RECOUP THEME 1:SOCIAL AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES <ul><li>YOUTH, GENDER AND CITIZENSHIP (YGC) </li></ul>
<ul><li>No-one is born a good citizen: no nation is born a democracy.  Rather, both are processes that continue to evolve ...
Youth in the Maelstrom of Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>Increase in rural/urban poverty, growing gaps betwee...
Faulty Modernisation <ul><li>Partially educated, with material expectations that they cannot fulfil. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro...
The Demographic ‘Window of Opportunity’ <ul><li>Some 200 million people  - 60% of the African population  are between 12 a...
Youth Citizenship <ul><li>Young people’s experiences of citizenship are crucial to development outcomes.  Markets cannot d...
  The Five Youth Transitions <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning to work </li></ul><ul><li>Taking risks that impa...
Social citizenship: the ‘softer qualitative outcomes’ <ul><li>David Korboe (1998)  Handing over the Stick:  Ghana Social A...
<ul><li>Addressing powerlessness, vulnerability, conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Social protection, affiliation, coh...
Youth, Gender and Citizenship <ul><li>Research Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>Does education help impoverished young female and m...
Research Design <ul><li>Comparative (four countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural and urban communities </li></ul><ul><li>Inter...
An intergenerational community study  <ul><li>Rural and Urban Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>community scoping with obs...
Lis AGENCY  AND EMPOWERMNT LIVELIHOOD SELF PROTECTION  SECUIRTY
Educational outcomes <ul><li>Desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Actual outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable outcomes </li>...
Young people informing policy?  <ul><li>The act of research is already one way in which young people can engage as citizen...
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Theme 1: Social and Human Development Outcomes of Education - Youth, Citizenship & Gender (YCG) Project

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Presentation by Madeleine Arnot, International Project leader for YGC project at the Mid-Term Dissemination Conference in Ghana, 9 march 2009

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Theme 1: Social and Human Development Outcomes of Education - Youth, Citizenship & Gender (YCG) Project

  1. 1. RECOUP THEME 1:SOCIAL AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES <ul><li>YOUTH, GENDER AND CITIZENSHIP (YGC) </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>No-one is born a good citizen: no nation is born a democracy. Rather, both are processes that continue to evolve over a life time. Young people must be included from birth. A society that cuts off from its youth severs its lifeline. </li></ul><ul><li> (Kofi Annan 2007) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Youth in the Maelstrom of Social Change in Sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>Increase in rural/urban poverty, growing gaps between rich and poor, increased migration to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to sustain a national identity, patriotism and cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing individualisation through global mass media whilst responding to traditional ethnic, patriarchal, gerontocratic and gender cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational opportunities, the loss of traditional skills, individual mobility away from community support, gender change. </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern Westernised vanguards or disengaged vandals? </li></ul><ul><li>Burgess 2005 Conference on Youthful Africa in 21 st Century) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Faulty Modernisation <ul><li>Partially educated, with material expectations that they cannot fulfil. </li></ul><ul><li>Process of ‘becoming somebody’ is not easy </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between educated and partially educated increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Drawn to become victims, heroes, entrepreneurs, or criminals – postmodern Western ‘vanguards’ or disengaged ‘vandals’ </li></ul><ul><li>Powerlessness and frustration of youth results </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Demographic ‘Window of Opportunity’ <ul><li>Some 200 million people - 60% of the African population are between 12 and 24 years old. This number will peak in about 20 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Globally, some 130 million youth cannot read or write. Young people make up approx. half the world’s unemployed. 100 million new jobs needed to cope with young people seeking work </li></ul><ul><li>The chance is now to invest in health, education and labour market skills of youth to prepare them for a globalising world. </li></ul><ul><li>Group based social exclusion of youth is potentially dangerous to the political stability required for economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank (2007) Development and the Next Generation . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Youth Citizenship <ul><li>Young people’s experiences of citizenship are crucial to development outcomes. Markets cannot deliver on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Youth citizenship enhances the overall climate for investment and private decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Youth citizenship promotes government accountability for basic service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Youth citizenship enhances the human and social capital of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank Report (2007) Development and the Next Generation </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Five Youth Transitions <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning to work </li></ul><ul><li>Taking risks that impact on health </li></ul><ul><li>Forming families </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising citizenship </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social citizenship: the ‘softer qualitative outcomes’ <ul><li>David Korboe (1998) Handing over the Stick: Ghana Social Assessment. World Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem, hope, self-worth, potential self sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of mind, security about dependents </li></ul><ul><li>Well being, health happiness, a good life </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Addressing powerlessness, vulnerability, conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Social protection, affiliation, cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom, freedom from hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge, enlightenment, broadening. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Youth, Gender and Citizenship <ul><li>Research Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>Does education help impoverished young female and male adults achieve participatory citizenship? </li></ul><ul><li>How could educational outcomes improve the capability of young male and female adults living in poverty to become participatory citizens? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Design <ul><li>Comparative (four countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural and urban communities </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-generational household study </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative with quantitative data base </li></ul><ul><li>Voice- centred research </li></ul>
  12. 12. An intergenerational community study <ul><li>Rural and Urban Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>community scoping with observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>household surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interviews and photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trigger materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Youth and their ‘parents’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. no schooling or incomplete basic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. basic schooling completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. post basic schooling (secondary and above) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lis AGENCY AND EMPOWERMNT LIVELIHOOD SELF PROTECTION SECUIRTY
  14. 14. Educational outcomes <ul><li>Desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Actual outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Full participatory citizenship Lived world of the young citizen
  15. 15. Young people informing policy? <ul><li>The act of research is already one way in which young people can engage as citizens in policy-making </li></ul><ul><li>Young people are the future. </li></ul>

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