduction
Even the title says ‘water privatization’, academic papers focused in this issue discuss the growing private
participation in supply of water and sanitation services. In most of countries, these services are provided by
public operators (e.g. a state enterprise or municipality), so after the privatization, this ‘natural monopoly’ in
water services provision is maintained.
It is an important issue because media mainly discuss it from a ‘privatization of public services will save us’
frame, which can explained by commercial and political pressures. For instance, critical journalists have noted
that media coverage on poor quality of water services utilities (e.g., insufficient water and sanitation coverage,
poor wastewater treatment and political interferences), often is coincidental with interest shown by global
companies (e.g., Suez, Bechtel, etc.) in the local water and sanitation services. However, none of these pressures
can be expected in papers published in peer-reviewed journals, which have a more academic than commercial
approach. With relation to the effects of privatization of water services, in academic literature we find critical
voices (Bakker, 2001, 2003; Hall and Lobina, 2006, 2007; Sjölander, 2005;), but also -and mainly- supporters of
positive aspects of water services privatization (Nickson and Franceys, 2003; World Bank, 1994, 2004).
The purpose of this work is to analyze how the ‘water services privatization’ has been approached in papers
published in peer-review journals. Even, there are many documents focused in water services privatization
published as grey literature, we didn’t consider them because we don’t have a central repository with materials
written in standards formats (especially the bibliographic references, the raw data for cocitation analysis),
therefore it is very difficult to include this kind of material in bibliometric studies that can be replicated.

2. Material and methods
2.1. Corpus
We worked with papers and proceedings indexed in a well known citation scientific database: Web of Science
(WoS) of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Even when this database has been highly criticized by its
preference for research done in English speaking countries and its limited scope of social issues in Latin
America countries, WoS and Scopus are two scientific databases with the highest standards of academic quality.

2.2. Procedure
We did a search in WoS using specific keywords (water services, and privatization) in the topic field, then
refined the results using filtering features available from WoS interface and selected only articles and
proceedings. After that, we downloaded 57 records in plain text, including abstracts and references. This file was
exported to BibExcel, with this program we extracted the authors from reference section, produced a ranking of
most cited authors and then generated a cocitation matrix that was opened from NetDraw program, which was
used to produce the cocitation maps for authors cited at least three or four times.
Title and abstract of each paper was exported to different plain text files, so they can be content analyzed with
VBPro and VBMap programs. We used built-in menus to generate the matrix for the co-frequency analysis. The
co-frequency matrix was composed by three columns: words co-cited, and two numbers for x-y coordinates.

2.3. Collection and analyzing techniques
Content analysis: We used descriptive statistics (e.g., frequencies) to identify most used words in title and
abstract fields; but since this kind of analysis takes the words out of their context (e.g., the sentence) we did an
analysis of co-ocurrence of words by using a text mining tool known as multidimensional scaling (MDS).
Bibliometric analysis: To identify citation patterns in papers focused in 'water services privatization' we used
cocitation analysis since the technique allows the generation of visual representations of citation behavior which
are less easy to understand for academic readers.
3. Results

3.1. Content analysis
We identified the most used words in title and abstract fields in each paper (see Figures 1 and 2), and also
generated two bidimensional maps of the co-ocurrence of words (see Figures 3 and 4).

Figure 1. Most frequent words in title of papers

         w ater
      services
   privatization

         public
        private
   management
         urban
         sector

        supply
          state

           poor
   governance
         w ales

          spain
     sanitation
  restructuring
     privatized
   privatisation

        politics
    partnership
           new

           latin
       england

         bolivia
       america
         africa

                   0     5          10        15          20         25         30         35         40
Figure 2. Most frequent words in abstract of papers

          w ater

         public

       services

   privatization

        private

          paper

  m anagem ent

         sector
         supply

        service

      sanitation

        utilities

          social

          urban

           local

  developm ent

           poor

           new

   governm ent

         article
         health

            tw o

      provision

                    0            50               100   150   200
Figure 3. Multidimensional scaling of co-ocurrence of words in title of papers

