RECUWATT Conference - Heidelore Fiedler lecture

764 views

Published on

SECTION II: CLIMATE CHANGE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
“The new Industrial Emissions Directive and waste-to-energy” by Ms. Heidelore Fiedler, Scientific Officer of the Chemicals Branch at DTIE (Division of Technology, Industry and Economics), United Nations Environment Programme, Switzerland

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
764
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
84
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

RECUWATT Conference - Heidelore Fiedler lecture

  1. 1. Stockholm Convention– Dioxin Inventories Dr. Heidelore Fiedler UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch 11-13, chemin des Anémones CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland E-mail: heidelore.fiedler@unep.org 31 March, 2011 1 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Entered into force on 17 May 2004 Today, has 170 parties www.pops.int
  2. 2. Dioxin inventories (SC) Development and maintenance of inventories of releases of unintentional POPs (= polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDD/PCDF) a requirement for parties (n=172 = legally binding obligation); National action plan to be updated every five years; Guidance developed and COP-endorsed through Expert Group on review and updating of the Toolkit Harmonized reporting format developed; Expert Group recommends to include BAT/EP process into Toolkit process.Dioxin Inventories: 1995 vs. 2007 1995 emissions: AUT, BEL, BGR, CDN, CYP, CZE, DEN, FIN, FRA, GER, HUN, 15 developed countries = ca.IRE, JAP, LVA, NLD,per year 10,500 g TEQ NZL, NOR, Emissions to air predominantlySLK, SVN, SWE, CHE, TWA, GBR, USA 2005/2009 releases: ca. 20 developed countries - 800 million population ca. 14,700 g TEQ per year to air ca. 16,500 g TEQ per year in total 62 (most) developing countries - 2.6 billion population ca. 22,700ARG, ARM, AUS, AZE, BLR, BEN, BRN, BFA, BDI, KHM, ALB, g TEQ per year to air ca. 48,500 g TEQ per year inCUB, DJI, ECU, ETH, FJI, GAB, CHL, CHN, HKG, CIV, HRV, total GMB, GHA, IDN, IRN, JOR, KEN, LAO, LBN, LBR, LTU, MKD, MDG, MLI, MUS, MDA, MAR, NPL, NZL, NIC, NGA, NIU, PAN, PRY, PER, PHL, ROM, WSM, SYC, SVN, LKA, SDN, SYR, TJK, TZA, THA, TGO, TUN, URY, VNM, ZMB
  3. 3. Source Distribution per CountryPCDD/PCDF (TEQ), Reference year around 1995; mainly developed countries100%80% Ot hers Mineral Prod. Road T ransport60% Wast e Incin. Small Comb. Units Ind. Comb. Plant s Power Plants40% Non-ferr. Metals Iron& St eel20% 0% AUS S B A CH CAN D DK HGK HUN JPN SK UK USA F NL NZ Methodology to establish complete, comparable PCDD/PCDF Inventories (250 pages + EXCEL file) Updating and review process mandated by Conference of the Parties, started in 2006 some new emission factors proposed for COP-5 (April 2011) http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/pcdd_activities/default.htm
  4. 4. Recommendations of Toolkit experts Process for Toolkit review and updating is adequate, should continue. New information shared through the Stockholm Convention clearing-house mechanism and the UNEP Chemicals website. Parties be aware that formation of PCDD/PCDF is accompanied by releases of other unintentional POPs, and their minimization or elimination can be achieved by the same measures. Assessment activities at the country level should thus focus on PCDD and PCDF as “indicative for unintentional persistent organic pollutants” as a basis for identifying and prioritizing sources of all unintentional persistent organic pollutants. Parties should be encouraged to use the Toolkit (according to the source categories listed in Annex C to the Convention, grouped into the source groups specified in the Toolkit).COP.5/11Category 2f - Lead COP.5/11
  5. 5. Household cooking/heating–fossil fuels COP.5/11Summary (n=62) – Actual Status Air Water Land Product Residue 22,688 1,129 5,855 4,879 13,927 47% 2% 10% 12% 29% Grand total 48,478 • Most dioxins go to air ⇒ LRT g TEQ per year, n=62 • Least dioxins go to water (directly)
