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REACH High-Level Symposium Presentations

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In alignment with the Sustainable Development Goals, Bangladesh is providing global leadership in understanding and responding to achieve safe water for all. With new insights and actionable approaches, REACH aims to collaborate with government, practitioners, enterprise, and communities to guide the policy choices to ensure interventions bene t the poor.

On 12 April 2018, REACH hosted a High-Level Symposium in Dhaka, convening key stakeholders to discuss the latest results from REACH Bangladesh along with insights from Kenya and Ethiopia.

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REACH High-Level Symposium Presentations

  1. 1. SAFE WATER FOR ALL REACH HIGH-LEVEL SYMPOSIUM Thursday 12 April 2018 | FARS Hotel, Dhaka
  2. 2. Khulna Observatory, Bangladesh REACH High-level Symposium, Dhaka, Bangladesh 12th April, 2018 UNDERSTANDING WATER SECURITY FOR THE POOR IN COASTAL BANGLADESH INSIGHTS FROM THE KHULNA OBSERVATORY AND LESSONS FOR INVESTMENT PRIORITISATION
  3. 3. • Chronic salinity • Tidal and river flooding • Cyclonic storms and surges • Waterlogging • Drinking water access and quality Welfare index Water security concerns of households WATERLOGGINGEROSIONANDFLOODDRINKINGWATERSERVICES WATERLOGGINGEROSIONANDFLOODDRINKINGWATERSERVICES WATERLOGGINGEROSIONANDFLOODDRINKINGWATERSERVICES MULTIPLE ASPECTS OF WATER INSECURITY
  4. 4. Polders constructed earlier, with less construction time -- higher welfare Asset poverty has sig. association with: SW: % irrigated area, cropping intensity, safe DW water coverage SC: % cultivated area 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Floodprotectedarea(insqkm) Amanproductions(metrictons) Polderconstructionandaman productionin GreaterKhulnaRegion Total aman production Local aman production Broadcastproduction HYV aman production Flood protected area 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Floodprotectedarea(sqkm) Amanproductions(metrictons) Polderconstructionandaman productionin GreaterPatuakhaliregion Total aman production Local aman production Broadcastproduction HYV aman production Flood protected area Saline prone A HISTORY OF INTERVENTIONS, WITH A MIXED PICTURE OF BENEFITS AND IMPACTS • Substantial positive impacts of polders • However, negative consequences in places • What does the future look like?
  5. 5. 0.00 50.00 100.00 1 15 2 22 27/1 3 32 34/3 36/1 5 24 Percentageoftotalarea inundated Polder No. With polder Without Polder 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 1 15 2 22 27/1 3 32 34/3 36/1 5 24 Percentageoftotalarea inundated Polder No. With polder Without polder 1998 2000 Evidence of avoided flood damage in river, tidal, surge and cyclone floods 200 700 1200 1700 2200 27000 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 Surplusprecipitation(mm) Totalinundatedareas(sq.km.) Surplus precipitation Scenario 1 Scenario 3 Scenario 2 Scenario 4 Scenario 1: With polder, with land subsidence, no drainage Scenario 2: With polder, with land subsidence, with drainage Scenario 3: Without polder, with land subsidence, no drainage Scenario 4: Without Polder, without land subsidence Land subsidence inside polders and deteriorated drainage has exacerbated pluvial flooding and waterlogging HAVE POLDERS WORKED? LESSONS FROM PAST FLOODS 1988-2011
  6. 6. HOUSEHOLD SURVEY 2103 households DETAILED MAPPING OF POLDER FEATURES WATER AUDIT 2805 tubewells in 35 mouzas UNDERSTANDING WATER SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS/WELFARE IN POLDER 29
  7. 7. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 No.offunctionaltubewells Drinking STW Non-drinking STW Drinking DTW Non-drinking DTW 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 No.offunctionaltubewells Below 1000 ppm 1000-2000 ppm 2000-3000 ppm 3000-4000 ppm Total DW coverage by TWs Total ‘safe’ DW coverage by TWs LOW COVERAGE OF ‘SAFE’ DRINKING WATER, DESPITE EXPONENTIONAL GROWTH OF TUBE-WELLS, SUGGESTING GREATER SDG CHALLENGES • TWs quadrupled in 10 years, while population increased by 4% • Only 35% of functioning TWs are used for drinking • Deep tube-wells represent 65% of all drinking tubewells • Household preference for shallow tube-wells for domestic uses • Only 20% of STWs and 60% of DTWs are safe for drinking • More areas in shallow aquifer likely to get salinised
  8. 8. km km 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Site-A Site-B Site-C Site-D Percentageofhouseholds Adult male Adult female Male children Female children AB C D 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Site-A Site-B Site-C Site-D Percentageofhouseholds 1 - 2 hours 30 minutes – 1 hour TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN QUALITY, DISTANCE AND AFFORDABILITY DETERMINE THE CHOICE OF OPTIONS IN HARD TO REACH AREAS: NEED COMBINATION OF OPTIONS WITH PRIORITISATION & SEQUENCING