                                                                 0.8                               england
                                                                                                 wales
                                                                                        restructuring
                                                                 0.6
   Privatization - British model




                                                                 0.4     governance

                                                                            state
                                                       supply                            privatized
                                                management 0.2
                                                                 politics
                                                     private
                                                             sanitation
                                               partnership water
                                                        bolivia 0
                                                        public
                                   -0.6   -0.4 spain  -0.2           0                 0.2            0.4     0.6        0.8
                                               poor        sector
                                                               new
                                              urban
                                          services              -0.2
                                                                                              privatisation
                                                                                         africa
                                                                       privatization
                                                                -0.4                                                america
                                                                                                                     latin

                                                                -0.6

                                              Water Sanitation Services - LatinAmerica
Figure 4. Multidimensional scaling of co-ocurrence of words in abstract of papers

                                                                                                   0.8
                                                                                                                             literature

                                                                                                                          research
   Water services and infraestructure - Research and




                                                                                                   0.6
                                                                                                                case
                                                                                                                issues
                                                                                                                   effects

                                                                                                   0.4neoliberal
                                                                                                                     study
                                                                                                                                                  w orld

                                                                                                        0.2 analysis
                        analysis




                                                                                                    new tw o                            into
                                                                                                              one
                                                                                                                   privatisation
                                                                                               paper
                                                                                                   urban       health municipalities
                                                                                                          0
                                                                                            process industry environmental
                                                       -0.6          -0.4                            servicepolicy
                                                                                         -0.2 restructuring0 governance     0.2              0.4           0.6
                                                              social                    control state          poor
                                                                political utilities                    delivery
                                                                         economic            market
                                                                                                  management    areas
                                                                       cost        privatization public
                                                                                 government policies -0.2            costs
                                                                                                provision             w ater              resources
                                                                                              services       infrastructure
                                                                                                                                   sector         developing
                                                                                                                    private countries
                                                                                                                               local development        systems
                                                                                                  -0.4                                               supply
                                                                                                                                                  sanitation



                                                                                                  -0.6

                                                                        Economic and social cost - Sanitation supply
3.2. Bibliometric analysis
A similar pattern was observed working with authors with a) three or more cocitations or b) four or more
cocitations (see Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5. Cocitation network of authors with three or more cocitations
Figure 6. Cocitation network of authors with four or more cocitations




4. Discussion
With relation to contents of paper titles, text mining shows an axis we call privatization, differentiating between
British and French models of privatization of water and sanitation services. Actually, the bidimensional map
display 'Africa' label near 'privatization' label, so given that many African countries were previously French
colonies, we can assume that the privatization experiences discussed in papers are related to the implementation
of French model, which preserves the ownership of water services infrastructure (e.g., treatment plants, pipes
networks, etc.) in the hands of the State, while transfers to a private operator the financing and managerial tasks,
what we call the day-by-day operations. Contrary to French model, British model means a full privatization of
water services: infrastructure and running of business.

It is interesting to note that even the privatization experiences implemented in many developing countries since
1980 decade resulting in hundreds and thousand of workers fired owed to engineering processes, this direct
cause of poverty -unemployment- is seldom mentioned as a negative effect of privatization. After reading the
paper abstracts, we did not either find a more critical approach to privatization process, since most of analysis
are focused in improvements in quality and access.

Most of studies on 'water services privatization' assume that private operators are more efficient than public
companies, in terms of cost-benefit and financial indicators; however the empirical evidence from econometric
studies is not conclusive (Estache and Rossi, 2002; Trujillo and Estache, 2005; Warner and Hefetz, 2002), which
means that this assumption is not based on evidence.

