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Impact of Sustainable Land Management on Community Water Security and Downstream

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REACH Conference on Water Security and Poverty
Breakout: Integrated approaches for rural water security
Thursday 28 March | 11:00-12:30
Presenter: Dr. Gete Zeleke, Water and Land Resource Centre, REACH Ethiopia

Published in: Environment
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Impact of Sustainable Land Management on Community Water Security and Downstream

  1. 1. Impact of Sustainable Land Management on Community Water Security and Downstream Insert image here. Do not compress to fit the size. Instead, use the cropping tool (found under the format tab). Increase the size of the image proportionally until it fits the width of the slide, then crop to decrease the height. Gete Zeleke (PhD) Director, Water and Land Resource Center, Addis Ababa University Gete.z@wlrc-eth.org g
  2. 2. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Sustaining growth through water security Awash basin Water security in fragile environments Abbay basin Small town pathways to water security Wukro, Tigray region REACH Observatories in Ethiopia
  3. 3. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Objective § The aim of the REACH research in the FE Observatory is to evaluate the contributions of SLM practices to water security and poverty reduction in fragile ecosystems. In particular, we aim to: § Understand how SLM interventions can interrupt the relationship between water insecurity and poverty and contribute to economic growth nationally. § Assess how SLM programmes can sustainably develop groundwater to ensure benefits to the rural poor, for agricultural, productive and domestic water use, can be secured and maximised. § Provide evidence for how the benefits and impacts of participatory SLM approaches are distributed within households and communities.
  4. 4. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford § High population pressure § ~ 23 million people § ~85% dependent on subsistence rainfed agriculture § Covers 44% of the national surface runoff § 58-60% to the Nile § An important basin both for Ethiopia and transboundary countries- Sudan and Egypt Water Security Challenges in Abbay Basin
  5. 5. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford For Ethiopia it is major source of agricultural products
  6. 6. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Largely dominant Subsistence Agriculture (~85%) with poor land management
  7. 7. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Rainfall System § Rainfall System – largely unimodal and variable – causes runoff-erosion- dryness § 4 months intensive rainfall – causing high runoff and erosion § and 7-8 months dry period – making water stress for crop and livestock production Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Mean 8.8 10.8 40.5 42.0 109.7 259.2 402.4 354.4 251.9 112.0 38.3 18.2 0 100 200 300 400 500 MeanMontlyRainfall(mm)
  8. 8. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Cause Severe Land degradation
  9. 9. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Soil Loss from Cultivated Lands can reach 200t/ha/y 131 87 1 48 22 32 170 212 4 80 25 36 0 50 100 150 200 250 Anjeni Andit Tid Dizi Gununo Hunde Lafto Maybar Soilloss(t/ha) Average Min Soil loss Average Max Soil loss 17 track load per ha/year ~20.12 track load per ha/year
  10. 10. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Sediment yield and hotspot areas in Abbay Basin § Average modelled sediment load for Abbay Basin feeding GERD is 30.5 ton ha-1yr-1
  11. 11. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Our soils, our nutrient, our water Our dams, our hydropower Our lakes, our biodiversity
  12. 12. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Challenges of Siltation of Dams
  13. 13. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Can these challenges be addressed? § Yes § Need properly designed SLM intervention § Need to understand the principle with immediate and long-term impacts
  14. 14. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Our Guiding Conceptual Framework Ensure sustainable utilization of the NR Base without compromising the future generation Combat Land Degradation and Climate change challenges - Improved environmental quality and ecosystem services - Improved livelihoods - Create resilience PIWM Investment on PIWM Internalfeedback Building NR capital CC adaptation & mitigation
  15. 15. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Our LWs in Abbay Basin
  16. 16. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford January 2012 DEBRE YAKOB Baseline Situation • Severe LD • Over grazing Some Results - Biophysical Changes in our LWs
  17. 17. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford February 2015 DEBRE YAKOB
  18. 18. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford SWC structures on farmlands were converted into cash bunds
  19. 19. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Baren homesteads can be easily converted to such high value productive areas – it brings income at household level and confidence in farmers to invest in other parts of the watershed
  20. 20. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Water is an essential component for Homestead development that addresses livelihood challenges quickly & and the whole effort improves water availability February 2015 July 2016February 2015 November 2012 HD empowers women and improves HH nutrition
  21. 21. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Biomass Improved Base Flow extended to the dry season Remote Sensing Direct Measurement More Observations In general we observed: n Erosion reduced n Conflict minimized n Biomass improved n Productivity increased n Base flow improved n GW raised n The poor started owning water wells, etc.