  9. 9. Option evaluation and sequencing Timing, threshold, sequencing, combinations of investment decisions Multi-objective optimisation methods e.g. maximise total income across polders minimise total investment Interactions betweenhydrological, social and economic elements Interventions On-going maintenance, Major upgrading of the system, Drainage, Drinking water interventions, Enhanced agricultural production, Others… RISK-BASED MODELLING TO EVALUATE INTERVENTIONS & SEQUENCING IN TERMS OF WATER SECURITY AND POVERTY OUTCOMES, & TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN CONFLICTING OBJECTIVES
  10. 10. Funded by:
  11. 11. ASSESSING POLLUTION RISK AND POVERTY IMPACTS ALONG THE TURAG-TONGI-BALU SYSTEM TO AID ACTIONS FOR SDG DELIVERY IN DHAKA
  12. 12. Models, monitoring, novel tools and field survey Institutional models, scenarios, global value chain analysis Models, monitoring, novel tools and field survey Multiple risk dimensions are being addressed. METHODOLOGY
  13. 13. •Basic System health indicators tested •Toxicity and other tests ongoing •Monitoring data fed to models (INCA) WATER QUALITY MONITORING • Water is unsafe for subsistent use throughout the year for most reaches • Pollution is highest in areas having high municipal waste along with industrial waste together. • There seems an synergy between municipal and industrial waste on toxicity (e.g.at Tongi Khal) • Strong seasonal variations there but legacy pollution affecting recovery. • Anthropogenic activities (e.g., dredging, Ijtema) contributing to accelerated pollution of areas downstream and compounding risk.
  14. 14. Whitehead, et al. (2018). Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 631-632, pp. 223-232. RIVER MODELLING WORK INCA Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) •INCA model found suitable for assessing interventions impact without extensive data requirement •Flow augmentation may have less impact compared to ETPs on ammonia pollution reduction—both fails to achieve level below threshold (ecological) •Combining flow augmentation and effluent treatment together may yield better results to bring the contamination below threshold level.
  15. 15. § Lead time to warning to protect water supply and sanitation systems § DoE to regulate and take action for ECA NEW WATER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR GREATER DHAKA REACH monitoring and model study contributed to Task force preparing concept note for WQMS to aid Greater Dhaka Watershed Restoration work: Ø20 new monitoring points and 17 automated WQ monitoring stations ØStakeholder information network ØProvision for Incorporating models and innovative tools as part of WQMS.
  16. 16. HOUSEHOLD LEVEL INVESTIGATIONS ON WATER USE, POLLUTION IMPACT & POVERTY INTERACTIONS Quantitative survey: conducted in 12 locations In 1826 HHs on the banks of Tongi Khal & Turag River from Dec. 2017-Feb. 2018 Qualitative work: Health, gender and water use behaviour • The dirty river water is the key environmental concern in survey areas (58% respondents reported as major concern). • Over 25% of the surveyed households are exposed to unsafe water for various purposes. • Poverty incidence is high among households exposed to unsafe water with double the expenditure on health compared to their counterfactual group. • Water use behaviour indicated gendered difference in exposure to polluted river water with strong seasonality in river water use behaviour and lack of awareness.
  17. 17. • Overhaul of current monitoring system is a necessity to support SDG goals [SDG-6, SDG-3 (3.4, 3.9, 3.d), SDG-11 (11.6), SDG-15 (15.5)] – It can support detail scenario analysis and aid understandings of river water quality-poverty-economic growth dynamics and – ensure value for money in saving investments • Multiple intervention strategies, e.g., such as combining both improved effluent treatment and flow augmentation, may be more successful for pollution reduction compared to only regulatory or engineering solutions. • Investment in awareness along with pollution abatement would proliferate to poverty reduction, health and well-being that will benefit the poor ensuring inclusive sustained growth. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  18. 18. Funded by:
  19. 19. Matlab Observatory, Chandpur District, Bangladesh REACH High-level Symposium, Dhaka, Bangladesh | 12th April, 2018 HOW TO TRANSITION FROM ‘ACCESS’ TO ‘SAFELY AND SUSTAINABLY MANAGED’ DRINKING WATER SERVICES FOR SDG DELIVERY IN BANGLADESH