On the other side, even academic world and public opinion consider water services as an essential right, when
the frame of ‘citizen rights’ changes to ‘consumer rights’, water services is no longer viewed as an obligation
operators must provide, but a good subject to supply and demand laws, and the payment capacity of consumers.
(Spronk, 2007a, 2007b) This kind of approach is also absent in most of papers analyzed.
The central position of World Bank in cocitation maps is explained by the high volume of literature produced by
this international financing organization but also the political role played by this agent, because it is known that
some credits to developing countries was conditioned to an increasing privatization of public services, inside the
politics of structural adjustments.

5. Recommendations
•   Replicate this method (content and bibliometric analysis) in two other citation databases: Scopus and
    Scientific ELectronic Online Library (SciELO) from Bireme.
•   Apply this approach to analyze other “politically incorrect” issues focused on negative effects of
    globalization to get a more balanced view of this process.
•   Promote among agricultural librarians the benefits of employing bibliometric tools such as cocitation
    analysis and bibliometric indicators.


References
Bakker, K. (2001). Paying for water: Water pricing and equity in England and Wales. Transactions of the
Institute of British Geographers, 26(2),143-164.

    — (2003). Archipelagos and networks: Urbanization and water privatization in the South. Geographical
      Journal 169(4), 328-341.

Estache, A. and Rossi, M. (2002). How different is the efficiency of public and private water companies in Asia?
World Bank Economic Review, 16(1), 139-148.

Hall, D. and Lobina, E. (2006). Pipe dreams: The failure of the private sector to invest in water services in
developing countries. PSIRU: London.

— (2007). Profitability and the poor: Corporate strategies, innovation and sustainability. Geoforum, 38(5), 772-
785.

Nickson, A. and Franceys, R. (2003). Tapping the market: The challenge of institutional reform in the urban
water sector. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sjölander-Holland, A. C. (2005). The water business : Corporations versus people. London: Zed Books.

Spronk, S. (2007a). Roots of resistance to urban water privatization in Bolivia: The “new working class”, the
crisis of Neoliberalism, and public services. International Labor and Working-Class History, 71(1), 8-28.

Spronk, S. (2007b). The politics of water privatization in the Third World. Review of Radical Political
Economics, 39(1), 126-131.

Trujillo, L. and Estache, A. (2005). Infrastructure performance and reform in developing and transition
economies: evidence from a survey of productivity measures. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Warner, M. and Hefetz, A. (2002). The uneven distribution of market solutions for public goods. Journal of
Urban Affairs, 24(4), 445-459.

World Bank (1994). World Development Report 1994: Infrastructure for development. Oxford and New York:
Published for the World Bank [by] Oxford University Press.

— (2004). Making services work for the poor: World Development Report 2004. Washington, DC: World Bank.

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Characterization of water privatization in Web of Science according evidence from