  22. 22. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Research Questions? § What does this mean in terms of addressing water security for the poor? § What it means in the context of the small holder farmer challenged by moisture availability for production and sever erosion • Insitu moisture availability • Improved soil fertility § What does it mean in terms of making water available for different uses – small scale irrigation and domestic use? § Do these all have impact on peoples livelihoods? § What are the impact pathways that will lead us to upscale the lessons from the LWs and findings
  23. 23. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford To answer the above questions the following research activities were designed: 1.Insitu soil moisture dynamics and availability within topo-sequences – for crop and forage production 2.Impact on surface water flow – base and peak flow 3.Impact on sediment and runoff 4.Checking speed of recharge of the groundwater using ISOTOPE detection approach (AAU) 5.Impact on shallow ground water recharge and availability (IRC/AAU) 6.Impact on livelihoods through water availability (IFPRI/WLRC)
  24. 24. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford a) Insitu Moisture Dynamics Monitoring
  25. 25. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Findings of the insitu Moisture Dynamics Monitoring § Plots with SWC: § Improve recharge to deeper profile § Better water availability throughout the profile – including during the dry season § Plots without SWC: § Less soil moisture on deeper depth – little or no recharge – lost as runoff § Sharp decline during the dry season and sharp increase during the wet season
  26. 26. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford b) Shallow wells survey § IRC conducted a baseline survey of wells in May 2017 in Aba Gerima and Debre Yacob learning watersheds and their controls. § The inventory includes 681 family wells and 35 community water supply schemes. § The survey assessed socio-economic characteristics of well owners, well characteristics, uses, reliability, and technology type, water uses, satisfaction; sanitation around the well; and hygiene in handling water § Water quality testing for e.coli was conducted for 41 water samples (23 from family wells and 18 from community water supply schemes)
  27. 27. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford b) Shallow wells survey… 27% 51% 6% 12% 8% 18% 0% 2% Aba Gerima (Control) Aba Gerima (Learning) Debre Yacob (Control) Debre Yacob (Learning) Owning > 2 private wells Owning > 1 private well Distribution of family wells
  28. 28. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford b) Shallow wells survey… § The poor are late entrants into the well-owning class: § Over 80% of the poorest- third households surveyed in Aba Gerima and 100% in Debreyakob had owned wells after 2010, mainly after 2012 § Why? Because SLM raises the GW and makes it less expensive for the poor to dig a well § Proof that SLM improves water security for the poor 19% 56% 26% 5% 30% 54% 12% 46% 39% 13% <2000 2000- 2010 2011- 2014 2015- 2016 Poorest Third Middle Third Richest Third 83% 17% 1% 41% 43% 14% 20% 27% 40% 13% <2000 2000- 2010 2011- 2014 2015- 2016 Poorest Third Middle Third AG DY Source: IRC-WLRC Well construction by wealth category
  29. 29. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford b) Shallow wells survey… Tested Unsafe (>10 MPN/100 ml) > 10-50 MPN/100 ml > 100 MPN/ 100 ml Aba Gerima control 1 1 1 Aba Gerima Learning 14 13 4 9 Debre Yacob control 3 3 3 Debre Yacob learning 4 3 2 1 Total 22 20 6 14 % to total 91% Water quality results There are significant water quality risks to family wells used for drinking. More than 90% of tested family wells used for drinking had unsafe levels of faecal coliform bacteria - most likely due to poor protection of wells from contamination and surrounding sanitation. The population at risk is larger than just well-owning households since most family wells used for drinking are shared (about 76%) with neighbouring families
  30. 30. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford C. Socio-economic survey § IFPRI/WLRC conducted scoio-economic survey in learning and control watersheds in June 2017 § Checked Bio-physical changes, § Adoption of SLM technologies and improved agricultural technologies § Economic benefits § Institutional arrangements § Identified gaps § Recommended further studies on major gaps
  31. 31. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford C. Socio-economic survey…. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Water harvesting Ground water Streams Pond Micro Dam River Water Sources for Irrigation (%) in Learning and Control Watersheds Learning Control Source: IFPRIWRLCREACH Survey 2017.
  32. 32. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford C. Socio-economic survey… 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% SLM Supported Learning WaterShed Non-SLM Supported Control Watersheds % SLM Adoption Levels Source: IFPRIWRLCREACH Survey 2017.
