A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar David Fay Director, Regional English Language Office [email_address] http://reloandes.com...
A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar <ul><li>What is grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>Why teach grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>How can w...
What is grammar?   <ul><li>What do you think of when you think of GRAMMAR? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think of when you...
 
What is grammar? <ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph </li></ul><u...
Larsen-Freeman’s Grammaring Model
He’s playing soccer. <ul><li>“ Where’s Ivan?”  “He’s playing soccer.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow afternoon he’ll be in the...
Activity Samples <ul><li>Substitution   </li></ul><ul><li>The boy drinks milk  </li></ul><ul><li>every morning. </li></ul>...
Dog Attack <ul><li>Jessica is self-employed and her business was affected while she was sick.  Also, the trousers and shoe...
To sum up, grammar lessons… <ul><li>Should be linked to meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Should be based on engaging, authentic m...
Teachers Talk: <ul><li>“ My students’ language ability is always fluctuating.  Some days they speak very well, and other d...
A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar David Fay Director, Regional English Language Office [email_address] http://reloandes.com...
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A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar

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This presentation works in tandem with a face-to-face workshop and hopes to challenge teachers' views on teaching grammar in the TEFL classroom.

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  • Introduce topic and self. Talk briefly about papers hanging up around the room (Tickets!, All gone milk!, have a nice day!, watcha gonna do about it, to be perfectly honest with you, had had had, I is, the David, etc.). (If asked, you might want to say that many of these are lexicogrammatical units.)
  • Get the group to shout out answers (or work in pairs). Then look at those on the slide. State that we will try to make GRAMMAR more worthy of descriptions in the right-hand column.
  • Introduce by asking what the boundaries of grammar are. Let teachers guess the column on the right. Point out that most grammar books focus on Morphology and Syntax. These are all nevertheless inter-related. Sound is often determined by its place in a word (syllable stress). Words are determined by the sentence. And sentence structure is determined by the paragraph (passive to ensure the right topic receives importance and links thoughts). Let me give you an example…
  • Emphasize the fact that much depends on context. Note the last sentence. We very rarely teach this, but it is very common in spoken grammar. Then look at “had had had”, “I is”, and “the David”. Note that rules are often not absolutes, as they depend on the context.
  • Ask teachers what the problem is in the above? If grammar is out of context, meaning is often lost, which sometimes results in the absurd. This is the result of an over-focus on form.
  • Give out HANDOUT first – Grammar THROUGH TEXT 1: Pre-teach words associated with dog attacks: stitches, wounds, infected, bloodstains . Then read. 2: Ask Who was attacked? Where? How badly? Who was to blame? How long was she off work? What other losses did she suffer? 3: Discuss difference between (write on board): An unsupervised Alsatian dog attacked her. She was attacked by an unsupervised Alsatian dog. Which was in the text? Why? (connecting ideas, introduce new material later). Elicit structure (be + past participle) 4: Find more examples in text. Decide why. 5: Cover text and try to recreate. 6: Ask about similar situations. TIME PERMITTING: COMMUNITY (COUNSELING) LANGUAGE LEARNING CLL Work with a few expressions in Turkish: Nasilsin? Nerelisin? Adin ne? Find patterns/ explain/ then go to formal
  • Handout quotes to groups – let them decide how to respond.
  • Introduce topic and self. Talk briefly about papers hanging up around the room (Tickets!, All gone milk!, have a nice day!, watcha gonna do about it, to be perfectly honest with you, had had had, I is, the David, etc.). (If asked, you might want to say that many of these are lexicogrammatical units.)
  • A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar

    1. 1. A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar David Fay Director, Regional English Language Office [email_address] http://reloandes.com http://lima.usembassy.gov/relo2.html
    2. 2. A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar <ul><li>What is grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>Why teach grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we teach grammar… better? </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is grammar? <ul><li>What do you think of when you think of GRAMMAR? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think of when you think of COMMUNICATION? </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Structures, forms </li></ul><ul><li>Word order </li></ul><ul><li>Memorizing </li></ul><ul><li>Red ink </li></ul><ul><li>Drills </li></ul><ul><li>Boring </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Four skills </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Small group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Fun </li></ul><ul><li>(From Diane Larsen Freeman’s Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring) </li></ul>
    4. 5. What is grammar? <ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Phonology </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse/Genre </li></ul>
    5. 6. Larsen-Freeman’s Grammaring Model
    6. 7. He’s playing soccer. <ul><li>“ Where’s Ivan?” “He’s playing soccer.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow afternoon he’ll be in the office, but in the evening he’s playing soccer. </li></ul><ul><li>He never wears his tie when he’s playing soccer. </li></ul><ul><li>He’s playing soccer a lot these days. Do you think he’s upset about something? </li></ul><ul><li>There’s this colleague of ours, Ivan. He’s playing soccer one day. Suddenly he… </li></ul>
    7. 8. Activity Samples <ul><li>Substitution   </li></ul><ul><li>The boy drinks milk </li></ul><ul><li>every morning. </li></ul><ul><li>(-): </li></ul><ul><li>A banana: </li></ul><ul><li>The women: </li></ul><ul><li>(?): </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Voice </li></ul><ul><li>1. She is holding a mirror in her hand. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The teacher allowed nobody to go out. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Has anyone used my telephone? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do you bite your nails when you are nervous? </li></ul>
    8. 9. Dog Attack <ul><li>Jessica is self-employed and her business was affected while she was sick. Also, the trousers and shoes she’d been wearing at the time of the attack were ruined by bloodstains, and had to be thrown away. </li></ul><ul><li>Jessica told us, “I’m now trying to get compensation from the owners of the dog.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jessica Johnson was out walking with her husband when she was attacked by an unsupervised Alsatian dog. Jessica’s leg was bitten, and she had to have stitches in two wounds. Two days later, because the wounds had become infected, Jessica was admitted to the hospital. Even after she was discharged, she needed further treatment from her doctor – and she was told to rest for two weeks. </li></ul>From Thornbury’s How to Teach Grammar
    9. 10. To sum up, grammar lessons… <ul><li>Should be linked to meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Should be based on engaging, authentic material </li></ul><ul><li>Should get students to think </li></ul><ul><li>Should consider students situation: learning styles, age, expectations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Should limit use of metalanguage </li></ul>
    10. 11. Teachers Talk: <ul><li>“ My students’ language ability is always fluctuating. Some days they speak very well, and other days they are horrible.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I teach lots of grammar in the first week of my course, to get it out of the way early so we can spend more time practicing.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The simple past is considerably more difficult so we must wait a while before we teach it.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The articles system is easy and common, so I teach them first. But even after months of practice they still make mistakes!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ My students know a lot, they just can’t talk.” </li></ul>
    11. 12. A Fresh Look at Teaching Grammar David Fay Director, Regional English Language Office [email_address] http://reloandes.com http://lima.usembassy.gov/relo2.html

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