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Disability, Education and Poverty Project (DEPP) Kenya
Overview   <ul><li>Why the focus on ‘young people’? </li></ul><ul><li>Why disability in a poverty project? </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>‘ Youth bulge ’ </li></ul>Why Youth?
Demographic dividend or disaster <ul><li>Kenya  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 75% aged below 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% a...
 
Impairment Disability  Exclusion(s)   Poverty  Increased vulnerability  and Exclusion(s) Cascading impact Costs Disability...
Research aims <ul><li>To develop an understanding of the local meanings and perceptions of disability </li></ul><ul><li>To...
<ul><li>To develop an understanding of the local meanings and perceptions of disability </li></ul><ul><li>-and its relatio...
<ul><li>To examine the present educational arrangements available to and attended by poor people with disabilities </li></...
<ul><li>To understand the role that education and other  enabling  factors play in the lives of young people with disabili...
Two central issues <ul><li>Disability: the “invisible” minority. Issues of identification  </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualisi...
Identifying Disability:  issues in the literature <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Social stigma  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Co...
<ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving beyond labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ disability” </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Survey of Disabled Adults, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell me what is wrong with you? </li></ul><ul><li>What c...
Health Condition  ( disorder ) Interaction of Concepts ICFDH, 2001 Environmental Factors Personal Factors Body function & ...
Disability: Household survey
Identifying young people with disabilities   <ul><li>Household census </li></ul><ul><li>Informal/formal conversations with...
<ul><li>Disability is a complicated, multi-dimensional concept </li></ul><ul><li>Disability is both a private and public e...
<ul><li>Conceptualising educational outcomes for young people with disabilities in developing countries </li></ul>
Education (1)   <ul><li>fewer than 5 percent of children with disabilities achieve the goal of primary school completion (...
Education (2)   <ul><li>not to equate education with formal schooling </li></ul><ul><li>acknowledge education occurs in a ...
Outcomes  <ul><li>common markers are knowledge, employability, earnings, and more recently, citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>...
Participation Learning self Purposeful activities Personal, physical, experienced and spiritual self Access to opportuniti...
Participation Family: roles, responsibilities and status Community: Friendships/ peer acceptance  Social networks Civic pa...
Family and the community
Some sample characteristics:   Individual with disabilities <ul><ul><li>14-25/30 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
Research sample :  significant others <ul><li>significant “others”-  parent/ other member of the family </li></ul><ul><li>...
Research sample: size Rural  Urban  One District 5- VI + 5-sig.others 5-HI + 5- sig.others 5-PI +  5- sig.others 5-PI  + 5...
Research methods <ul><li>Semi-structured interviews  </li></ul><ul><li>Visual images </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li><...
Research issues <ul><li>Listening to “voices”- exploring  creative  methods of data collection (using interpreters- hearin...
Ethical issues   <ul><li>Pamphlets- with information on rights, local services etc </li></ul><ul><li>Build links with the ...
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Disability Education And Poverty Project

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Disability Education And Poverty Project

