2 martinez mena

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2 martinez mena

  1. 1. ORGANIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION EFFICIENCYOF SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PRACTICESUNDER ORGANIC RAINFED MEDITERRANEAN CROPS• Martínez-Mena, M.• de Vente, J.• Boix-Fayos, C.• Garcia-Franco, N.• Almagro, M.CEBAS-CSIC• Melgares de Aguilar, J.• Gonzalez, D.
  2. 2. Introduction ObjectivesSUSTAINABLEMANAGEMENTPRACTICESNo Tillage (NT)Reduced Tillage (RT)Green Manure (RTG)SoilphysicalpropertiesSoil Ccycle↓ Soil lossby erosionYieldProductivityRunoff control& ↑ SWC↑ C inputs
  3. 3. Experimentaldesign Study areasNTRTGRT
  4. 4. Cehegín ZarzadillaSoil property Almond tree Almond tree CerealClay (%) 15.5 4. 2 17.76 3.7 30.65 3.9Silt (%) 41.5 9.0 48.9 11.5 59.6 2.8Sand (%) 43.0 12.0 33.2 14.8 9.6 5.9SOC (%) 1.2 0.3 2.30 0.6 0.74 3.9Total N (%) 0.12 0.04 0.20 0.04 0.07 0.01Polsen (ppm) 15.60 5.8 41.8 18.7 6.1 1.8CaCO3 (%) 54. 2 11.5 44 9.2 56 10.1pH (water, 1:25) 8.7 0.2 8.8 0.14 9.14 0.17EC (siems cm-1) 168.3 23.3 90.8 14.7 73.3 5.9General soil characteristics of the study areas
  5. 5. Experimentaldesign Cereal management practicesConventional tillageLabours/year : 4/5Depth: 40 cmReduced contour tillageLabours/year : 2Depth: 20 cm
  6. 6. Experimentaldesign Almond tree management practicesConventional tillageLabours/year : 4/5Depth: 20 cmNo tillageReduced tillage +green manureLabours/year : 2Depth: 15/20 cmReduced tillageLabours/year : 2Depth: 15/20 cm
  7. 7. ZarzadilladeTotanaCehegin Green manure2009 (P=345 mm)Vicia sativa + Avena sativa: 3:1 at 150 kg ha-1Vicia sativa + barley: at 150 kg ha-1 3:12011 (P=230 mm)
  8. 8. Experimentaldesign Erosion plots
  9. 9. ResultsSoil water storage capacityNov-08Dec-08Jan-09Feb-09Mar-09Apr-09May-09Jun-09Jul-09Aug-09Sept-09Oct-09Nov-09Dec-09Jan-10Feb-10Mar-10Apr-10May-10Jun-10Jul-10Aug-10Sep-10Oct-10Nov-10Dec-10Jan-11Feb-11Mar-11Apr-11May-11Jun-11Jul-11Aug-11Sep-11oCT-11Nov-11Dec-11Jan-12Feb-12Mar-12Apr-12May-12Jun-12Jul-12Aug-12Sep-12oCT-12Precipitation(mm)020406080100120140Soilwatercontent(%)051015202530RTRTGNT2009 2010 2011 2012Cehegin almond trees349.5 mm 439.8 mm 230.9 mm 451.0 mmTotal rainfall:
  10. 10. Results Soil water storage capacity0,05,010,015,020,025,030,019/02/200919/04/200919/06/200919/08/200919/10/200919/12/200919/02/201019/04/201019/06/201019/08/201019/10/201019/12/201019/02/201119/04/201119/06/201119/08/201119/10/201119/12/201119/02/201219/04/201219/06/201219/08/201219/10/2012datesoilwatercontent(%)CT RT RTGZarzadilla almond treesRunoff (mm) from 14 events (period 2011-2012)Almond CerealCT RT RTG CT RT4.30 1.83 1.68 4.1 2.82
  11. 11. Almond CerealCT RT RTG CT RTg m-2Soilloss14.90 5.43 9.03 59.36 24.26Dates from 14 events ocured in Zarzadilla (2011-2012)OC 0.43 0.20 0.27 0.56 0.26g m-2N 0.034 0.016 0.024 0.037 0.025P 0.068 0.028 0.030 0.024 0.039g Kg-1OC 26.87 38.31 27.79 10.18 14.02N 2.65 3.53 3.0 0.93 1.34mg Kg-1 P* 60.74 89.31 56.26 10.25 30.27erosion and nutrient mobilizationResults
  12. 12. OC, N and P enrichment in sedimentResults00,511,522,533,544,55OC N PRatiosediment/soilConventional tillage Reduced tillagecereal00,511,522,53OC N PRatiosediment/soilConventional tillage Reduced tillage Reduced Tillage + Green manureAlmond trees
  13. 13. Potential for carbon sequestrationSoil aggregates size distributionResults0102030405060> 2 2-0.25 0.25-0.053 <0.053Particle size (mm)percentageConventional tillage Reduced tillage Reduced tillage +Green manure No tillageMWDCT 0.7 0.08RT 0.89 0.02RTG 1.06 0.05NT 1.05 0.05
  14. 14. 00,511,522,533,544,5>2 2-0.25 0.25-0.05Aggregate size (mm)OC(g/Kg)CT RT RTG NT00,511,522,53RT RTG NTTreatmentsOC(g/Kg)microaggregates within macroaggregates microaggregates within mesoaggregatesOC distribution within soil aggregates at surfaceResults
  15. 15. 00,511,522,533,5>2 2-0.25 0.25-0.05Aggregate size (mm)OC(g/kg)CT RT RTG NT00,511,522,5RT RTG NTTreatmentsOC(g/Kg)microaggregates within macroaggregates microaggregates within mesoaggregatesOC less vulnerable to change in enviromental factorsOC distribution within soil aggregates at depthResults
  16. 16. 3rd May 20127th June 20125th July 20125th Sep 201210th Oct 201212th Nov 2012Pre-tillage on 3rd Dec2012Post-tillage on 3rd Dec 2012Post-tillage on 4th Dec 2012Post-tillage on 5th Dec 2012Post-tillage on 7th Dec 2012Jan 2013Feb 2013Mar 2013SoilrespirationingCm-2day-10,00,51,01,52,02,53,03,5aabbab babaabbcbaaReduced Tillage + Green Manure (RTG)No Tillage (NT)Reduced Tillage (RT)bbSoil respirationResults
  17. 17. SOC stock (g m-2)Conventional tillage 500.0 ± 35.4Reduced tillage 660.5 ± 64.39Reduced tillage + green manure 770.1 ± 81.95No tillage 596.3 ± 49.79SOC stockResults+ 17%+ 35%+ 16%
  18. 18. Green manure balanceResults
  19. 19. Almond crop yieldYear2010 2012Cropyield(Kgtree-1)0,00,51,01,52,02,53,03,5CTRTRTGCT RT RTG0,000,050,100,150,200,25Zarzadilla CeheginYear2009 2010 2011 2012Kgtree-10,00,51,01,52,02,53,03,5RTRTGNTResults
  20. 20. Erosion control OC outputs OC Stock Crop productivityRunoff Sediments Erosion SoilRespirationSoil Aggregates Yield crop Percentageof kernelRT        RTG        NT     Sustainable management practices in organic rainfed crops:comparison with conventional practices.ConclusionsCover crops can provide considerable environmental benefits in almonds, and that anycompetition for water between almond tree and cover crops can be offset by theimprovements of the above mentioned soil conditions, which would ultimately benefit thealmonds themselves.Some tillage is required to maintain optimal crop production in rainfed almonds treesin semiarid agroecosystems

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