  33. 33. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Impact on Crop Yield Impact on Yields (Kgs/Ha) Propensity Score Matching Propensity Score Matching Bias Corrected Matching PSM Weighted Regression Non-PSM Weighted Regression Maize Yield 268** (134) 268** (130) 253* (138) 278** (130) 268** (126) Log Maize Yield 0.18*** (0.055) 0.18*** (0.065) 0.18*** (0.068) 0.18*** (0.067) 0.18*** (0.061) % Impact 18%*** 18%*** 18%*** 18%*** 18%*** Gussa (Finger Millet) Yield 413** (192) 413** (208) 235 (192) 404** (167) 411** (203) Log Gussa (Finger Millet) Yield 0.19*** (0.069) 0.19*** (0.070) 0.08 (0.076) 0.19*** (0.074) 0.19*** (0.067) % Impact 19%*** 19%*** 8% 19%*** 19%*** SLM Program associated with 18%-19% impact on Crop Yields – largely linked to reduction in soil erosion and soil moisture availability Source: IFPRI-WLRC
  34. 34. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Water Availability for Livestock -6% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% Learning Control % change in Perception of Having Enough Water for Livestock 2012-2017 Learning Watersheds experienced improved water availability for Livestock while control watersheds report worsening water conditions
  35. 35. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford C. Socio-economic survey… 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 SLM Supported Learning Watersheds Non-SLM Supported Control Watersheds Livestock Income (Birr) Source: IFPRIWRLCREACH Survey 2017. Significantly higher Livestock income is observed in Learning watersheds than Control watersheds possibly due to better forage and water availability
  36. 36. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Income Levels from Livestock Livestock Income Levels SLM Program Impacts on Livestock Income Levels: SLM Supported Learning Watersheds (% Adopters) Non-SLM Supported Control Watersheds (% Adopters) Difference in Adoption (Leaning- Control) Propensity Score Matching (PSM) Bias Corrected Matching PSM- Weighted Regression Non-PSM- Weighted Regression Livestock Income (Birr) 5193 3962 1230** 1633*** (227) 980*** (326) 1751*** (285) 1570*** (244) Log Livestock Income (Birr) 6.87 6.19 0.67*** 0.66*** (0.1341) 0.46*** (0.1634) 0.67*** (0.1251) 0.67*** (0.1217) % Impacts 67%*** 66%*** 46%*** 67%*** 67%*** SLM Program associated with 67% impact on Livestock Income Source: IFPRI-WLRC
  37. 37. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford C. Socio-economic survey… Recommended further research areas § Identifying women headed household targeted intervention § Ways to improve labor efficiency § Identifying high value enterprises on bunds, rehabilitated gullies and area closures and other homestead development options that maximize income § Community based potable and irrigation water supply § Detail analysis on current institutions
  38. 38. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford SLM-Water Security: Potential Linkages SLM interventions *soil bunds *terraces, etc. Reduced flooding of fields Reduced over-field flows Increased baseflow in dry season Increased water for shallow wells Reduced sedimen- tation of rivers Increased overall biomass production Increased soil water storage Increased crop yields in rainy season, reduced variability Increased crop yields in dry season Reduced conflicts between farmers Enhanced water access for domestic use Enhanced water access for other uses (fisheries, artisanal uses, bathing..) Enhanced overall Environment (agroforestry, etc) Increased hydropower Productivity/reduced flood risk, other d/s ben DIRECT WATER SECURITY IMPACTS INDIRECT WATER SECURITY IMPACTS DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS Increased agri- cultural production & stability of prod Stronger societies Enhanced nutrition (lean season, diversity of crops, WASH) Increased energy security More stable agro- ecosystems Women’s empowerment (through time savings) Source: IFPRIWRLCREACH Survey 2017.
  39. 39. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Translating the results of the LWs to Meso- scale water security - Hydro-dams: the Case of GERD in Ethiopia The IWS Conceptual Model
  40. 40. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford We Communicate our findings REACH BOOTH REACH BOOTH REACH BOOTH
  41. 41. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Field Visit: to another homestead and community managed AC – March 12, 2019
  42. 42. REACH Water Security and Poverty Conference 27-29 March | Keble College, Oxford Lessons / Way Forward § The empirical evidences shows that: § Properly designed SLM can effectively address problem of water security and improve livelihoods at different scales § It empowers women and improve household nutrition § The need for upscaling the experiences of LWs is apparent § The big impact at policy level § Engage with government at higher level (MoA, MoWIE and CfEFCC) and DPs - to make water security as one outcome of SLM with measurable indicators including water quality
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