Plan of Presentation
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Hindi:स्वच्छ भारत अभभयान, English: Clean India Mission) is
a national campaign by the Government of india,covering 4041 statutory towns, to clean
the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country.
This campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi, where
Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself cleaned the road. It is India's biggest ever
cleanliness drive and 3 million government employees and school and college students of
India participated in this event. The mission was started by Prime Minister Modi, who
nominated nine famous personalities for the campaign, and they took up the challenge and
nominated nine more people and so on (like the branching of a tree). It has been carried
forward since then with people from all walks of life joining it.
The components of the programme are:
Construction of individual sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line
with subsidy (80%) where demand exists.
Conversion of dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines.
Total sanitation of villages through the construction of drains, soakage pits, solid and
liquid waste disposal.
Intensive campaign for awareness generation and health education to create a felt
need for personal, household and environmental sanitation facilities
With effect from 1 April 1999, the Government of India restructured the
Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation
To give a fillip to the Total Sanitation Campaign, effective June 2003 the government
launched an incentive scheme in the form of an award for total sanitation coverage,
maintenance of a clean environment and open defecation-free panchayat villages, blocks
and districts called Nirmal Gram Puraskar.
Effective 1 April 2012, the TSC was renamed to Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan.
On 2 October 2014 the campaign was relaunched as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
• Elimination of open defecation
• Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush
• Eradication of manual scavenging
• 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal/reuse/recycling of
municipal solid waste
• A behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices
• Generation of awareness among citizens about sanitation and its linkages
with public health
• Supporting urban local bodies in designing, executing and operating
waste disposal systems
• Facilitating private-sector participation in capital expenditure and
operation and maintenance costs for sanitary facilities
Criticisms of the campaign include:
Some regard the motives of Prime Minister
Modi as purely political. The prime
minister nominated people who were
supposed to do some cleaning-up. They
would then nominate others, and so slowly
the whole of India would be involved.
Thus, anyone seeing a participant in the
scheme, especially a celebrity, would
inevitably link their actions to Modi,
building up his reputation.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is not a new
programme. Launched in 1986 as the Central
Rural Sanitation Programme, the scheme later
became the Total Sanitation Campaign (1999)
and Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan(2012). Some regard
it as merely a renaming.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched his nationwide cleanliness
campaign, the 'Swachh Bharat Mission' or 'Clean India Campaign' from the on
Gnadhi jayanti. Addressing the nation at the launch, Modi asked India's 1.25
billion people to join the 'Swachh Bharat Mission' and promote it to
Modi said, "Today is the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhiji and Lal
Bahadur Shastriji. We have gained freedom under leadership of Gandhiji, but
his dream of clean India is still unfulfilled.“
So, we should make success the dream of Gandhiji.
Kurukshetra, A journal on rural development, Vol.62
This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India, Environmental history: use of
natural resources in india, Madhav Gadgali and Ramachandra Guha