  1. 1. Disability, Education and Poverty Project (DEPP) Kenya
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Why the focus on ‘young people’? </li></ul><ul><li>Why disability in a poverty project? </li></ul><ul><li>Research overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research aims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elucidating the conceptual framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>‘ Youth bulge ’ </li></ul>Why Youth?
  4. 4. Demographic dividend or disaster <ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 75% aged below 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% are 15-30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India (Census, 2001): of the 1 billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>51% is under 25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-thirds is under 35 years </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Impairment Disability Exclusion(s) Poverty Increased vulnerability and Exclusion(s) Cascading impact Costs Disability and poverty
  6. 7. Research aims <ul><li>To develop an understanding of the local meanings and perceptions of disability </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the present educational arrangements available to and attended by poor people with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the role that education and other enabling factors play in the lives of young people with disabilities </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>To develop an understanding of the local meanings and perceptions of disability </li></ul><ul><li>-and its relationship to poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community level </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>To examine the present educational arrangements available to and attended by poor people with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>- what are their main characteristics and </li></ul><ul><li>- how are these characterised by important stakeholders (PWD themselves and others)- their role and purpose </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>To understand the role that education and other enabling factors play in the lives of young people with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let us not assume that education is the only enabling factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let us focus on the enabling rather than just looking at the disabling factors </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Two central issues <ul><li>Disability: the “invisible” minority. Issues of identification </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualising educational outcomes for young people with disabilities in developing countries </li></ul>
  11. 12. Identifying Disability: issues in the literature <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Social stigma </li></ul><ul><li>“ Connected body-selves” (Das, 2001) </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving beyond labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ disability” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>includes some impairments, excludes others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Survey of Disabled Adults, 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell me what is wrong with you? </li></ul><ul><li>What complaint causes your difficulty in holding, gripping or turning things? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you attended a special school because of a long term health problem or disability? </li></ul><ul><li>Does your health problem/disability prevent you from going out as often or as far as you would like? </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver’s alternative questions, 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell me what is wrong with society? </li></ul><ul><li>What defects in the design of everyday equipment like jars, bottles and tins causes you difficulty in holding, gripping or turning them? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you attended a special school because of your education authorities policy of sending people with your impairment to such places? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the environmental constraints which make it difficult for you to get about in your immediate neighbourhood? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Health Condition ( disorder ) Interaction of Concepts ICFDH, 2001 Environmental Factors Personal Factors Body function & structure (Impairment ) Activities (Limitation) Participation (Restriction)
  15. 16. Disability: Household survey
  16. 17. Identifying young people with disabilities <ul><li>Household census </li></ul><ul><li>Informal/formal conversations with people in the community (school, religious, health, DPO/NGOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Snowballing – find one, find next (move into neighbouring areas?) </li></ul><ul><li>Tracer studies through nearby schools </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Disability is a complicated, multi-dimensional concept </li></ul><ul><li>Disability is both a private and public experience </li></ul><ul><li>There is no neutral language with which to discuss disability </li></ul>“ Disability”: developing a shared understanding
  18. 19. <ul><li>Conceptualising educational outcomes for young people with disabilities in developing countries </li></ul>
  19. 20. Education (1) <ul><li>fewer than 5 percent of children with disabilities achieve the goal of primary school completion (Peters, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya – less than 10% enrolled in educational programs, dismal transition to higher levels, with an average less than 0.5% of those enrolled accessing higher education </li></ul><ul><li>India: only 9 percent completed secondary and above education (NSSO, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>various alternative forms of education might be available to this group </li></ul>
  20. 21. Education (2) <ul><li>not to equate education with formal schooling </li></ul><ul><li>acknowledge education occurs in a range of different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>focus on various educational arrangements available to young people with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how are these characterised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their role and purpose </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Outcomes <ul><li>common markers are knowledge, employability, earnings, and more recently, citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>not adequate for capturing the complex and often marginalised lives </li></ul><ul><li>the kind of lives that people with disabilities currently live and/or aspire to live </li></ul><ul><li>the role that education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or is perceived as being capable of playing in helping them achieve the capabilities that they think will allow them to live the lives that they would like to live </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Participation Learning self Purposeful activities Personal, physical, experienced and spiritual self Access to opportunities Availability of opportunities Focusing on the individual
  23. 24. Participation Family: roles, responsibilities and status Community: Friendships/ peer acceptance Social networks Civic participation (e.g., NGO) Religious participation (e,g, member of a church) Political participation (e.g., panchayat , advocacy) Mobility Learning self Individual skills: Modes of Communication Literacy and mumeracy (where relevant) Vocational skills Social skills Other life skills Knowledge: such as, about one’s rights Purposeful activities Income generating tasks Non-income generating tasks Voluntary work Leisure Personal, physical, experienced and spiritual self Personal: self confidence, self efficacy, aspirations, expectations Physical self: knowledge about body, physical care Experienced : other’s attitudes towards, expectations from, aspirations for Spiritual: how do they understand and make sense of their disability Access to opportunities Availability of opportunities
  24. 25. Family and the community
  25. 26. Some sample characteristics: Individual with disabilities <ul><ul><li>14-25/30 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical; Hearing; Visual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age of onset of impairment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completed primary level of formal schooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completed secondary level of formal schooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attended/attending some educational arrangement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not attended any educational arrangement or formal schooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable representation of men and women </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Research sample : significant others <ul><li>significant “others”- parent/ other member of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders (such as, community elders, religious leader, school head, local/district education officer, NGO/DPO, health centre official ) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Research sample: size Rural Urban One District 5- VI + 5-sig.others 5-HI + 5- sig.others 5-PI + 5- sig.others 5-PI + 5 sig.others 5-HI + 5-sig.others 5- VI + 5-sig.others Stakeholders (10/12) People with disabilities: 30 (in-depth interviews) Total sample: 70/72
  28. 29. Research methods <ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Visual images </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Informal discussions in the community </li></ul>
  29. 30. Research issues <ul><li>Listening to “voices”- exploring creative methods of data collection (using interpreters- hearing impairment- who and how?; giving cameras?) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tracer studies” </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher responses (reflexivity)- detailed field notes (the PROCESS needs to be very well documented) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Ethical issues <ul><li>Pamphlets- with information on rights, local services etc </li></ul><ul><li>Build links with the local DPO </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange a health mela </li></ul><ul><li>Screen an open air movie (maybe something like- Black) </li></ul>

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