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In‐Vehicle Networking : a 
   Survey and Look Forward
              Nicolas Navet




 Workshop on Specialized
Networks, E...
Outline
         1.        Architecture of Automotive Embedded Systems
                          What they look like – exa...
Architecture of Automotive Electrical and 
                          Electronics (E/E) Systems




© 2009 INRIA / RealTime...
Electronics is the driving 
                                         force of innovation

                                ...
BMW 7 Series networking architecture [10]

                                                           ZGW = central 
     ...
BMW 7 Series architecture – wiring harness [10]

                                                                         ...
There are many non‐technical issues in the 
                           design of E/E architecture 
    The case at Volvo i...
Proliferation of ECUs raises problems!
                                                                      50




      ...
Optimizing the use of networks is becoming an 
                     industrial requirement too
     Good reasons for optim...
Likely upcoming architectures
           Fewer ECUs but more powerful
           –     Multi-core μ-controller
           ...
AUTOSAR Communication Stack




© 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 11
AUTOSAR at a glance  ‐ Automotive Open System 
                          Architecture
                                    ...
AUTOSAR layered architecture: 
                                            the global picture
            Picture from [5]...
Intra‐ and inter‐ECU Communication

                                                    MW hides the 
                    ...
AUTOSAR layered architecture: 
                                           some more details
                              ...
There are some 50 standardized basic software 
                        components (BSW) …
                                ...
Zoom on the communication services
       “Explicit” call to                   Signals are:
 communication services       ...
Sending a signal through the CAN 
                                     communication stack [6]




                       ...
Generation of the “operational” 
                                            architecture

                               ...
Automotive networks




© 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 20
Event‐Triggered vs Time‐Triggered Communication




       Event-triggered communication                          Time-tri...
In practice “best of both world” approaches are 
                           needed and used 
        1. Offsets on CAN : i...
Controller Area Network: a Recap
               Priority bus with non‐destructive collision resolution
               Id o...
Scheduling CAN frames with offsets ?!
              Principle: desynchronize transmissions to avoid load peaks
         0 ...
But task scheduling has to be adapted otherwise 
               data freshness is not much improved …   

                ...
Offsets Algorithm applied on a typical 
                                          body network



                        ...
Efficiency of offsets  
                                           some insight


              Work =
              time ...
FlexRay protocol basics




                                       TDMA MAC             F-TDMA MAC
         Typically ST s...
FlexRay bus design and configuration
  Requirements on FlexRay                                             Complex Problem...
FlexRay VS (multi‐)CAN  [11]
        Useful load (signals)           FlexRay 2.5Mbit/s    FlexRay 10Mbit/s          1x CAN...
Conclusion

               Automotive MAC protocols are well mastered 
               technologies that respond to the cur...
References




© 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 32
References
                                       Automotive Embedded Systems ‐ General 
                                 ...
Questions / feedback ? 




                                             Please get in touch at:
                         ...
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In‐Vehicle Networking: a Survey and Look Forward

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Slides of a talk given at the Workshop on Specialized Networks held in Conjunction with ETFA 2009.
The use of networks for communications between the Electronic Control Units (ECU) of a vehicle in production cars dates from the beginning of the 90s. The specific requirements of the different car domains have led to the development of a large number of automotive networks such as LIN, J1850, CAN, FlexRay, MOST, etc..
This talk first introduces the context of in-vehicle embedded systems and, in particular, the requirements imposed on the communication systems. Then, we highlight future trends in the development of automotive communication systems.