  • 1. Characterization of water privatization in Web of Science according evidence from text mining and cocitation analysis / Carlos Vílchez-Román 1. Introduction Even the title says ‘water privatization’, academic papers focused in this issue discuss the growing private participation in supply of water and sanitation services. In most of countries, these services are provided by public operators (e.g. a state enterprise or municipality), so after the privatization, this ‘natural monopoly’ in water services provision is maintained. It is an important issue because media mainly discuss it from a ‘privatization of public services will save us’ frame, which can explained by commercial and political pressures. For instance, critical journalists have noted that media coverage on poor quality of water services utilities (e.g., insufficient water and sanitation coverage, poor wastewater treatment and political interferences), often is coincidental with interest shown by global companies (e.g., Suez, Bechtel, etc.) in the local water and sanitation services. However, none of these pressures can be expected in papers published in peer-reviewed journals, which have a more academic than commercial approach. With relation to the effects of privatization of water services, in academic literature we find critical voices (Bakker, 2001, 2003; Hall and Lobina, 2006, 2007; Sjölander, 2005;), but also -and mainly- supporters of positive aspects of water services privatization (Nickson and Franceys, 2003; World Bank, 1994, 2004). The purpose of this work is to analyze how the ‘water services privatization’ has been approached in papers published in peer-review journals. Even, there are many documents focused in water services privatization published as grey literature, we didn’t consider them because we don’t have a central repository with materials written in standards formats (especially the bibliographic references, the raw data for cocitation analysis), therefore it is very difficult to include this kind of material in bibliometric studies that can be replicated. 2. Material and methods 2.1. Corpus We worked with papers and proceedings indexed in a well known citation scientific database: Web of Science (WoS) of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Even when this database has been highly criticized by its preference for research done in English speaking countries and its limited scope of social issues in Latin America countries, WoS and Scopus are two scientific databases with the highest standards of academic quality. 2.2. Procedure We did a search in WoS using specific keywords (water services, and privatization) in the topic field, then refined the results using filtering features available from WoS interface and selected only articles and proceedings. After that, we downloaded 57 records in plain text, including abstracts and references. This file was exported to BibExcel, with this program we extracted the authors from reference section, produced a ranking of most cited authors and then generated a cocitation matrix that was opened from NetDraw program, which was used to produce the cocitation maps for authors cited at least three or four times. Title and abstract of each paper was exported to different plain text files, so they can be content analyzed with VBPro and VBMap programs. We used built-in menus to generate the matrix for the co-frequency analysis. The co-frequency matrix was composed by three columns: words co-cited, and two numbers for x-y coordinates. 2.3. Collection and analyzing techniques Content analysis: We used descriptive statistics (e.g., frequencies) to identify most used words in title and abstract fields; but since this kind of analysis takes the words out of their context (e.g., the sentence) we did an analysis of co-ocurrence of words by using a text mining tool known as multidimensional scaling (MDS). Bibliometric analysis: To identify citation patterns in papers focused in 'water services privatization' we used cocitation analysis since the technique allows the generation of visual representations of citation behavior which are less easy to understand for academic readers.
  • 2. 3. Results 3.1. Content analysis We identified the most used words in title and abstract fields in each paper (see Figures 1 and 2), and also generated two bidimensional maps of the co-ocurrence of words (see Figures 3 and 4). Figure 1. Most frequent words in title of papers w ater services privatization public private management urban sector supply state poor governance w ales spain sanitation restructuring privatized privatisation politics partnership new latin england bolivia america africa 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
  • 3. Figure 2. Most frequent words in abstract of papers w ater public services privatization private paper m anagem ent sector supply service sanitation utilities social urban local developm ent poor new governm ent article health tw o provision 0 50 100 150 200
  • 4. Figure 3. Multidimensional scaling of co-ocurrence of words in title of papers 0.8 england wales restructuring 0.6 Privatization - British model 0.4 governance state supply privatized management 0.2 politics private sanitation partnership water bolivia 0 public -0.6 -0.4 spain -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 poor sector new urban services -0.2 privatisation africa privatization -0.4 america latin -0.6 Water Sanitation Services - LatinAmerica
