Slide presentation Norhayati sharif


Published on

Politic & Economy in Issue

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Slide presentation Norhayati sharif

  1. 1. The Impact of ICT Revolution <ul><ul><ul><li>Norhayati Sharif </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University Selangor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jalan Timur Tambahan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45600 Bestari Jaya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELANGOR </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. CONTENT <ul><li>Current situation </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT for Empowerment & Participant(User) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT for Health </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT on the Development Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT for Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT for Education </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT on Society </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT for Economy Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT for Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Impact ICT on Government </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the Impact of ICT </li></ul>
  3. 3. CURRENT SITUATION <ul><li>T here is a wide consensus that information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in reducing poverty, improving education and healthcare, enhancing political participation and empowerment, and promoting sustainable development in developing countries as well as countries with economies in transition. The ICT sector is the central core of the emerging global knowledge-based economy in which access and control of ICT facilities and applications are prerequisites for effective integration into the global economy. Drawbacks of ICT Amount of personal data stored on computer Increased opportunity for criminal activities Health Problems </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Bridging distances – e.g. using e-mails, phone, video conferencing etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Preference in using ICT for fast efficient comprehensive search for information. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new employment opportunities (via ICTs/with ICTs) </li></ul><ul><li>Making learning more interesting especially for hard-to-understand issues </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking literacy barriers in </li></ul><ul><li>communication – e.g using video and radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Access information on jobs/internships </li></ul><ul><li>Create entertainment opportunities (games, music,video) </li></ul><ul><li>Research and useful Information sharing – e.g using Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient global communication results in frequent personal interaction among researchers. </li></ul>ICT competent users
  6. 6. Advantages Women are using ICTs to obtain and share information relevant to their work Women are indirect beneficiaries of ICT use in variety of context: -improvements in health care can benefit women and their families, -use of ICTs in School can improve education for girls -availability of ICTs in the communities can provide opportunities for training as well as tools that can be used by community organization that benefit women e:g(It promotes collaboration and socialization.) Next It allows women to form a community and became creators / participants. But availability of ICTs alone will not guarantee developmental benefits e:g political ,human development.
  7. 7. Disadvantages: <ul><li>Discrimination – girls viewed as second-class citizens </li></ul>Numbers – boys both outnumber girls and tend to dominate access to computers Confidence – because they do not have equal access at school, girls may be less confident than boys when it comes to going into IT jobs because they don’t feel they have the same skills and knowledge as the young men competing for the jobs. <ul><li>Time – girls’ domestic roles, even at a young age, mean they have less free time than boys to explore and experiment with new technologies . </li></ul><ul><li>Language – in order to use these technologies, English is usually a requirement, and for girls with only basic literacy in their own language, this is a major barrier. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom – boys are also more likely to be allowed to use internet cafés because parents are concerned about their daughters going out on their own. </li></ul>Money – girls are less likely than their brothers to have the financial resources to pay for, say, a mobile phone and its running costs, or access to the web in an internet café
  9. 9. + ICT MEDICINE/HEALTH =“TELEMEDICINE/TELEHEALTH” ADVANTAGES : EXAMPLE: Communications Expert Systems Equipment ICT in Medicine
  10. 10. <ul><li>The expert system(diagnosis) of patients,surgery,treatment </li></ul><ul><li>A better and more efficient way of running hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>E:g -Increase timeliness of clinical decision making </li></ul><ul><li>A more accurate and legible record of data, which doesn’t take up as much storage space as well. </li></ul>ADVANTAGES : <ul><li>communication with professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Medical staff or new doctor world-wide have many opportunities to update their skills through internet-based services and training initiatives </li></ul>E.g: Robotic surgery for operation <ul><li>Research and </li></ul><ul><li>obtain information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deliver first-line support especially where distance is a critical factor and promote preventive medicine programmes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved shared service operations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DISADVANTANGES Working with computers for long periods of time can cause many different kinds of health problems… Back Problems & Stress Computer vision syndrome (CVS)— eye and vision problems Next Repetitive strain injury (RSI) Computer addiction—when computer consumes entire social life Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon due to repeated motion Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)—inflammation of nerve that connects forearm to palm
  13. 13. ADVANTANGES :
  14. 14. Enablers of Innovation in ICT Use Economy Community Politics Communication <ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction k-economy </li></ul><ul><li>(Increasing the number of large scale business ) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day technologies that enables electronic transaction like online payment through websites </li></ul><ul><li>e.g: e- payment , internet banking </li></ul>Politics e.g; Establishment of e-government Community Small Office Home Office ( SOHO ) E.g:Teleworking <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking </li></ul><ul><li>e.g: MySpace, Facebook </li></ul>
  15. 15. DISADVANTANGES : Next
  17. 17. Advantages
  18. 18. DISADVANTAGES Unemployment – While IT may have streamlined the business process, it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. Privacy – Though IT may have made the communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it also has brought along the privacy issues. Lack Of job security – Industry experts believe that the Internet has made the job security as a big issue as since technology keeps on changing and growing everyday. Dominant culture – While IT may have made the world a global village, it also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one.