Published in: Automotive, Technology, Business
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In‐Vehicle Networking: a Survey and Look Forward

  1. 1. In‐Vehicle Networking : a  Survey and Look Forward Nicolas Navet Workshop on Specialized Networks, ETFA09, Palma, Spain - 25/09/2009 Complexity Mastered
  2. 2. Outline 1. Architecture of Automotive Embedded Systems What they look like – example of BMW Constraints in their design – case at Volvo Need for optimizing resource usage (ECU, networks) 2. The Autosar Communication Stack 3. Automotive Networks Time‐Triggered versus Event‐Triggered Controller Area Network at high loads FlexRay concepts and performances © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 2
  3. 3. Architecture of Automotive Electrical and  Electronics (E/E) Systems © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 3
  4. 4. Electronics is the driving  force of innovation – 90% of new functions use software – Electronics: 40% of total costs – Huge complexity: 70 ECUs, 2500 signals, 6 networks, multi-layered run-time environment (AUTOSAR), multi-source software, multi-core CPUs, etc Strong costs, safety, reliability, time‐to‐market,  reusability, legal constraints ! © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 4
  5. 5. BMW 7 Series networking architecture [10] ZGW = central  gateway 3 CAN buses 1 FlexRay Bus 1 MOST bus Several LIN Buses  (not shown here) Ethernet is used  for uploading  code/parameters   (End of Line) Picture from [10] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 5
  6. 6. BMW 7 Series architecture – wiring harness [10] 27Millions “variants” Each wiring harness is Body, audio,  tailored to doors, battery,  the wiring harnesses options Picture from [10] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 6
  7. 7. There are many non‐technical issues in the  design of E/E architecture  The case at Volvo in [2] : – Influence of E/E architecture wrt to business value? Architectural decisions often: lacks long term strategy lack well‐accepted process – Lack of background in E/E at management level are made on experience /  often mechanical background gut feeling (poor tool  – Lack of clear strategy between in-house and support) externalized developments – Technical parameters are regarded as less important than cost for supplier / components selection – Vehicle Family Management : How to share architecture and sub-systems between several brands/models with different constraints/objectives? – Sub-optimal solutions for each component / function – Legal / regulatory constraints © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 7
  8. 8. Proliferation of ECUs raises problems! 50 Number of ECUs (CAN/MOST/LIN) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Mercedes-Benz BMW 10 Audi 5 VW 0 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year Pictures from [3] Lexus LS430 has more than 100 ECUs [wardsauto] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 8
  9. 9. Optimizing the use of networks is becoming an  industrial requirement too Good reasons for optimizing : – Complexity of the architectures (protocols, wiring, ECUs, gateways, etc ) – Hardware cost, weight, room, fuel consumption, etc – Need for incremental design – Industrial risk and time to master new technologies (e.g. FlexRay) – Performances (sometimes): – a 60% loaded CAN network may be more efficient that two 30% networks interconnected by a gateway – Some signals must be transmitted on several networks © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 9 from [3]
  10. 10. Likely upcoming architectures Fewer ECUs but more powerful – Multi-core μ-controller – Multi-source software – Autosar OS strong protection mechanisms – Virtualization ? – ISO2626-2 dependability standard Backbone: FlexRay ‐ High‐speed CAN : 500Kbit/s as backbone  ‐ FlexRay : 10 Mbit/s at BWM in a  ‐ Ethernet ? few years [8] Picture from [8] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 10
  11. 11. AUTOSAR Communication Stack © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 11
  12. 12. AUTOSAR at a glance  ‐ Automotive Open System  Architecture Picture from [5] Industry initiative that is  becoming a de‐facto standard Standardize: architecture (basic  software modules inc.  communication), methodology  and exchange format,  application interfaces Benefits – cost savings for legacy features “Cooperate on standards,  – quality through reuse and market competition compete on implementation” – focus on real innovation versus basic enablers – ability to re-allocate a function – helps to master complexity Caveat: great complexity and still evolving specifications © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 12