  • 5. Figure 4. Multidimensional scaling of co-ocurrence of words in abstract of papers 0.8 literature research Water services and infraestructure - Research and 0.6 case issues effects 0.4neoliberal study w orld 0.2 analysis analysis new tw o into one privatisation paper urban health municipalities 0 process industry environmental -0.6 -0.4 servicepolicy -0.2 restructuring0 governance 0.2 0.4 0.6 social control state poor political utilities delivery economic market management areas cost privatization public government policies -0.2 costs provision w ater resources services infrastructure sector developing private countries local development systems -0.4 supply sanitation -0.6 Economic and social cost - Sanitation supply
  • 6. 3.2. Bibliometric analysis A similar pattern was observed working with authors with a) three or more cocitations or b) four or more cocitations (see Figures 5 and 6). Figure 5. Cocitation network of authors with three or more cocitations
  • 7. Figure 6. Cocitation network of authors with four or more cocitations 4. Discussion With relation to contents of paper titles, text mining shows an axis we call privatization, differentiating between British and French models of privatization of water and sanitation services. Actually, the bidimensional map display 'Africa' label near 'privatization' label, so given that many African countries were previously French colonies, we can assume that the privatization experiences discussed in papers are related to the implementation of French model, which preserves the ownership of water services infrastructure (e.g., treatment plants, pipes networks, etc.) in the hands of the State, while transfers to a private operator the financing and managerial tasks, what we call the day-by-day operations. Contrary to French model, British model means a full privatization of water services: infrastructure and running of business. It is interesting to note that even the privatization experiences implemented in many developing countries since 1980 decade resulting in hundreds and thousand of workers fired owed to engineering processes, this direct cause of poverty -unemployment- is seldom mentioned as a negative effect of privatization. After reading the paper abstracts, we did not either find a more critical approach to privatization process, since most of analysis are focused in improvements in quality and access. Most of studies on 'water services privatization' assume that private operators are more efficient than public companies, in terms of cost-benefit and financial indicators; however the empirical evidence from econometric studies is not conclusive (Estache and Rossi, 2002; Trujillo and Estache, 2005; Warner and Hefetz, 2002), which means that this assumption is not based on evidence. On the other side, even academic world and public opinion consider water services as an essential right, when the frame of ‘citizen rights’ changes to ‘consumer rights’, water services is no longer viewed as an obligation operators must provide, but a good subject to supply and demand laws, and the payment capacity of consumers. (Spronk, 2007a, 2007b) This kind of approach is also absent in most of papers analyzed.
  • 8. The central position of World Bank in cocitation maps is explained by the high volume of literature produced by this international financing organization but also the political role played by this agent, because it is known that some credits to developing countries was conditioned to an increasing privatization of public services, inside the politics of structural adjustments. 5. Recommendations • Replicate this method (content and bibliometric analysis) in two other citation databases: Scopus and Scientific ELectronic Online Library (SciELO) from Bireme. • Apply this approach to analyze other “politically incorrect” issues focused on negative effects of globalization to get a more balanced view of this process. • Promote among agricultural librarians the benefits of employing bibliometric tools such as cocitation analysis and bibliometric indicators. References Bakker, K. (2001). Paying for water: Water pricing and equity in England and Wales. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26(2),143-164. — (2003). Archipelagos and networks: Urbanization and water privatization in the South. Geographical Journal 169(4), 328-341. Estache, A. and Rossi, M. (2002). How different is the efficiency of public and private water companies in Asia? World Bank Economic Review, 16(1), 139-148. Hall, D. and Lobina, E. (2006). Pipe dreams: The failure of the private sector to invest in water services in developing countries. PSIRU: London. — (2007). Profitability and the poor: Corporate strategies, innovation and sustainability. Geoforum, 38(5), 772- 785. Nickson, A. and Franceys, R. (2003). Tapping the market: The challenge of institutional reform in the urban water sector. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Sjölander-Holland, A. C. (2005). The water business : Corporations versus people. London: Zed Books. Spronk, S. (2007a). Roots of resistance to urban water privatization in Bolivia: The “new working class”, the crisis of Neoliberalism, and public services. International Labor and Working-Class History, 71(1), 8-28. Spronk, S. (2007b). The politics of water privatization in the Third World. Review of Radical Political Economics, 39(1), 126-131. Trujillo, L. and Estache, A. (2005). Infrastructure performance and reform in developing and transition economies: evidence from a survey of productivity measures. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Warner, M. and Hefetz, A. (2002). The uneven distribution of market solutions for public goods. Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(4), 445-459. World Bank (1994). World Development Report 1994: Infrastructure for development. Oxford and New York: Published for the World Bank [by] Oxford University Press. — (2004). Making services work for the poor: World Development Report 2004. Washington, DC: World Bank.