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Témoignages à propos des diagnostics d’accompagnement et de suivi - CONSTANT, JOUVE, BUCHERT

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CONSTANT & JOUVE & BUCHERT Témoignages à propos des diagnostics d’accompagnement et de suivi lors des RIAAM2017 http://riaam.events/

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Témoignages à propos des diagnostics d’accompagnement et de suivi - CONSTANT, JOUVE, BUCHERT

  1. 1. Témoignages à propos des diagnostics d’accompagnement et de suivi : l’exemple du groupement pastoral du serre de Mijavols Guillaume Constant (berger), Blandine Jouve (Chambre d’agriculture de Lozère), Julien Buchert (Parc national des Cévennes) 17 octobre 2017 à Montpellier
  2. 2. 2 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Ordre du jour
  3. 3. 3 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Groupement pastoral de Mijavols 3
  4. 4. 4 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Estive située sur le Massif du Bougès  1 000 à 1 400 m d’altitude  Climat montagnard,  influences méditerranéennes Superficie d’environ 300 ha  Grande lande à callune  Hêtraie acidiphile en tâches localisées Vue globale de l’estive de Mijavols
  5. 5. 5 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Présence de mi juin à fin septembre Gardiennage quotidien + parcs de 2-3 nuits tournants en filets électriques mobiles Brulages par secteur tous les 10 ans en moyenne pour rajeunir la lande Un troupeau de 400 à 600 brebis viande
  6. 6. 6 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Des unités de gestion aux limites fluctuantes… Végétation homogène et peu d’étalement phénologique  circuits de pâturage choisis : 1. Chaque année en fonction de la dynamique des végétations (herbe, callune, genêt poilu) 2. Chaque jour en fonction du temps (vent, pluie) et de l’état des animaux
  7. 7. 7 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 7 Quelques éléments de diagnostic Habitats à fort enjeu écologique Mosaïque de lande à callune & pelouse siliceuse sèche Mais la callune a tendance à recouvrir les zones de pelouse Pourquoi ? Une ressource pastorale peu productive à bon report sur pieds, un fort attrait pour l’herbe et le genêt poilu Brûlages pour « cultiver » l’herbe et maintenir le milieu ouvert Alternatives?
  8. 8. 8 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017  Pelouses raclées et plantes nanifiées  Peu de coups de dent sur les buissons de callune Pas assez de pression pastorale? Non d’après le référentiel, même si des ajustements sont possibles Pas la bonne période? Le troupeau est présent pendant la période de floraison  une des périodes idéales de consommation de la callune Alors? Eléments de compréhension
  9. 9. 9 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 1. Créer de l’hétérogénéité de types de ressources pour à la fois maintenir la mosaïque d’habitats à forts enjeux écologiques & stimuler l’appétit des brebis 2. Encourager la consommation de la callune qui est une des ressources principales de l’estive 3. Espacer au maximum les brûlages pastoraux pour permettre aux herbacées vivaces de s’installer durablement et garder un maximum d’humus dans le sol Objectifs
  10. 10. 10 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Lande pâturée de façon extensive par le troupeau du GP Des solutions déjà à l’œuvre sur l’estive Effet d’un parc de pâturage (génisses du voisin)
  11. 11. 11 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Un parc de nuit réalisé par Guillaume et son impact sur la callune
  12. 12. 12 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017
  13. 13. 13 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 D’autres solutions à tester… 13 Favoriser la consommation de la callune : complémentation protéique pour stimuler la consommation de « grossier » & pâturage hivernal avec les troupeaux résidents  la callune se protège du froid en faisant monter de la sève ce qui la rend à nouveau appétante Brûlage pastoraux en tâches, ni trop grandes ni trop petites pour créer une mosaïque de pelouses et de callunaies d’âges différents Définition de zones tests « 0 brûlages » pour tester une gestion par le seul troupeau Conservation de certains arbres ou bouquets d’arbres (pins sylvestres, feuillus) pour gagner en fertilité, diversifier la ressource pastorale et les circuits de pâturage (points de chôme, d’abreuvement)
  14. 14. 14 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Des « tâches » d’herbe ni trop grandes ni trop petites (1ha pour 500 brebis)…
  15. 15. 15 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 15 Suivi des zones brûlées et des parcs de nuit tournants Objectif : mieux quantifier leur impact et envisager une éventuelle reproductibilité des pratiques
  16. 16. 16 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017
  17. 17. 17 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017
  18. 18. 18 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017
  19. 19. 19 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017
  20. 20. 20 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 1. Extension de la strate herbacée 2. Abondance du genêt pileux 3. Diversité végétale/typicité du cortège 4. Consommation/piétinement de la callune Indicateurs de suivi des parcs de nuit tournants
  21. 21. 21 Présentation RIAAM Octobre 2017 Merci pour votre attention!

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