  19. 19. IMPACT ICT ON EDUCATION Internet: Greatest impact IMPACT TIME TIME
  20. 20. Advantages Raising Achievement Using ICT Pupils of all abilities , especially boys, find the visual nature of PowerPoint a lot more accessible. Broadband access and interactive whiteboards can bring CD ROMs and revision websites to life The media effects can help to add pace, style and fun into a lesson Data projectors & PowerPoint are tailor made for allowing students to develop their oracy & literacy skills. It gives pupils access to teaching materials that would be normally far too expensive to reproduce.
  21. 21. Disadvantages Being taught the wrong things Next Less need for schools A lot of distractions e:g:Porn,Game Music Videos Chartrooms/Messengers /Emails There is a lot of incorrect information on the internet ICT is very expensive – not all students get the same opportunities Being taught the wrong things Example: Hacking ,Creating Viruses, Plagiarism Students will learn more theory and less practical It can be boring sitting in front of a computer for a long time Computers cannot interact on a personal level e.g. fuller explanation
  23. 23. Advantages Next <ul><li>Major tool for poverty reduction, accelerated socio-economic development & good govern </li></ul><ul><li>Government focus to realize ICT initiatives. Support Programmed – WB, UN, NEPAD etc </li></ul>Huge potential to improve Government services <ul><li>information and knowledge exchange (Internet, e-mail, multi-media, video conferencing ) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a wealth of opportunities for various forms of education – tele- education, tele-medicine, virtual laboratories, etc </li></ul>Create opportunity for emergence of ICT as a new economic sector Manageable technology for deployment Tremendous opportunity for indigenous experts Political stability in the country Affordable prices for IT investment
  24. 24. DISADVANTAGES: Next Higher Cost IT skills development Difficult aligning Government regulations with new technology Higher Cost Developing infrastructure lack of cost for Developing applications Difficulty to achieved Content development in various languages Higher cost Building high bandwidth communication network Difficult Managing technology refresh for continuity and growth lack of cost to manage Retaining skilled professionals (Brain drain) Difficult i identifying the right technology Higher cost Managing ICT resources Higher Cost Developing infrastructure
  26. 26. <ul><li>Political will </li></ul><ul><li>Technology infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and enabling policy environment </li></ul><ul><li>Human capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity, entrepreneurship and management </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness in citizens </li></ul>Technology
  27. 27. Advantages -Government Portal Improved prediction of impacts of policy measures  more efficient implementation of government policies Improved transparency of information related to the impact of economic decisions on society Government brings value to the public service – lending further impetus to the evolution of e-Government; & With better feedback on results, e-Government will be better equipped to adjust its plans and policies to improve outcomes The availability of high quality information across a whole sector is a powerful driving force for working together in new ways to improve service to the public Government’s appeal to investors and business partners rests in part on the effective, reliable and accessible delivery of services to business, such as quick and easy processes for starting up an enterprise Increased trust of stakeholders and the public at large in governance Facilitate the consumer transition from ‘in-line’ to ‘on-line' by providing a single point of access to information and services organized according to the interests and needs of its consumers, permitting anytime, anyplace and anywhere access increasing efficiency of government operations E:g; E-Procurement
  28. 28. Disadvantages : Next -Lack of approved ICT standards, policies and e-Laws <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- A lot of time to be </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spent on the searching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for the e-Government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experts. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-The process of approving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the appointment of the </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-Government Experts may </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take longer than anticipated. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>-Digital divide (citizens and stakeholders), -Ownership and Responsibility Website Content and approval of content -Ownership and Responsibility -Ownership and Responsibility
  29. 29. IMPACT ICT ON SOCIETY ICT - i.e. computer linked to all facets of society
  30. 30. ICT in the Home <ul><li>ICT has a wide variety of applications in the modern home </li></ul>Smart Homes Communications Entertainment The PC Embedded Systems ICT in the Home
  31. 31. Advantages Networks : LANs or WANs Communication Tele/Video Conferencing: people in different locations communicating as if they were in the same location Fax : Sending an image of a document electronically Connection Methods : Cable, radio/microwaves, infra-red, satellite, etc. Mobile telephones : Can send voice, image, text, data (from a linked computer E-mail : Message sent from 1 person to another using computers connected to a network WWW: World Wide Web – collection of pages with links to other pages (hyperlinks) Internet: Largest WAN, international network of computers connected by communication lines
