J. Mosquera

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J. Mosquera

  1. 1. Protocols to measure GHG in Agriculture Inventory and practical use J. Mosquera III Workshop de la Red Remedia, 10-11 Abril 2014
  2. 2. Standard method?
  3. 3. GHG emissions (per component, 2011) 86.2% CO2 CH4 N2O Other 81.1% 9.5% 6.8% 2.6%ES (2011) CO2 CH4 N2O Other 86.2% 7.8% 4.7% 1.3%NL (2011)
  4. 4. GHG emissions (per source, 2011) ES (2011) 78% 11% 8% 4% NL (2011) 84% 8% 5% 2%
  5. 5. CH4 and N2O sources  Enteric fermentation (CH4) ● Dairy cattle ● Swine, sheep, goat and horses ● Poultry  Manure management ● Slurry (CH4, little/no N2O) ● Straw/deep litter (CH4 and N2O)  Agricultural soils ● N2O ● Little/no CH4
  6. 6. CH4 and N2O emissions (ES, 2011)
  7. 7. CH4 and N2O emissions (NL, 2011)
  8. 8. Manure management chain Outside storage NH3, Odour CH4, N2O Manure application NH3 Odour N2O Manure treatment NH3, Odour CH4, N2O Grazing NH3 CH4 N2O NH3, Odour CH4, N2O Housing
  9. 9. Housing
  10. 10. Storage 1. Fresh manure 2. Between product 3. Final product
  11. 11. Treatment
  12. 12. Application surface spreading trailing shoetrailing hoseshallow injection surface spreading incorporation as sequential operation injectionshallow injection
  13. 13. Research question  National inventories  Emission factors  Understanding emission processes  Effect of new technologies and mitigation options  Calculated emissions ● Activity data ● Emission factors  Direct measurements
  14. 14. Measurement protocol  Measurement strategy ● Type of source ● Animal vs. manure ● Manure management chain ● Management  Measurement method ● Research question ● Source characteristics ● Resources
  15. 15. Housing
  16. 16. Single-farm protocol 0 5 10 15 20 25 NH3concentration[mgm -3 ] 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Vent.rate[m 3 uur -1 peranimal] 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Bodyweight(g)  Forced ventilation ● Concentration o NOx monitor o Photoacoustic ● Ventilation rate o Fan wheel anemometer  Natural ventilation ● Tracer gas ratio method
  17. 17. Single-farm protocol + Benefits ● Accurate at the farm level ● Emission process ● Management vs. emissions ● Daily and seasonal patterns - Drawbacks ● Costs (equipment, labour, maintenance) ● Not accurate at the system level
  18. 18. Sources of variance (NH3) Fattening pigs Sows Between farms (sb) 44 % 32% Within a farm (sw) 45% 23%  Statistical analysis: REML method Yij = C + S +s2 b + s2 w
  19. 19. Number of farm locations = 2 total s mlk equipment  2 s Monitor + lk within 2 s + k between 2 s Ogink and Klarenbeek (1997)
  20. 20. Distribution of measurements (cycle) y = 31.2 + 1.2 x R2 = 0.96 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 %averageemission Day in production cycle NH3 y = 32.0 + 1.2 x R2 = 0.97 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 %averageemission Day in production cycle CH4
  21. 21. Measurement period (I)
  22. 22. Measurement period (II)
  23. 23. Multi-farm measurement protocol Measurements at 4 farm locations  Continuous measurements not necessary  6 measurement days per farm Measurement period at least 24 h  Equipment: random errors allowed  Growing pattern  at random, equally distributed  Year round measurements
  24. 24. Example: broilers 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Animalweight(g) Day in the year Farm 1 Farm 2 Farm 3 Farm 4 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 Animalweight(g) Day in productioncycle Farm 1 Farm 2 Farm 3 Farm 4
  25. 25. Case-control approach Two compartments: case (treatment), control (no treatment) Same farm location Same management (Temp., Vent., age, feeding) + Management effects reduced + Easy applicable in pig and poultry systems - Difficult to apply for dairy cattle systems http://www.veracert.eu/en/technology-manufacturers/test-protocols/
  26. 26. Measurement methods
  27. 27. Real-time measurements
  28. 28. Storage
  29. 29. GHG emissions from storage  Emission sources ● Slurry (CH4, little/no N2O) ● Straw /deep litter (CH4 and N2O)  No specific measurement protocol  Emission measurements ● Chamber measurements (static and flow-through) ● Micrometeorological methods ● Tracer gas approach
  30. 30. Chamber measurements
  31. 31. Integrated horizontal flux approach
  32. 32. Gradient method Open-path TDL laser (two heights) Sampling line (two heights)
  33. 33. Tracer gas approach
  34. 34. Application
  35. 35. Chamber measurements http://www.globalresearchalliance.org/app/uploads/2013/05/ Chamber_Methodology_Guidelines_Final-2013.pdf  Minimum requirements ● Chamber design ● Deployment protocol ● Sample collection, storage and analysis ● Automated chambers ● Data analysis  Protocol ● Spatial variability ● Temporal variability
  36. 36. Measurement methods (review) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408347.2013.843055
  37. 37. Take home message  Measurement protocol ● Research question ● Source characteristics ● Resources  Integral approach ● Multi-component ● Multi-stage  Protocols are continuously evolving  Improvisation
  38. 38. Questions?

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