Presented at RENEWAL’s Satellite Session "Nutrition Security, Social Protection and HIV: Operationalizing Evidence for Programs in Africa" at the XVIII International AIDS Conference. By Jacqueline Oduol, presented by Margaret Wagah
Social Protection for Children Affected by HIV & AIDS: Experiences from Kenya
Presentation by Prof Jacqueline Oduol Secretary Children’s AffairsMinistry of Gender, Children & Social Development - KENYA
Kenya population- 38 million (2005 Kenya National Bureau of statistics - estimates); 19.4 million (51.7%) are children of which 5.56 million are under 5; Population living below poverty line is 46% ; Provinces / administrative regions – 8; HIV/AIDS prevalence – 7.8 % (Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007); Orphans -2.5 million (2005 UNICEF estimates); 48% of the Orphans due to HIV related cases;
Stigma & discrimination due to HIV/AIDS orphan hood; Increased vulnerability to all forms of abuse and exploitation i.e. neglect, sexual abuse, child labor, child trafficking, physical and emotional Abuse; Psychological stress and trauma due to loss of parent; Limited access to basic needs such as food, health care among many others; Increase in child (sibling) and elderly (grand parents) headed households; Reduced opportunities for Education as children drop out of schools to assume adult roles; Disinheritance upon the death of the parents.
Over stretched traditional coping mechanisms; Reduced productivity at Household level; Increasednumber of neglected, abandoned and street children; Increasedgovernment expenditure on care and treatment of persons living with and affected by HIV;
HIV and AIDS destabilizes livelihoods, & community & family safety nets Social protection—provides reliable systems of social assistance, insurance, and services—can break the vicious circle of poverty, food insecurity, & AIDS HIV and AIDS leads to food insecurity and malnutrition ◦ Undermining livelihoods; decreasing food intake; increasing malabsorption ,metabolic alterations, energy requirements Food insecurity and malnutrition heighten susceptibility to HIV exposure and infection
Protective Preventative Promotional TransformationalSecure basic Reduce Enable people to Build, diversify, and Transformconsumption fluctuations in save, invest, and enhance use of institutions consumption accumulate assets and avert and through • Reduce access asset constraints relationships reduction reduction in risk • Economic • Directly provide or and income loan assets • Political variation • Build linkages with • Social institutions • Public works •Unconditional • Insurance (e.g. health, cash transfers asset) Conditional cash • Livelihoods support • Food Transfers • Savings and credit transfers Conditional food transfers • Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition • Child and adult education/skills • Early childhood development(Source: Adatoand Bassett 2008)
Policies and strategies in place include: National Children Policy ; Children’s Act 2001; National Plan of Action on Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC); National Social Protection policy and Strategy drawn from the National vision 2030; Sectoral / ministries documents i.e. Ministry of Heath, Ministry of Education. Food and Nutrition Security Policy
National Steering Committee on OVC; Department of Children’s Services; OVC Secretariat was established at the Department of children services; Provincial & District Children’s Offices; Area Advisory Councils/ Locational Advisory Councils; Locational OVC Committees; Statutory Children’s Institutions.
i) Health- - Free ART - Free treatment for children under 5 yearsii) Nutrition: Food by Prescription / CMAM WFP food assistance Livelihood strategies Micronutrient supplementation Programs School Feeding programs ii) Education - Free primary Education - Subsidized secondary school education - Bursary for higher education
Strengthening the capacity of Households to take care of OVC;I) Cash Transfer programs to support poor households and the elderly persons taking care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children;II) Training OVC caregivers on child rights, protection and participation;III) Providing psychosocial support to OVC households.
Currently the program covers 47 districts in the country and plans are underway to scale up to 60 districts; The number of beneficiary households under the program is 82,000; The transfer value is US$ 20 per month; Eligibility criteria for households :I. Extremely poor householdII. Households must be taking care of OVCIII. should not be already in a similar program.
GOK National OVC Steering Committee UNICEF World Bank DFID
OVC Our Collective Responsibility Plan and budget for their well being