  6. 6. Air Emissions per capita and year Annual Release to Air (ug TEQ per capita) 107 ug, Niue100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Emissions to air – Toolkit Release to air (%)100% 80% Cat 8 Cat 7 60% Cat 6 Cat 5 Cat 4 Cat 3 40% Cat 2 Cat 1 20% 0%
  7. 7. Release per vector (%) Air Water Land Product Residue Total releases of Av e VNM T UN PCDD/PCDF T HA T JK SDN (TEQ) according to SVN WSM PHL vector and country. PRY NI U NI C NPL M DA MLI M KD LBR LAO JOR Releases to air and in I DN GM B FJ I residues are dominating ECU CUB (exception = Moldova) CI V CHN KHM BFA BEN AZE ARM ALB 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%Annual releases from all source groups
  8. 8. NZL CIV ETHAZEL BN LTUGA B N IU Dendrogram: percentage of sourceBENBRN FJI group to air release inventorySY C DJIWSMHRVHKGCUBCHL Countries cluster according toMUSVNM PHL source categories TJKBL RROMCHNSV N MLIMA R Category 6 has largest influence onMDGL AO IRNTGO classificationBFAZMBARGPRYMKDJORKHMLKAPA N Cat3TZATUN Cat2AL B Cat10 N ICMDA Cat9SDNKEN Cat7L BR Cat8GMBGHA Cat4SY RNGA Cat5 BDI Cat1 IDNA US Cat6 PERURY 0 329386THAECU NPL 0 1505 03Toolkit Source Group 6 = Open Burning Category 6 of the UNEP Dioxin Toolkit addresses Open burning of biomass (forest fires, sugarcane burning, etc.) Open burning of municipal waste Often >60% in national release inventories in developing countries (← high activities or relatively high emission factors in the Toolkit)
  9. 9. Open burning - % in air inventory n = 61 6A 6B Cat 6CountryArgentinaBelarus Country ARG BLR Air 203 0.12 Land 162 1.06 Total 6a 365 1.18 Air 353 0.04 Land 706 0.04 Total 6b 1,059 0.08 Total 6 1,424 1.26 PCDD/PCDFBolivia BOL 399 133 532 0 0 0 532CameroonChile CAM CHL 943 13.5 0 15.8 943 29.3 0 4.4 0 4.37 8.77 0 943 38.1 as TEQChina CHN 16.7 953 970 0 0 0 970Costa Rica CRI 58.1 19.6 77.7 93 91 184 262Cote DIvoire CDO 7.50 6.00 13.5 220 0 220 234Croatia HRO 2.20 1.70 3.90 0 0 0 3.90Cuba CUB 8.67 3.7 12.4 39.7 24.1 63.8 76.2Dominican Republic DOM 64.5 21.5 86.0 0.34 0.62 0.96 87.0GuatemalaHaitiHonduras GUA HTI HON 21.2 0 43.5 0 14.5 12.5 58.0 33.7 0 327 0.04 140 196 0.04 246 523 0.08 386 523 58.1 420 Split 6aIran IRN 95.3 31.8 127 706 0 706 833JordanLiberiaLithuania JOR LIB LIT 0.18 22.5 0.86 0.07 7.50 0.3 0.25 30.0 1.16 160 51 12.9 1.88 120 13 52.9 280 25.9 53.1 310 27.1 (biomass)Malaysia MAL 0 0 0 1.28 1.18 2.46 2.46MauritiusMongoliaMontenegro MAU MON MTG 0.09 0 0.12 0.33 0.04 0.09 0.42 0.04 0.21 1.98 17.4 0.12 3.06 34.9 0.09 5.04 52.3 0.21 5.46 52.3 0.42 and 6bMoroccoNicaraguaNigeria MOR NIC MIG 0.28 6.42 152 0.22 3.10 121 0.50 9.52 273 135 166 2,600 2,400 30 300 165 466 5,000 166 476 5,273 (waste)Pakistan PAK 0 0 0 313 626 939 939Paraguay PGY 22.4 8.5 30.9 38.7 76.2 115 146Peru PER 115 61.5 177 3.58 3.44 7.02 184Russia RUS 171 137 308 1,050 630 1,680 1,988Rwanda RW A 1.13 1.85 2.98 45.7 12.7 58.4 61Serbia SEB 0.15 0.17 0.32 84.1 94.0 178 178SeychellesSyriaTajikistan SEY SYR TAJ 0.006 0.002 0 0.003 0.002 0 0.009 0.004 0 0.38 339 3.97 0.74 208 7.42 1.12 547 11.4 1.129 547 11.4 42 countriesTanzania TNZ 227 181 408 124 48.1 172 580ThailandTongaUganda THA TON UGA 19.9 0 0 6.64 0.03 1.97 26.5 0.03 1.97 124 0 0 236 3.16 492 360 3.16 492 387 3.19 494 8 report 0Ukraine UKR 0.23 0.18 0.41 0 0 0 0.41Uruguay URU 4.28 1.79 6.07 3.37 6.1 9.47 15.5Venezuela Venezuela 54.1 37.6 91.7 307 0 307 399Vietnam Vietnam 13.2 5.33 18.5 10.6 9.16 19.7 38.2Grand Total Grand Total 2,686 1,953 4,640 7,478 6,626 14,102 18,741
  10. 10. Source Group 6 (g TEQ per year n=42) Source Group 6a and 6b Releases3,000 Total 6a2,500 Total 6b2,0001,5001,000 500 0Release vector and source category Source group 6 1.200 1.000 0.800 % 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 B-Air B-Land W-Air W-Land
  11. 11. Open burning of biomass COP.5/11
  12. 12. Rural waste in China China, high ash content Urban waste in Mexico xxx New sampler developed for sampling fumes from open burn events: High-volume sampler with sampling head downwards; filter and PUF cartridge
  13. 13. Mexico Rural waste; poor combustion
  14. 14. Mexico urban industrial, very good combustionOpen burning of waste COP.5/11
  15. 15. Muchas gracias Further information Stockholm Convention WebPage: www.pops.int UNEP Chemicals: www.chem.unep.ch

×