RECUWATT Conference - Torben Kristiansen lecture

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SECTION IV: DIFFERENT SITUATIONS IN EUROPE
“Myths and facts about incineration based on decades of Danish experience in waste-to-energy” by Mr. Torben Kristiansen, Head of the Department of Solid Waste of COWI, Denmark

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RECUWATT Conference - Torben Kristiansen lecture

  1. 1. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration # 1 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration Outline of Presentation 1. WtE in Denmark 2. True/false statements about WtE? – Is WtE expensive? – WtE causes excessive dioxin emission? – WtE discourages recycling? – Plume visibility is a public concern? – NIMBY? – Political/Public opposition 3. Conclusions # 2 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  2. 2. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration WtE in Denmark -Why has WtE developed so much in Denmark? 1. In 1989 the municipalities in Denmark were assigned with the obligation to provide suitable treatment/disposal for all types of waste generated. This led to the establishment of several WtE plants and the extension of existing plants throughout Denmark. 2. WtE is in Denmark supported by fiscal and legislative measures that include: i) reduced waste tax if producing both heat and power from WtE ii) disincentives for landfilling via a higher tax on landfill, iii) priority for supply to district heating from WtE over other energy sources 3. Efficient powers to direct waste, which ensures the necessary waste supply. 4. Integrated national energy efficiency policy that prioritises reduced reliance on fossil fuel, decentral CHP, compulsory use of communal district heating systems, priority for sale of “green” energy etc. # 3 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration WtE in Denmark - The first Case Story: WtE Plant Frederiksberg1903 # 4 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  3. 3. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration WtE in Denmark - The latest case story: New Copenhagen WtE in 2016 Investment: 3.5 billion DKK (€ 460 million) Capacity: 560,000 tpa Construction starts: Spring 2012 In operation: Spring 2016. 2 lines High energy efficiency: CHP (+20% yield) Landmark architecture: A year-round skiing slope and view point # 5 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration WtE in Denmark - Number, location and capacity of Danish WtE facilities No of Total Plant No. Plant Location Lines Capacity (t/h) 1 Skagen. Skagen commune 1 2.0 2 Grenå. Grenå commune 1 2.5 Leirvik Inter-municipal Company, Hagaleiti, Faroe 3 Is. 1 2.5 4 Rønne. I/S BOFA 1 2.5 5 Torshavn. Torshavnar Kommuna, Faroe Islands. 1 2.5 6 Vejen. Elsam A/S 1 4.3 7 Frederikshavn. Elsam A/S 1 5.0 8 Herning. EG. Jylland 1 5.0 9 Hammel. Hammel Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. 2 6.0 10 Svendborg. Svendborg kommune 1 6.0 11 Thisted. I/S Thyra 1 6.4 12 Hobro. I/S Fælles Forbrænding 2 6.9 13 Sønderborg. Sønderborg Kraftvarmeværk I/S 1 8.0 14 Aars. Aars kommune 2 8.5 15 Haderslev. Elsam A/S 2 9.0 16 Kolding. TAS I/S 1 9.2 17 Skanderborg. I/S RENO SYD 2 9.5 18 Horsens. Elsam A/S 2 10.0 19 Slagelse. I/S KAVO 2 10.0 20 Hjørring. AVV I/S 2 12.0 Copenhagen 21 Næstved. I/S FASAN 3 17.0 22 Nykøbing. F I/S REFA 3 17.0 23 Holstebro. Elsam A/S 2 18.0 24 Hørsholm. I/S Nordforbrænding 4 19.0 25 Esbjerg. L 90 Måde 1 24.0 26 Aalborg. I/S Reno-Nord 2 31.0 27 Aarhus. Århus kommunale Værker 3 31.2 28 Odense. Elsam A/S, Fynsværket 3 32.0 29 Roskilde. I/S KARA 3 34.0 30 Copenhagen. I/S Amagerforbrænding 4 48.0 31 Copenhagen, Glostrup. I/S Vestforbrænding 4 83.0 TOTAL 60 482.0 # 6 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  4. 4. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration WtE in Denmark - WtE treatment capacity in Europe per capita # 7 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration True/False statements about WtE? - Some of the typical statements made 1. Are WtE plants much more expensive than alternative technologies? 2. Does WtE contribute significantly to dioxin emissions posing a threat to public health? 3. Does WtE discourage recycling? 4. Plume visibility 5. NIMBY 6. Political/public opposition # 8 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  5. 5. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration True/False statements about WtE? - Is it expensive? Source: Waste incineration in Denmark, RenoSam, Oct. 2005 # 9 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration True/False statements about WtE? - Is dioxin emission at huge problem? Emissions per year in g TU (toxicity units) 1990 1994 0.1% 2000 Metal extraction and processing 740 220 40 Waste incineration 400 32 0.5 Power stations 5 3 3 Industrial incineration plants 20 15 <10 33% 0.7% Domestic firing installations 20 15 <10 Traffic 10 4 <1 Crematoria 4 2 <2 Total emissions, air 1,200 330 <70 5.8% Source: German Federal Environmental Agency Study, Sept. 2005: Waste Incineration — A Potential Danger? Bidding Farewell to Dioxin Spouting Data for the year 2000 are estimates by the Federal Environmental Agency If the energy produced by incineration were generated using traditional power stations, there would annually be 3 times more tonnes of toxicant and 5,000 more tonnes of dust particles in the air 10 # 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  6. 6. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration True/False statements about WtE? - Does WtE result in reduced recycling? # 11 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration True/False statements about WtE? - Is WtE bad for the environment and climate change? # 12 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  7. 7. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration True/False statements about WtE? - Is WtE effective in achieving landfill diversion targets? # 13 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration True/False statements about WtE? - Plume visibility – A concern? # 14 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  8. 8. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration True/False statements about WtE? - Not in my back yard! Can residents accept WtE? # 15 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration True/False statements about WtE? - Political opposition? Will the politicians support this? Some anti-incineration organisation are very vocal and often referring to old reports that are not relevant today. Biomass and other non-fossil fuel are required to achieve the carbon reductions and energy supply we need Dioxin emissions, as well as other emissions, from WtE plants are extremely small compared with other common sources LCA studies clearly demonstrate the benefits of WtE as part of an integrated waste system Opting for WtE does NOT result in reduced recycling. On the contrary the evidence shows that it is a question of being organised or not! Important to provide reliable information and facts to settle politicians fears E,g German Green party acknowledges WtE # 16 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  9. 9. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration True/False statements about WtE? - Public perception differs 100 years of WtE experience in Denmark has resulted in a public trust and acceptance of WtE Good track record for operation and pollution abatement for decades: No bad stories to tell! Government policy and political parties have consistently supported WtE Public ownership of plants via non-profit companies is seen as a guarantee for protection of public and local interests Public acceptance of policy to minimise landfilling. # 17 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration Myths and facts about waste incineration - Conclusions: 1. WtE is an environmentally sound treatment technology compared to the alternatives of MBT and landfilling 2. WtE does not undermine efforts to recycle. Countries applying WtE at a large scale are also the countries most successful in achieving high recycling targets 3. WtE is a critically important component of an integrated waste management planning based on the waste hierarchy 4. Emission of dioxin/furan from WtE is no longer an issue as the problem has been engineered into non-existence over the past 15 years. 5. As demonstrated in Denmark, even small-scale WtE plants can work efficiently when balanced to suit the local district heating demand. When plants are "close to home" the waste is dealt with near those who produced it. 6. There is scope for increasing the advanced waste treatment capacity in Spain to achieve higher landfill diversion rates and generate energy in a more sustainable way. 7. Although power production only will generally yield competitive gate fees, there is scope for further reductions of the gate fees through use of industrial heat/cooling # 18 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration
  10. 10. Based on decades of Danish waste-to-energy experience23 March 20 Myths and facts about waste incineration Myths and facts about waste incineration - Thank you! For more information: Torben Kristiansen Head of Solid Waste Management COWI A/S tokh@cowi.dk www.cowi.com/waste COWI is a leading European and global consulting group providing state- of-the-art services within engineering, environmental science and economics. COWI has more than 6,000 employees worldwide including Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Latvia, Lithuania,, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Serbia, Spain, Belgium, UK, Greenland, Turkey, Mozambique, Zambia, Tanzania, Oman, Bahrain, UAE, Qatar, India, South Korea, China, USA, & Canada. # 19 23 March 20 Myths and facts about was te inc ineration

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