  13. 13. AUTOSAR layered architecture:  the global picture Picture from [5] Supported networks are: CAN : Controller Area  Network LIN : Local Interconnect  Network  MOST : Media Oriented  Systems Transport Ethernet in the upcoming  release for diag./upload Vehicle Flashing Times [8]: – 4th-generation BMW 7 series via CAN: ~ 81 MB in 10 h – 5th-generation BMW 7 series via Ethernet: ~ 1 GB in 20 min © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 13
  14. 14. Intra‐ and inter‐ECU Communication MW hides the  distribution  and the  characteristics  of the HW  platform Compliance:  SW‐C must  only call entry  points in the  RTE © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 14
  15. 15. AUTOSAR layered architecture:  some more details Picture from [5] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 15
  16. 16. There are some 50 standardized basic software  components (BSW) … Picture from [5] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 16
  17. 17. Zoom on the communication services “Explicit” call to  Signals are: communication services  ‐“triggered” or  “pending” or MW initiative:  ‐ “data” or “event” “implicit” mode © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 17
  18. 18. Sending a signal through the CAN  communication stack [6] Hyundai chassis ECU : 271μs for a signal to reach communication controller [6] Picture from [6] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 18
  19. 19. Generation of the “operational”  architecture Picture from [5] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 19
  20. 20. Automotive networks © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 20
  21. 21. Event‐Triggered vs Time‐Triggered Communication Event-triggered communication Time-triggered communication – Transmission on occurrence of events – frames are transmitted at pre-determined points in time – Collision resolution on the bus is needed – Synchronization is needed – Bandwidth efficient but performance degradation at high loads – Bandwidth not optimized but … – Incremental design and latencies – Timing constraints are easy to check computation non-obvious – Missing messages are detected asap Ex: CAN Ex: static segment of FlexRay © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 21
  22. 22. In practice “best of both world” approaches are  needed and used  1. Offsets on CAN : impose some fixed de‐ synchronization between streams of messages on   an ECU  less collision, better performances 2. FlexRay dynamic segment : reduce waste of  bandwidth and increase flexibility 3. Upcoming FlexRay V3.0 : more flexibility with slot  multiplexing also in the static segment  © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 22
  23. 23. Controller Area Network: a Recap Priority bus with non‐destructive collision resolution Id of the frame is the priority At most 8 data bytes per frame Data rate up to 1Mbit/s (500kbit/s in practice) Normalized by ISO in 1994 – defacto standard in  vehicles ‐ more than 2 billions controllers produced © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 23
  24. 24. Scheduling CAN frames with offsets ?! Principle: desynchronize transmissions to avoid load peaks 0 10 15 Periods 0 5 5 20 ms 0 0 5 15 ms 10 ms 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 5 5 2,5 2,5 Periods 0 0 20 ms 15 ms 10 ms 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Algorithms to decide offsets are based on arithmetical properties of the periods and size of the frame [1] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 24
  25. 25. But task scheduling has to be adapted otherwise  data freshness is not much improved …    task ECU Frame Transmission request Higher prio. frames frame CAN Frame response time without offsets Tasks and messages scheduling should be designed jointly… © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 25
  26. 26. Offsets Algorithm applied on a typical  body network 65 ms 21 ms © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 26
  27. 27. Efficiency of offsets   some insight Work = time to transmit the CAN frames sent by the stations Almost a straight line, suggests that the algorithm is near-optimal © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 27