  32. 32. Disadvantages: <ul><li>The cost </li></ul><ul><li>– this can add up to quite a considerable amount to run and buy the model e:g mobile phone </li></ul>The connection is NOT free!, Need to be basically skilled when using a computer, Security – there is a lot of insecure sites and without restrictions people are open to all sorts of information., Chat rooms, Spamming and viruses when using e-mail e:g internet Next
  33. 33. <ul><li>Business </li></ul>Teleworking : Fewer desks needed – hot desking, workers control the times they work, etc. Robots : Used on production lines – repetitive/hazardous jobs, reduces human error, increases efficiency Computer Aided Design (CAD) : 3D designs, scale drawings, interface with manufacturing machines Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) : Control of the manufacture process by computer Advantages E-business ( businesses run on the Internet, or utilizing Internet technologies to improve the productivity or profitability of a business)
  34. 34. Disadvantages: Next CAD software requires its users to be trained how to use the software. This is because it has features within it that make it hard to pick up just through trial and error. CAD software is often expensive due to its use in industry and possibility to create high profits. Security concerns: Credit card fraud or Bogus companies, Waiting for goods to arrive (or the wrong goods arriving) , Technological Underclass (the poorest people in society have the least access to the new technology) , Who do you complain to if you don't get good service? , Customers can't touch, feel or taste goods before they buy them , Postage and packing has to be added to the cost of goods that you buy e:g online shopping If a supplier fails to delivery the required parts on time then the entire manufacturing system is delayed, Security of data, Risk of data corruption, Initial investment – plant and training e.g. manufacturing. <ul><ul><li>Work involving computers may remove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees from social contact with other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employees, this change can cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stress, Computers can be misused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– employees who waste time playing games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at work and the unwanted e-mails (SPAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that fill up the mail box and cause disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to normal work., Monitoring performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be tricky e:g teleworking. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Money and Banking Advantages: Automated Payments : Bankers Automated Clearing House (BACS) – Credits, e.g. salary payments, etc.; Debits, e.g. direct debits, loan payments, etc Smart Cards : Chip and Pin – data held on a small silicon chip rather than magnetic stripe, customer enters a pin rather than signs receipt Cheque Processing: Cheques are scanned, account numbers read (MICR) to identify the account Cash Machines: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) – “hole in the wall” access to bank accounts Home Banking : Customers use the internet or telephone to administer their account EFT : Credit/Debit card details sent for authorisation, from retailers or ATMs Credit/Debit Cards: Magnetic stripe holds the card details which are read when swiped
  36. 36. DISADVANTAGES : Next ATMs Cheques Banking from home through Internet or Telephone debit cards, credit cards etc
  37. 37. The Impact of ICT on the Environment <ul><li>. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Advantages: to improve practices in agriculture and forestry <ul><li>improve disaster warning and relief(to monitor and respond </li></ul><ul><li>to environmental disasters and also worn and predict disasters)- </li></ul><ul><li>geographic information system (GIS) GHG Tracking -Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>metering Atmospheric measurements, Radio and Television, </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone (Fixed and Mobile), Short Message Service Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting, Satellite Radio, Internet/Email, Amateur </li></ul><ul><li>and Community Radio, Sirens </li></ul>improve the efficiency of the energy harness social networking for transformative change Next To reduce carbon emissions significantly monitor air and water pollution transportation goods and services sectors
  39. 39. Disadvantages: Next Depletion of Ozone Layer <ul><li>increased adoption of ICT will account for much of the growth in greenhouse gas emissions.( Global Warming) </li></ul>Land Contamination Depletion of Natural Resources