  20. 20. Number of people per safe and functioning public water points 2016 GoB administrative data Observed arsenic concentrations 2000 GoB/BGS national water point testing Proportion of population drinking water with arsenic exceeding GoB Standard 2011 Household Survey Data (MICS) Data: BBS/UNICEF MICS 2011-2013 Highest environmental risks in areas with lowest safe and functioning water points – monitoring can support national progress to SDG delivery
  21. 21. Private investment in shallow tubewells dramatically increasing ‘access’, - water quality testing, marking and monitoring has not kept pace 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Piped to… Deep tubew ell Shallow … Surface water Other Lower household welfare, higher shallow tubewell use (REACH Matlab survey, n=2,000, 2017) Lowest 2nd 3rd Highest
  22. 22. High microbiological contamination (CFU/100ml) in stored water in all welfare groups - diarrhoea incidence higher for females Poor 2 3 4 Rich Male 40% Female 60% RATE OF DIARRHOEA BY SEX (N=1,000 HH; OBS = 30,843)
  23. 23. Data Loggers – remote surveillance to support national monitoring - tracks performance, informs management models, guides investment/planning
  24. 24. Drinking water risks and institutional design - how to transition from ‘access’ to ‘safely and sustainably managed’? - need to allocate risks (finance, O&M) by sharing and monitoring responsibilities between water users, asset managers and government SDG indicators Indicative Risks by Infrastructure Shallow Tubewell Deep Tubewell Piped Network Access Low High Moderate Affordability Low Moderate High Reliability Low Moderate High Water quality High Low Moderate
  25. 25. Funded by:
  26. 26. HYDRO-CLIMATIC RISKS AND RIVER BASIN DEVELOPMENT IN ETHIOPIA Dr. Katrina Charles, University of Oxford
  27. 27. Growing urban centres with increasing water demand Industrial parks, including garment industry Hydropower production Irrigation expansion & changing livelihoods Pastoralist livelihoods Water quality threats from saline lake WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NEEDS TO CONSIDER HETEROGENOUS USER POPULATIONS
  28. 28. Vivid/REACH 2016
  29. 29. Appropriate decision making metrics are being explored such as consecutive dry seasons ANALYSIS OF HYDROLOGY AND CLIMATE PROVIDES DATA ON HAZARDS
  30. 30. Macroeconomic impacts by sector for three climate scenarios as deviations from baseline GCP Borgomeo et al 2017 HYDRO-CLIMATIC VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY IN THE BASIN
  31. 31. Estimates of 5-year cumulative impacts on household incomes Borgomeo et al., 2018 VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY VARIES SPATIALLY AND BY WEALTH CLASS
  32. 32. • Hydro-climatic metrics can be developed based on disaggregated user needs to support decisions over water resource management; • Ethiopia is looking to learn from policies and activities developed by the Government of Bangladesh to minimise pollution risks from the garment industry; Thanks to Dr. Ellen Dyer, Dr. Catherine Grasham, Dr. Feyera Hirpa and Dr. Meron Teferi Taye POLICY IMPLICATIONS
  33. 33. Funded by:
  34. 34. HYDROCLIMATIC RISKS, GROUNDWATER, AND URBAN POVERTY IN TURKANA Prof Dan Olago and Dr Maggie Opondo, University of Nairobi
  35. 35. LODWAR: BACKGOUND • 100% dependent on groundwater for town supplies; • Inadequate urban water supply infrastructure; • Increasing demand in high poverty level context;
  36. 36. • Low rainfall, high variability, high unpredictability; • Future climate model predictions and trends from historical records are divergent; • Land degradation; • Parameters for sustainable groundwater use unknown; • Growth of demand for water supply unprecedented and unmet; • Lack of biophysical, socio-economic and gender disaggregated data; WATER SECURITY CHALLENGES
  37. 37. • The Second National Water Master Plan (2012) was not incorporated in the County Integrated Development Plans (CIDPs) and Vision 2030; • The New Water Act 2016 does not include special considerations of vulnerable groups; • The County Integrated Development Plans hardly mention “groundwater”, but plan on drilling several boreholes for water supply; • Water resources traverse multiple jurisdictions with different priorities; • There is inadequate financing and low level of knowledge and data on hydroclimatic variability, ecological sustainability, groundwater resources; • Current water supply models are not profitable; THE GOVERNANCE DILEMMA
  38. 38. FROM SCIENCE TO DECISION MAKING • Hydro-climatic studies; • Resource risk assessments • Aquifer characterisation • Water supply optimisation • Engagement with stakeholders in Lodwar (county government, Catholic Diocese, LOWASCO, NDMA, UNICEF and more); • User participation; • Resource risk reduction; • Sufficient, efficient, inclusive, equitable & affordable supply; • Capacities enhanced; • Appropriate plans and strategies implemented
  39. 39. Funded by:

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