  28. 28. FlexRay protocol basics TDMA MAC F-TDMA MAC Typically ST segment: 3 ms and DYN: 2ms Frames: up to 254 bytes, size is fixed in the static segment (BMW:16bytes) Data rate: between 500kbit/s and 10Mbit/s 64 ≠ communication schedules max. (but a slot always belongs to the same station) © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 28
  29. 29. FlexRay bus design and configuration Requirements on FlexRay Complex Problem – Performance requirements: response times, jitters, – Mixed of TT and ET scheduling – Incrementality requirements: additional functions or ECUs – Tightly linked with task scheduling – Dependability requirements: fail-silence, babbling idiot, … – Large number of parameters (>70) – Platform requirements: platform wide frames (e.g., NM), – AUTOSAR constraints (OS, COM, etc) carry-over of ECUs, etc – … Crucial question : applicative software  synchronous or not wrt FlexRay ? – all applicative modules are synchronized  with FlexRay global time ? – all applicative modules are running  asynchronously ? – combination of synchronized and  asynchronous modules (likely) ? Optimal solutions probably out of reach but there are good heuristics, e.g. [11] © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 29
  30. 30. FlexRay VS (multi‐)CAN  [11] Useful load (signals) FlexRay 2.5Mbit/s FlexRay 10Mbit/s 1x CAN 500Kbit/s free slots free slots network load 31% Load 1x (≈ 60kbit/s) ST 23 ST 100 R without offsets 15.3 DYN 9 DYN 43 R with offsets 7.8 free slots free slots network load 57% Load 2x (≈ 120kbit/s) ST 21 ST 98 R without offsets 49.6 DYN 9 DYN 43 R with offsets 14.9 free slots free slots network load 85% Load 3x (≈ 180kbit/s) ST 19 ST 96 R without offsets 148.5 DYN 7 DYN 41 R with offsets 79.7 free slots free slots non-schedulable Load 4x (≈ 240kbit/s) ST 19 ST 96 2x CAN 500 OK DYN 7 DYN 40 free slots free slots non-schedulable Load 5x (≈ 300kbit/s) ST 15 ST 92 2x CAN 500 DYN 6 DYN 40 depending on the overlap free slots free slots Load 10x (≈ 600kbit/s) ST 3 ST 84 non-schedulable with two CAN buses DYN 0 DYN 36 In our experiments, between 2 and 2.5 MBit/s of data   can be transmitted on FlexRay 10Mbit/s © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 30
  31. 31. Conclusion Automotive MAC protocols are well mastered  technologies that respond to the current needs Com. systems architectures will change AUTOSAR will probably require one or two car  generations to replace all what exists  Dependability will create new needs: Increasing safety‐related functions (X‐by‐Wire) Certification in the context of ISO26262  © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 31
  32. 32. References © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 32
  33. 33. References Automotive Embedded Systems ‐ General  [1] N. Navet, F. Simonot‐Lion, editors, The Automotive Embedded Systems Handbook, Industrial Information  Technology series, CRC Press / Taylor and Francis, ISBN 978‐0849380266, December 2008. [2] P. Wallin, Axelsson, A Case Study of Issues Related to Automotive E/E System Architecture Development,  IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems, 2008. [3] T. Nolte, Hierarchical Scheduling of Complex Embedded Real‐Time Systems, Summer School on Real‐Time  Systems (ETR’09), Paris, 2009. AUTOSAR  [4] AUTOSAR layered software architecture, part of release 3.1, V2.2.2.  [5] AUTOSAR – an open standardized software architecture for the automotive industry, Simon Fürst, 1st  Autosar Open Conference, 2008. [6] Performance of AUTOSAR Basic Software modules in a chassis ECU, HYUNDAI MOTOR Company HYUNDAI  & KPIT Cummins, 1st AUTOSAR Open Conference, 2008. [7] J. Buczkowski, Keynote address to the AUTOSAR conference, Ford, 1st AUTOSAR Open Conference, 2008. [8] T. Thomsen, G. Drenkhan, Ethernet for AUTOSAR, EB Automotive Gmbh, 2008. FlexRay [9] A. Schedl, “Goals and Architecture of FlexRay at BMW”, slides presented at the Vector FlexRay Symposium,  March 2007.  [10] H. Kellerman, G. Nemeth, J. Kostelezky, K. Barbehön, F. El‐Dwaik, L. Hochmuth, “BMW 7 Series  architecture”, ATZextra, November 2008.  [11] M. Grenier, L. Havet, N. Navet, “Configuring the communication on FlexRay: the case of the static  segment”, Proceedings of ERTS’2008.  © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 33
  34. 34. Questions / feedback ?  Please get in touch at: nicolas.navet@realtimeatwork.com http://www.realtimeatwork.com © 2009 INRIA / RealTime-at-Work - 34

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