  41. 41. Empowerment <ul><li>Policies should be geared towards the creation of an enabling environment to ensure public service and community access to mass media systems and structures. </li></ul><ul><li>The State should be held accountable for its responsibility to provide access, control and ownership of new ICTs to grassroots women and marginalized communities. </li></ul><ul><li>provision of public spaces for meetings, funding or programs for street theater and performing arts, the creation of public libraries and women’s resource centers, financing posters and print materials, support for independent or alternative films, community TV and community radio, support for translation into local languages of information for marginalized groups. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Recognize intermediary groups’ knowledge and expertise choice of communication tools given their knowledge of what is accessible, effective and empowering for grassroots women and must be respected and supported. </li></ul><ul><li>As grassroots women stated, new ICTs are perceived as desired forms of communication but will require a steep learning curve. Recognizing this need, agencies should develop grassroots women’s individual and organizational capacities in the use of new ICTs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase girls’ access and control over IT hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in math, science and vocational education for girls </li></ul><ul><li>Implement international legislation and increase collaboration </li></ul>
  43. 43. The need for leadership from the top The need to involve all stakeholders <ul><ul><li>The need for a liberalized economic environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote and Facilitate FDI in partnership with the private sector </li></ul></ul>The need to monitor e-developments <ul><ul><li>The need to tailor e-strategies to individual countries’ requirements. </li></ul></ul>The international community will have to play an important role in supporting developing countries’ efforts to develop their national ICT strategies development Next
  44. 44. <ul><li>What are some ways to safeguard personal information? </li></ul><ul><li>(in Banking) </li></ul>Next Fill in only necessary information on rebate, warranty, and registration forms Avoid shopping club and buyers cards Install a cookie manager to filter cookies Inform merchants that you do not want them to distribute your personal information Limit the amount of information you provide to Web sites; fill in only required information Clear your history file when you are finished browsing Set up a free e-mail account; use this e-mail address for merchant forms Turn off file and print sharing on your Internet connection Install a personal firewall Sign up for e-mail filtering through your Internet service provider or use an antispam program, such as Brightmail Do not reply to spam for any reason Surf the Web anonymously with a program such as Freedom Web Secure or through an anonymous Web site such as
  45. 45. <ul><li>prevent tendonitis or carpal tunnel syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread fingers apart for several seconds while keeping wrists straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gently push back fingers and then thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangle arms loosely at sides and then shake arms and hands </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Use an anti-glare screen </li></ul><ul><li>Good lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Look away from the screen and at a distant object frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Have regular eye checks </li></ul><ul><li>Take a short break at least every hour and work around </li></ul>
  47. 47. Ergonomics <ul><li>The science of designing safe and comfortable machines and furniture for humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables us to adjust equipment properly to meet our needs. Correct typing technique and posture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desks </li></ul></ul>keyboard height: 23” to 28” elbows at 90° and arms and hands parallel to floor adjustable seat adjustable height chair with 4 or 5 legs for stability feet flat on floor
  48. 48. Safety Issues <ul><li>The rules for all electrical appliances apply in a computer room. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There should be no trailing wires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and drink should not be placed near a machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical sockets must not be overloaded. Adequate space around the machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable heating and ventilation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable lighting with no glare or reflections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benches must be strong enough to support the computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All electrical equipment must be tested for safety at regular intervals. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Environment
  50. 50. Next <ul><li>Use the Smart Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce peaks in power usage by automatically turning down selected </li></ul><ul><li>appliances in homes, offices, and factories, Reduce waste by providing </li></ul><ul><li>instant feedback on how much energy we are consuming, Encourage </li></ul><ul><li>manufacturers to produce “smart” appliances to reduce energy use, </li></ul><ul><li>Sense and prevent power blackouts by isolating disturbances in the grid. </li></ul><ul><li>Fund technology development initiatives to improve critical ICT solutions </li></ul><ul><li>or to tailor them to the needs of countries or sectors that are critical for the </li></ul><ul><li>global GHG emission reduction effort (e.g. the creation tailored ICT tools </li></ul><ul><li>For the design and planning of energy efficiency buildings in developing </li></ul><ul><li>countries with high growth and booming construction sectors) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and disseminate information about best practices on ICT use for </li></ul><ul><li>GHG emission minimization </li></ul>
  51. 51. :: Thank you ::